Criminal cases against Yulia Tymoshenko since 2010
Since May 2010 a series of criminal cases has been opened against Ukrainian politician and former Prime Minister of Ukraine Yulia Tymoshenko. Tymoshenko is one of Ukraine's most important politicians But after Tymoshenko was released from prison on February 22, 2014, in the concluding days of the Euromaidan revolution, following a revision of the Ukrainian criminal code that effectively decriminalized the actions for which she was imprisoned, she has been cleared of all charges. She was officially rehabilitated on February 28, 2014. Just after Euromaidan revolution, the Ukrainian Supreme Court closed the case and found that "no crime was committed".
- intent to bribe Supreme Court judges in 2003,
- misuse of public finances in 2009 — criminal cases involving "ambulances for rural medicine" and "Kyoto money" (funds that Ukraine received for selling their quotas under the Kyoto Protocol),
- abuse of office over a natural gas imports contract signed with Russia in January 2009,
- criminal case on "United Energy Systems of Ukraine" (UESU) (1996-1997) is constantly reopened (in 2001, 2011) and closed (in 2001, 2003, 2005). Was reopened in Ukraine on 24 October 2011 (non-delivery by UESU of goods to Russia for $405.5 million in 1996-1997, 4 cases of tax evasion by UESU in 1996-1997),
- involvement in the 1996 murder of oligarch Yevhen Shcherban in Donetsk.
From 5 August 2011 till her release Tymoshenko had been in custody. At first she was held in Kiev, and  since December 30, 2011 Tymoshenko has been imprisoned in Kharkiv. Since May 2012 she was hospitalized and received treatment for a spinal disc herniation Tymoshenko was on three hunger strikes during her imprisonment.
Representatives of several countries and human rights organizations have rated the trials against Tymoshenko as "selective justice" and "political persecution". The European Union has shelved the European Union Association Agreement and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with Ukraine and EU leaders have suggested that these agreements will not be ratified unless Ukraine addresses concerns over a "stark deterioration of democracy and the rule of law", including the imprisonment of Tymoshenko and Yuriy Lutsenko in 2011 and 2012.
Tymoshenko and her supporters saw the trials (and other similar trials) as political payback by Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych and his Party of Regions. Both have denied this. According to President Yanukovych the cases were non-partisan measures to combat corruption in Ukraine. He also hinted late February 2012 he could pardon Tymoshenko if she would apply for it; but this option was brushed aside by Tymoshenko.
- 1 "Сrackdown of opposition" in Ukraine
- 2 Criminal cases against Tymoshenko prior to 2010
- 3 Cases since 2010
- 3.1 Reopening of the case of intent to bribe the judges of the Supreme Court in 2003
- 3.2 Criminal cases involving "Kyoto money" and "ambulances for rural medicine"
- 3.2.1 Joint auditing by Minfin of Ukraine and the US firm Trout Cacheris
- 3.2.2 Travel restrictions. Tymoshenko’s stay in Brussels on March 24–26, 2011
- 3.2.3 BBC: Authoritative lawyers versus less authoritative auditors (June, 17th, 2011)
- 3.2.4 Conference "The Future of Ukraine" and "case against Tymoshenko"
- 4 2009 gas deal with Russia
- 4.1 Reading the ruling for the gas case – 2009
- 4.2 The essence of "the gas case" in the report of PACE
- 4.3 Hearings of witnesses (from 26.07.2011)
- 4.4 Witnessing by Oleg Dubina, former head of Naftogas, 29.07.2011
- 4.5 Witnessing as for the Yushchenko part
- 4.6 Nagrebelny, an expert from Koretzky Institution of State and Law, 15.08.2011
- 4.7 Tymoshenko's trial
- 5 Non-delivery by United Energy Systems of Ukraine (in 1996) of goods to Russia
- 6 Involvement in the murder of Yevhen Shcherban
- 7 Criminal case against Tymoshenko's lawyer
- 8 Tymoshenko's health in prison
- 9 Hunger strikes
- 10 Possible pardoning
- 11 2014 release from prison
- 12 Legal rehabilitation
- 13 Opinions
- 14 Foreign reactions
- 15 References and notes
- 16 External links
"Сrackdown of opposition" in Ukraine
The point of view of the EU, the U.S., Russia
The European Union (EU) and EU member states, United States, Russia and Canada (and Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch) expressed concern that the allegations against Tymoshenko did not constitute crimes and that the charges where politically motivated; the United Kingdom and the United States have stated that this also goes for the prosecuting of dozens other former ministers and officials; in particular former Ukrainian minister Bohdan Danylyshyn was granted political asylum in the Czech Republic in January 2011 ("because his prosecution may be politically motivated").
In 2012-2013, the government and non-government organizations in Europe and the United States have become more and more clearly indicate the presence of political prisoners in Ukraine. May 23, 2012 for the first time in the European Parliament's resolution said about "political prisoners in Ukraine". Also Tymoshenko and her colleagues described as "political prisoners" in the report, which was adopted at the June session of the PACE (2013) :
- "4.1.6. Conclusion: Yulia Tymoshenko as a presumed political prisoner under Assembly Resolution 1900 (2012).
- 71. The analysis of key issues as presented above, in light of the criteria for the definition of political prisoners in Resolution 1900 (2012), leads to a fairly compelling result, namely that Ms Tymoshenko must be recognised as a presumed political prisoner:
- 1) Ms Tymoshenko is a key opposition leader and main rival of the current President. She was sentenced to a particularly harsh seven-year prison term on the basis of vague abuse-of-office charges.
- 2) These charges effectively criminalised the political decision she had taken as Prime Minister in favour of an agreement with Russia to end an acute crisis threatening the provision of gas to Ukraine and other European countries.
- 3) The prosecution and trial were marred by numerous presumptive procedural violations.
- 4) Ms Tymoshenko was also put under intense physical and psychological pressure, both during pretrial detention and in post-conviction custody. Her family, lawyers and political allies, in particular Mr Vlasenko, have also suffered from a co-ordinated campaign of harassment and persecution by the authorities.
- 5) The legally and factually dubious nature of the new charges brought against her further underpins their political motivation"
Yanukovych's point of view
Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych and the Party of Regions have been in power since February 2010 when in the Ukrainian presidential elections of 2010 Tymoshenko lost to Yanukovych after gaining 45.5% of the votes in the second and final round.) have been accused of trying to create a "controlled democracy" in Ukraine and as a means to this are trying to "destroy" main opposition party BYuT (BYuT was dissolved in December 2012 but the core party of the alliance "Fatherland" stayed a major force in Ukrainian politics (Tymoshenko is the party leader of this party)) Both have denied these charges. Criminal cases were opened, since the spring of 2010, against a dozen former officials from the second Tymoshenko Government (and have also been given prison terms). Some observers have speculated that these trials where part of what they described as President Viktor Yanukovych’s crackdown on his political opponents. Other former top officials who served with this cabinet and other members of Tymoshenko's "Fatherland" (party) have been arrested on "abuse of power" charges since February 2010. Opposition against Yanukovych again dismissed these arrests as "political persecution". Yanukovych has stated these arrests should be seen as only "a serious battle against corruption". Yanukovych denies any involvement in a "crackdown of opposition". In a press conference 12 May 2010 President Yanukovych’s representative in the Verkhovna Rada Yury Miroshnychenko stated that Yanukovych is against political repression for criticism of the regime. President According to Yanukovych (on 4 February 2011) "many lies told and attempts made to misinform the international community and ordinary people in Ukraine about the true state of affairs in the country"; he also stated "a crushing blow delivered under his rule to corruption and bureaucracy has been met with resistance". He did state in February 2012 the trial of Tymoshenko and other former officials "didn't meet European standards and principles".
Tymoshenko herself has filed lawsuit in courts outside Ukraine demanding that Prime Minister Mykola Azarov be banned from making statements about her alleged involvement in the crimes of former Prime Minister Pavlo Lazarenko.
Criminal cases against Tymoshenko prior to 2010
Criminal cases against Yulia Tymoshenko were initiated:
- In 2001 (before the parliamentary elections of 2002): in January in Ukraine; in August, 2001 – in Russia.
- In 2004 ( before the presidential elections of 2004): in May in Ukraine; in September (15.09.2004) — in Russia.
Those cases were opened concerning United Energy Systems of Ukraine (UESU) activity in 1996–1997 years. In Ukraine, the UESU cases were closed at the beginning of 2005 (for lack of evidence); in Russia - in December 2005 (as a result of expiry of the period of limitation).
Cases since 2010
Certain analysts and Ukrainian politicians have pointed out that they believe that some Ukrainian business tycoons with "lucrative relations" with Russia are deliberately hindering Ukraine's European Union integration and are using Tymoshenko's trial as a tool in these attempts. Tymoshenko is a former owner of United Energy Systems of Ukraine.
Reopening of the case of intent to bribe the judges of the Supreme Court in 2003
In June 2004 (it was the beginning of the presidential elections in Ukraine) Tymoshenko was accused that she was going to bribe the judges of the Supreme Court in 2003 (exactly "was going to bribe", because there was no attempt to "transfer bribes") with the aim to release from jail her father-in-law Hennady Tymoshenko and Antonina Bolyura (both worked for United Energy Systems of Ukraine).
The essence of the criminal case: in June 2004, Ukrainian TV showed a video material — Yu. Tymoshenko (and her bodyguard) were shown in the office of some lawyer (it was he who made the recording) who had promised to procure in re-hearing Tymoshenko’s father-in-law's lawsuit. Tymoshenko hurried up the lawyer and was disturbed with his resultless efforts despite money given to him. It is important to emphasize that Hennadi Tymoshenko in prison suffered a microinsult. Just based on that video recording, a criminal suit was initiated against Tymoshenko under the articles 15 part 2 and 369 part 1 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. But this criminal case was closed in 2004, under Kuchma presidency.
A 2004 criminal case against Tymoshenko on accusations she had planned to bribe Supreme Court judges in 2003 — was reopened 12 May 2010. However, on this criminal case no message almost since its opening in 2010. This criminal case fell apart again.
It should also be said that Hennady Tymoshenko died May 24, 2012, aged 75 years. Yulia Tymoshenko at the time was in prison, she was not given permission to attend the funeral of the man, whom she called "father".
Criminal cases involving "Kyoto money" and "ambulances for rural medicine"
Joint auditing by Minfin of Ukraine and the US firm Trout Cacheris
On 5 May 2010 Azarov's Cabinet of Ministers made a decision to attract the firm Trout Cacheris PLLC (Washington) to audit Timoshenko’s office activities in 2007–2010 years (two more firms, Akim Gump and an Investigation Agency Kroll Inc., were hired as subcontractors). More than 10 mln US dollars were planned to pay for auditing.
On 15 October 2010 (after abolition of the Ukrainian Constitution on October, the 1st and before the beginning of the regional elections on October, the 31st), Azarov government (namely, Auditing Department of Financial Ministry) completed auditing Tymoshenko's second government activities. The two US firms were involved in auditing – Trout Cacheris PLLC and Akim Gump (it could be seen indicative that the US Embassy in Ukraine set themselves apart from those firms). Upon completion of the auditing, the Auditing Department of the Ukrainian Ministry of Finance declared 43 bln grn (that is $5 billion) "misuse" of state money. However, а month later this amount was 15 times reduced and the money appeared not to be "stolen" but transferred to the Ukrainian Pension Fund. Actually, it was the money (320 mln euros) received from selling to Japan a "greenhouse gas emanation quota". Such a transaction was quite a new for Ukraine, and Tymoshenko government were proud to implement it, the more so that it was done at the time of the "world global crisis 2008-2009".
Tymoshenko was charged with, principally, two violations, on which basis the two criminal cases were opened:
1) On 2 December 2010 Yulia Tymoshenko was first called to the Procurator’s Office of Ukraine as for the "Kyoto money" case. Tymoshenko was accused of transferring 320 mln euros, the money which had been received from selling Japan a "greenhouse gas emanation quota" to the Ukrainian Pension Fund (in 2009 year of global crisis) instead of spending it for planting forests (as required by Kyoto Protocol). On the 30th of December (on the very eve of the New Year celebration) she was under interrogation during 12 hours in a row (from 12 a.m. to 12 p.m.).
On 16 December 2010 Ukrainian law enforcers started a criminal case against Tymoshenko for misappropriation of funds that Ukraine received for selling their quotas under the Kyoto Protocol. Tymoshenko had to give a pledge not to leave the country (the same day).
2) On 27 January 2011 the case on purchasing, in 2009, a thousand of Opel Combo ambulances for the needs of rural medicine was initiated (Tymoshenko was incriminated spending funds in a way that was not envisaged in the 2009 state budget). The cars were supplied from Austria on credit terms (with payment in 2010) at the price of 12.5 thousand euros (the price did not exceed that on the market). Tymoshenko was charged under the article 365, p. 3, the article 364, p. 2, the article 210, p. 2 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine (that is, exceeding official authorities; infringement of Budget Law; abuse of office charges, that led to badly unfavourable consequences).
In all those cases, procurators do not blame Yu. V. Tymoshenko either in stealing the funds, or in doing the damage, the basis of charges being money misuse.
Travel restrictions. Tymoshenko’s stay in Brussels on March 24–26, 2011
On 15 December 2010 the General Procurator’s Office imposed on Tymoshenko "travel restrictions" as a preventive measure. Yet Tymoshenko managed to leave Ukraine for Brussels where she was present (on March, 24-26, 2011) at the summit of the European People's Party at the personal invitations of its leader Wilfried Martens and the US senator John McCain. Tymoshenko had meetings with the European leading politicians like German Chancellor Angela Merkel and President Sarkozy.
On 17 June 2011 in Washington there was a press-conference (see YouTube) of an authoritative American law firm "Covington & Burling" and a large auditing company "BDO USA" (having branch offices in more than 100 countries round the world) to which Yulia Tymoshenko and her party "Batkivshchyna" applied with the request to evaluate how justified were the charges incriminated to her, as well as to scrutinize the validity of the report ordered by the Azarov government and made by the American law firms "Trout Cacheris" and "Akin Gump" (their report was submitted on October, the 14th, 2010 and was used as a basis for initiating further charges against Yulia Tymoshenko).
At the above-mentioned conference, the lawyers concluded that:
- "The paragraphs on "Kyoto money" and "Opel Combo ambulances" do not worth the paper on which they were printed… As for the current moment, the charges against the former Prime Minister (Tymoshenko) seem to be political by their origin, so as there are not any facts to substantiate them… Conclusions: The facts revealed by us give ground for secure defending from those charges either in a Ukrainian court or in some international court in case if a justified hearing is not possible within Ukraine"
- "A limited number of documents which have been analyzed by us, show that the agreement between the Austrian firm Vamed and Ukrmedpostach was signed without any mediators. The price for an Opel ambulance did not exceed that on a market’,- state Covington and Burling.
Following this press-conference, the above said cases of Kyoto money and ambulances for rural medicine were suspended by Ukrainian state procurators.
Conference "The Future of Ukraine" and "case against Tymoshenko"
The total assessment of the whole set of criminal cases was given by David Kramer(executive director of Freedom House) at the conference "The Future of Ukraine: Defiance and Consequences of Administrative Actions" (held on July, 7th, 2011 in Washington) and organized by the Peterson Institution of International Economics, The USA and Europe Centre of the Brookings Institution, The Atlantic Council):
- "Those investigations can not be trusted any more. These are a chain of convictions against Yulia Tymoshenko following one after another until some of them might “shoot”… I’m applying to my colleagues from the Ukrainian government who are present in here. When you are back home and report before the members of your office, tell them to put an end to these. These are shameful!"
2009 gas deal with Russia
Reading the ruling for the gas case – 2009
On June, the 24th, 2011, the Ukrainian General Procurator’s Office delivered Yu. Tymoshenko the "Ruling for suing her on charges in compliance with the gas case-2009 (p.3 Article 365 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine – power abusing, or exceeding of office authorities resulted in ill effects", which envisages 7 to 10 years of imprisonment):
- "Prime Minister of Ukraine Tymoshenko Yu. V., acting purposefully and in personal interests, being aware of groundless and baseless requirements from the Russian part during the talks held in presence of her and the leadership of the government of the Russian Federation, the joint stock company Gazprom, and the national joint stock company Naftogaz Ukrainy … made a decision to adopt the a.m. unfavourable for Ukraine conditions" (from the Ruling of the General Procurator’s Office of Ukraine to sue Tymoshenko as accused, p. 5, 24 Jun 2011.)
The essence of "the gas case" in the report of PACE
At the June session of PACE (2013) approved a report that focuses on the gas case of Timoshenko:
- "47. Ms Tymoshenko was sentenced to a seven-year prison term on the basis of vague abuse-of-office “Excess of authority” – Article 365 of the Ukrainian Criminal Code... 48. The criminal charge against the former Prime Minister was that the deal struck between her and Russian Prime Minister Putin was financially disadvantageous to Ukraine and that it had not been approved in writing beforehand by her cabinet. The political deal between the two prime ministers... was reached in a climate of severe crisis, after Mr Putin had ordered that gas supplies to Ukraine and through Ukraine to western Europe be cut on 5 January 2009. See The Economist of 8 January 2009 : ...“some countries felt the effect immediately, in bitterly cold weather. Hungary, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania were hit hard, but the gas freeze also affects Germany, France and Italy...” On 17 January 2009, Ms Tymoshenko, who was under intense pressure from the European Union and key western European leaders to unblock the situation, reached an agreement of principle with Mr Putin, in Moscow. On 19 January, Naftogas and Gazprom signed the contract... After Ms Tymoshenko’s return, on 21 January, the cabinet confirmed the contracts, and on 22 January, the flow of Russian gas to Ukraine and to western Europe was fully restored... Astonishingly, the fact that the cabinet approved the deal two days later is not even mentioned in the judgment" (PACE, Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights. Rapporteur : Mr Pieter OMTZIGT (Netherlands, EPP/CD). "Keeping political and criminal responsibility separate" (Doc. 13214). 28 May 2013.)
And later in this report said that Tymoshenko could be considered a political prisoner :
- "71. The analysis of key issues as presented above, in light of the criteria for the definition of political prisoners in Resolution 1900 (2012), leads to a fairly compelling result, namely that Ms Tymoshenko must be recognised as a presumed political prisoner" (PACE. "Keeping political and criminal responsibility separate" (Doc. 13214). 28 May 2013.)
Hearings of witnesses (from 26.07.2011)
Witnesses in the "gas case" were dozens of ex-ministers and known politicians.
As for the 26th of July 2011, it was planned to interrogate 38 witnesses for "the part of prosecution". The judge Kireyev gave admission to witness, for the Tymoshenko part, to just two people (out of 33 claimed) - Alexander Turchinov and Michail Lyvinsky. However even "witnesses for the prosecution part" were testifying, mainly, in favour of Tymoshenko. As a result, Tymoshenko wrote in her Twitter: "Kireyev was banned to call “our” witnesses, he got rebuked even for “theirs” (i.e. witnesses from prosecution)". On July, the 26th, 2011, i.e. just as soon as the process of witnessing started, direct teletransmitting from the trial room stopped.
Witnessing by Oleg Dubina, former head of Naftogas, 29.07.2011
The important moment in witnessing by Oleg Dubina (a former Head of Naftogaz) was his proving that "The Gas Agreement of 19.01.2009 was made on provisions that Ukraine could at any moment terminate it without whatever "penalty sanctions from the part of Russia".
- To the Tymoshenko's question whether Ukraine is enabled to cancel the agreement at any moment without whatever penalties, Dubina replied positively : "The agreement foresees penalty sanctions for underutilizing gas, but as for the Agreement itself, I can’t tell you for sure, but, I believe, it may be so".
Oleg Dubina confirmed that the agreement with Russia was set the standard formula - the price of gas is calculated according to the price of oil.
|Dynamics of prices of "Oil Brent" (ICE.Brent), USD/barrel. From the site "Commodities. Reviews of prices for oil and metals"|
Witnessing as for the Yushchenko part
It is worth mentioning that at the trial against Tymoshenko almost all the witnesses (Oleg Dubina, Alexander Turchinov in particular) said that it was President Yushchenko himself who had ruined the price of 235 USD per a thousand m3 of gas agreed by Tymoshenko Cabinet for 2009 year; he, allegedly, had recalled Mr. Dubina, a Head of Naftogaz, from Moscow (though he was not authorized to do that). On the day of Yushchenko witnessing (17.08.2011), Russian mass media sources published the commentary of "a representative from the Kremlin", who said :
- "Yushchenko is lying to the trial… in telephone conversations with Medvedev, Yushchenko assured that he fully trusted Yulia Tymoshenko and that she was given the whole scope of necessary authorities and he was in support of the agreements concluded with Russia".
Nagrebelny, an expert from Koretzky Institution of State and Law, 15.08.2011
The "Koretzky Institution of State and Law" is an expert organization in Ukraine; the General Procurator’s Office of Ukraine involved the Institution specialists as experts yet at the investigation stage of the gas case.
On the 15th of August, 2011, Deputy Director of the Institution Vladimir Nagrebelny presented to the trial an expert conclusion according to which Tymoshenko did not at all exceed her office authorities in the course of gas talks with Russia:
- "By her gas directives, ex-P.M. Yulia Tymoshenko did not exceed her authorities";
- The Institution of State and Law takes the gas directives by Yulia Tymoshenko as "the means necessary for implementation of her duties".
Tymoshenko's trial (she was charged in May 2011) over abuse of office over a natural gas imports contract signed with Russia in January 2009 started on 24 June 2011 in Kiev. In October 2011 Party of Regions' parliamentary faction leader Oleksandr Yefremov stated that this criminal case against Tymoshenko was initiated by the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine in February 2009 at the initiative of (then) Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko. (A former ally of Tymoshenko) Yushchenko testified against Tymoshenko during the trial; a trial he called "a normal judicial process".
On 5 August 2011 Tymoshenko was arrested for "ridiculing court proceedings" during this trail. At the time Tymoshenko was being held at Lukyanivska Prison. There Tymoshenko (her defence claimed) suffered bruises on the skin and she contracted pneumonia, later followed by back pain. According to Ombudsman Nina Karpachova, Tymoshenko demands that independent doctors took her blood test.
On 11 October 2011, the court found Tymoshenko guilty of abuse of power, sentenced her to seven years in jail, and ordered her to pay the state $188 million. She was convicted for exceeding her powers as Prime Minister, by ordering Naftogaz to sign the gas deal with Russia in 2009. On 11 October 2011 a record number of special units of the Ukrainian militsiya (police) were in Kiev (The Ministry of Police claimed in a statement about 4,500) Several tens of thousands of demonstrators came to Kiev to support Tymoshenko.
President Yanukovych and other Government officials have hinted that the law that convicted Tymoshenko could be changed in her benefit. According to opposition politicians, this could have been done as soon as one week after Tymoshenko's conviction. However, after postponing the vote twice, the Parliament of Ukraine voted against decriminalizing abuse of office on 15 November 2011.
Tymoshenko lost her appeal against her sentence of abuse of power of 11 October 2011 on 23 December 2011. She and her lawyers had boycotted the appeal proceedings claiming "Judicial system and justice are totally non-existent in Ukraine today". Tymoshenko has lodged a complaint against the verdict at the European Court of Human Rights, which was given priority treatment by the court.
The Parliament of Ukraine again voted against decriminalizing the law under which Tymoshenko was sentenced to imprisonment on 8 February 2012.
On 14 June 2012 Kostyantyn Hryshchenko, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, gave an interview to the national newspaper of Italy Corriere della Sera (Milan) where he said that back in 2009 Tymoshenko violated a law that was in force at that time, giving a permission to sign a gas agreement that was very disadvantageous to Ukraine on the petition of German and other European governments.
On January 26, 2012, Yulia Tymoshenko’s defense submitted a cassation appeal to the High Specialized Court for Civil and Criminal Cases regarding the “gas case” verdict. On August 16, 2012, after a 7-month delay that impeded filing the case to the European Court of Human Rights, the panel of judges of the aforementioned court began hearing the case. The panel finished hearing the case on August 21 and went to the jury room to make decision. The ruling of the Court, issued on August 29, 2012, stated that the appeal of ex prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko’s defense on the "gas case" should not be satisfied.
Media, diplomats, members of parliament and members of an EU special monitoring mission, Pat Cox and Aleksander Kwasniewski, attended the court sessions. The ruling was announced on the day following public hearing of "Tymoshenko vs Ukraine" (regarding unlawful arrest of ex-prime minister and holding her in custody) case at the European Court of Human Rights.
On 6 September 2013 the High Specialized Court for Civil and Criminal Cases denied the petition made by Tymoshenko's lawyers to allow extraordinary appeal to the Supreme Court of Ukraine. On the 6 October 2013 another petition was dismissed as "lodged on the same ground as previously denied petition".
After the Ukrainian revolution of November 2013-February 2014 the High Specialized Court for Civil and Criminal Cases grant the petition that was made by Yulia Tymoshenko herself and send the case to the Supreme Court of Ukraine. On 14 April 2014 Ukrainian Supreme Court sitting en banc reversed the conviction of Yulia Tymoshenko and closed the case against her on the ground that "no crime was committed".
Non-delivery by United Energy Systems of Ukraine (in 1996) of goods to Russia
Early in July 2011, the Ukrainian security service (USB) opened a new criminal investigation into alleged non-delivery by United Energy Systems of Ukraine (in 1996) of goods to Russia for $405.5 million, the USB maintains that Russia may claim this sum to the State budget of Ukraine (this criminal case was closed : in Ukraine in January 2005 due to lack of evidence; in Russia in December 2005 years by reason of lapse of time).
Colonel-General Leonid Ivashov (former official of the Russian Ministry of Defense) said that Russia has long since forgiven this debt and has closed the case against Yulia Tymoshenko: "The new criminal case – it's cheating".
The trial for the in July 2011 opened criminal investigation into alleged misappropriating public funds of United Energy Systems of Ukraine started on 19 April 2012 in Kharkiv. Tymoshenko refused to attend the trial, citing problems with her health. Kyivsky District Court of Kharkiv closed the criminal case on 28 February 2014.
2001 criminal case on state funds embezzlement and tax evasion
A 2001 criminal case on state funds embezzlement and tax evasion charges against Tymoshenko was reopened in Ukraine on 24 October 2011.
Ukrainian tax police
Tymoshenko was re-arrested (while in prison) on 8 December 2011, after a Ukrainian court ordered her indefinite arrest, as part of the investigation of alleged tax evasion and theft of government funds in 1996-1997 by United Energy Systems of Ukraine; again the European Union showed concern over this.
Involvement in the murder of Yevhen Shcherban
Since late October 2011 Ukrainian prosecutors are investigating whether Tymoshenko was involved in the murder of businessman and lawmaker Yevhen Shcherban. Since early April 2012 the General Prosecutor's Office is examining the involvement of Tymoshenko and former Prime Minister Pavlo Lazarenko in the murder of Donetsk businessman Olexandr Momot in 1996.
(Per July 2012) the First Deputy Prosecutor General of Ukraine Renat Kuzmin had intentions to incriminate murder charges against Tymoshenko for the murder of Yevhen Shcherban that occurred back in 1996. In 1996 Prosecutor General Mykhailo Potebenko had stated there were no grounds to open a case.
On 18 January 2013, Tymoshenko was notified that she is a suspect in the murder of Scherban, his wife and two other people in 1996. Tymoshenko denied the charges and according to Tymoshenko not she, but President Yanukovych had benefited most of the murder of Shcherban.
In February 2013 Tymoshenko an her lawyer Serhiy Vlasenko were fined both $2,000 for "contempt of court"; Tymoshenko was fined for being absent in court and Vlasenko for "violating order in the courtroom".
Criminal case against Tymoshenko's lawyer
Tymoshenko's health in prison
Three Canadian and two German doctors who were allowed to examine Tymoshenko in February 2012 stated that Tymoshenko was “ill, in constant pain and requires toxicology and other laboratory testing.” The Canadian doctors added that the doctors were not allowed to carry out some tests and were hindered in their work by government officials. Ukrainian officials insisted that Tymoshenko was receiving all necessary treatment. The First Deputy Chairman of Parliament's health care committee and Tymshenko's former physician, Viacheslav Perederiy, stated "The medical station has the standards of a squalid rural first-aid post. There were banal instruments there that were not even plugged into the mains. They just picked a room, painted the walls and made those who were inside wear overshoes and gowns as though there was any sterility there."
Tymoshenko was moved against her will from Kachanivska prison to a hospital on 19 April 2012 where she entered a hungerstrike on 20 April to protest – according to her lawyer Serhiy Vlasenko – "what is happening in the country and what is happening to her in prison". She ended the hungerstrike on 9 May 2012. Since 9 May 2012 she is receiving treatment at the hospital after being diagnosed with a spinal disc herniation
Tymoshenko was on hunger strike from 20 April 2012 till 9 May 2012. According to her lawyer, she was protesting against "what is happening in the country and what is happening to her in prison".
European leaders expressed concern over the alleged mistreatment of Tymoshenko. EU Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso and Justice Commissioner Viviane Reding boycotted the Euro 2012 football tournament held in Ukraine and Poland. French public figures have appealed to FIFA, the world football authority, to cancel Euro 2012. Germany has announced that German Chancellor Angela Merkel's visit would depend on Tymoshenko fate. Ukraine compared the threats of a football boycott by European powers as a return to Cold War tactics. The German President, Joachim Gauck canceled a visit to Ukraine. Ukrainian authorities confirmed that the presidents of Austria, Germany, Italy, the Czech Republic, and Slovenia would no longer attend a summit to be held in Ukraine on 11 to 12 May 2012 (on 8 May 2012 Ukraine postponed this summit). Meanwhile, Switzerland offered to mediate between Ukraine and the European Union to resolve the issue on neutral grounds. Tymoshenko ended her hunger strike and was transferred to a hospital near Kharkiv on 9 May 2012, accompanied by German neurologist Lutz Harms of the Charité clinic Berlin.
From 29 October 2012 till 16 November 2012 Tymoshenko was again on hunger strike to protest vote rigging in the October 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election. She stated that the goal for which she went on a hunger strike had been achieved "Nobody will be able to recognize this Verkhovna Rada as legitimate and democratically elected".
From 25 November till 6 December 2013 (during the Euromaidan protests) Tymoshenko was again on hunger strike in protest of "President Yanukovych's reluctance to sign the DCFTA" on 6 December.
Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych stated on 24 February 2012 the procedure for pardoning Tymoshenko could start "after her trial" and if she submitted a respective application to the President; he also mentioned that "we should have all these cases considered again from the point of view of the new Criminal Procedure Code, which will comply with all European standards" and he described the trial of Tymoshenko and other former officials as not "meet[ing] European standards and principles" (in May 2012 First Deputy General Prosecutor of Ukraine Renat Kuzmin also stated this in the European Parliament). On 27 February 2012 Tymoshenko's defense lawyer stated Tymoshenko will not file any applications for a pardon since "Yanukovych recognized himself that the trial of Tymoshenko has nothing to do with justice according to European standards". Tymoshenko stated the same day "Today we are behind bars. But if we have to pay such a price for the liberation of the country, then we are ready to pay it".
More than 100 various petitions for pardoning Tymoshenko have been sent to President Yanukovych since her imprisonment.
2014 release from prison
Following the 2014 Ukrainian Revolution, on 21 February 2014, Parliament voted for her release in a 310–54 veto-proof vote. To do so, the members of parliament decriminalized the Article on which Tymoshenko was charged and brought it into compliance with Article 19 of the UN Convention against corruption. That could enable immediate release of Tymoshenko through the corresponding court ruling. Yet Viktor Yanukovych fled the country after massive violent clashes in Kiev that killed more than 80 people. and didn't sign the bill into the law. On February 22, 2014 the Verkhovna Rada with 322 votes adopted a decree based on the decision of the European Court of Human Rights and corresponding decision of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe.
On the same day Tymoshenko was released from the Kharkiv-based Central Clinical Hospital No. 5, where she had been receiving treatment after being diagnosed with a spinal disc herniation since May 2012 under police surveillance. Her release was praised by western leaders.
On February 28, 2014 the parliament rehabilitated Yulia Tymoshenko and restored her rights. That enabled her to run for office, however she has ruled out becoming Prime Minister again.
Kyivsky District Court of Kharkiv closed the criminal case on financial abuse of the United Energy Systems of Ukraine on 28 February 2014. And on April 14 the Supreme Court of Ukraine closed the “gas case” against Tymoshenko for “absence of a criminal act”.
On 25 April 2014 the General Prosecutor of Ukraine launched a pre-trial investigation against a number of officials from its own office and the Pechersky district court and Kiev’s court of appeals (the judges who had sentenced Tymoshenko) because of allegedly "deliberate, systematic and flagrant violation of accused Yulia Tymoshenko’s rights to defense, which are granted by Ukraine’s current laws".
Rodion Kireyev, the judge who had sentenced Tymoshenko to seven years in jail (on 11 October 2011) was charged for "giving a deliberately unlawful verdict" on 20 June 2014. Kireyev disappeared from Kiev on 2 July 2014 and was placed on the wanted list on 7 July 2014.
- On June 16, 2013 Zerkalo Nedeli published an article of Juris Doctor Mykola Khavronyuk where he provides statistical evidences of the State Court Administration of Ukraine which show that more than often persons convicted of the same crime as Tymoshenko are usually given a conditional sentence or even completely pardoned. He points out that in 2012 out 25 people with same charges (part 3 of the article 365 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine) only seven were sentenced to a prison of whom only three people to the term of five to ten years. Fifteen (60%) of the convicted were given a probation, while another nine were completely pardoned either due to amnesty or other issues. A very similar situation is traced for the previous year in 2011. Out of 46 people on the same charges only 15 were sentenced to a prison out which six were given term of five to ten years. Twenty-eight of the convicted were given a probation while another seven were completely pardoned. This is easily explained because those people committed far less serious crimes than Tymoshenko, who stood as Ukrainian Prime Minister and not as a simple public officer, and because the entity of the economic damage provoked by her actions was far more important.
European Union – In August 2011 European Union (EU) officials called the prosecution of Tymoshenko "selective prosecution of political opponents". After the verdict in the 2009 natural gas deal European Union High Representative for Foreign Affairs Catherine Ashton stated the verdict showed justice in Ukraine was being applied selectively in politically motivated prosecutions and that the Ukrainian Government handling of the case risked deep implications for its hopes of EU integration. Other reactions from European Union politicians had a similar tone. Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych met with the EU-leadership the week after the verdict was postponed, but Ukraine and the EU assured this would not affect further cooperation. Nevertheless the EU has shelved the European Union Association Agreement and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with Ukraine over this issue and the imprisonment of Yuriy Lutsenko. At the request of opposition politicians in Ukraine, EU government officials boycotted the UEFA Euro 2012 championship in Ukraine.
The Council of Europe expressed "serious concern about the trial" on 12 October 2011. On 26 January 2012 the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe adopted a resolution in which it called on President Yanukovych "to consider all possible means to release former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko and other members of the former government and also to enable them to participate in the upcoming parliamentary elections".
On 29 February 2012 the European People's Party demanded "immediate release of Yulia Tymoshenko, Yuriy Lutsenko and other political prisoners; it also insisted the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the European Union should not be signed and ratified until these demands where met.
Russia – According to Russia, the 2009 natural gas agreements "were signed on the basis of the necessary instructions from the Russian and Ukrainian Presidents"; it also urged Ukraine to ensure an impartial trial. The Russian Foreign Ministry stated the ruling had an "obvious anti-Russian subtext" and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin commented about the ruling "I can't quite understand why she got those seven years".
United States – In August 2011 United States officials (also) called the prosecution of Tymoshenko "selective prosecution of political opponents". An 11 October 2011 statement by the White House stated the charges and conduct of the trial has raised serious concerns about Ukraine's commitment to democracy and the rule of law and urged Ukraine to release Tymoshenko, as well as other political leaders and former government officials. On 22 January 2012 U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton reaffirmed that the United States supported Tymoshenko's immediate release. On 22 September 2012 the U.S. Senate called upon Ukraine to release Tymoshenko and for the U.S. Department of State to institute a visa ban against those responsible for her imprisonment and mistreatment.
The co-president of The Greens–European Free Alliance group in the European parliament Rebecca Harms (Germany) announced that she will insist on the order of the European Union on conducting an inspection of documents relating the "gas affair" against Tymoshenko. She believes that the allegations are absurd and baseless. She reported that she recently familiarized herself with the results of investigation of the former Prosecutor General of Denmark, which indicate that Tymoshenko was not supposed to be convicted in this case. In her opinion the Ukrainian authorities and the President of Ukraine, Viktor Yanukovych, have realized already that they are going in the wrong direction and that is why other criminal cases were opened against Tymoshenko.
References and notes
- "Flowers, songs for Ukraine's Tymoshenko outside jail". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Ukrainian opposition leader faces criminal charges, Euronews (12 May 2010)
- Ukraine reopens bribery case against Yulia Tymoshenko, Telegraph.co.uk (13 May 2010)
- "Ukraine election: Yanukovych urges Tymoshenko to quit". BBC News. 2010-02-10. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- United Opposition nominates Tymoshenko as single presidential candidate, Kyiv Post (7 December 2012)
Yatseniuk:Tymoshenko will be able to run for presidency in 2015, Kyiv Post (7 December 2012)
- Profile: Yulia Tymoshenko, BBC News (30 April 2012)
- Tymoshenko accused of murder, Euronews (19 January 2013)
Jailed Ukraine ex-PM Tymoshenko suspected in long-dormant murder case, Montreal Gazette (19 January 2013)
Ukraine Prosecutors Say Tymoshenko May Face Murder Charge, Bloomberg L.P. (18 January 2013)
Ukraine prosecutor accuses Tymoshenko of murder, Reuters (18 January 2013)
- Ukraine's Tymoshenko Declares Presidential Candidacy, Voice of America (27 March 2014)
- Ukraine: Speaker Oleksandr Turchynov named interim president, BBC News (23 February 2014)
Ukraine protests timeline, BBC News (23 February 2014)
- Andrew Higgins; Andrew Cramer (21 February 2014). "Embattled Ukraine President Signs Compromise Deal as Parliament Votes to Free His Imprisoned Rival". New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Ally of Opposition Icon Tymoshenko Voted Acting Ukraine President". NBC News. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- Kyiv Post. "Piling cases on Tymoshenko". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Getting Yulia, Kyiv Post (3 November 2011)
- In April 2010 Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov stated that "The whole of the previous government (led by Tymoshenko) has caused damage to the state of $100 billion hryvnia. And because the materials on the implementation of the 2009 budget should be considered not only deputies, but first of all law enforcement agencies, and the former Prime Minister, and officials should be held criminally responsible." (Source: Azarov : Tymoshenko's government struck Ukraine multibillion loss. Site of "RIA Novosti", April 28, 2010)
- [Ukraine: Tymoshenko on trial in Kiev for abuse of power], BBC News (24 June 2011)
- Ukraine launches criminal case against former PM Timoshenko, Russia Today (16 December 2010)
- How Ukraine Became a Market Economy and Democracy by Anders Åslund, Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2009, ISBN 978-0-88132-427-3 (page 94)
- Ukraine heaps more charges on Tymoshenko (updated), Kyiv Post (11 November 2011)
Vlasenko: investigators illegally presented Yulia Tymoshenko with new charges, UNIAN (11 November 2011)
Ukraine tax authorities file charges against Tymoshenko, Interfax Ukraine (11 November 2011)
Tax police resumes four criminal cases against Tymoshenko, Kyiv Post (7 November 2011)
- Old criminal case against ex-Ukrainian PM Tymoshenko reopened, RIA Novosti (24 October 2011)
- Tymoshenko faces yet another investigation, Kyiv Post (5 July 2011)
New criminal case is filed against Tymoshenko, UNIAN (13 October 2011)
"Ukraine ex-PM warrant cancelled". BBC News. 2005-09-26. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
- "UKRAINIAN EX-PM SUSPECTED IN MURDER CASE". Associated Press. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Lawyer of former Ukraine PM Yulia Tymoshenko 'faces criminal charges', Guardian.co.uk (21 January 2013)
- Ukraine ex-PM Yulia Tymoshenko jailed over gas deal, BBC News (11 October 2011)
- Q&A: Ukraine's Yulia Tymoshenko on trial, BBC News (9 August 2011)
- "Ukraine's ombudsman confirms Tymoshenko's illness". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Tymoshenko moved to prison in Kharkiv (updated), Kyiv Post (30 December 2011)
Tymoshenko moved to Kachanivska penal colony in Kharkiv (updated), Kyiv Post (30 December 2011)
- Opposition leaders visit Tymoshenko's hospital, Kyiv Post (13 November 2012)
German doctors arrive at Kharkiv-based clinic to see Tymoshenko, Kyiv Post (15 November 2012)
Rome mayor's office puts up Tymoshenko portrait on facade, Kyiv Post (26 November 2012)
- France disappointed by Tymoshenko appeal rejection, Russian Legal Information Agency (31 August 2012)
- Tymoshenko stops hunger strike, Interfax-Ukraine (6 December 2013)
- Ukraine's jailed ex-PM Tymoshenko 'on hunger strik, BBC News (24 April 2012)
- Ukraine's Tymoshenko moved from prison to hospital; ends hunger strike, The Globe and Mail (9 May 2012)
- Yulia Tymoshenko ends hunger strike after hospital move, BBC News (May 9th 2012)
- Tymoshenko to decide whether to continue hunger strike, Kyiv Post (13 November 2012)
- Ukraine's jailed Tymoshenko calls off hunger strike, Kyiv Post (16 November 2012)
Chief doctor:Tymoshenko to have recovered from hunger strike by end of this week, Kyiv Post (28 November 2012)
- Ukraine's Tymoshenko given 7 years in jail, CBC News (11 October 2011)
Reaction to Tymoshenko verdict swift and harsh, Kyiv Post (11 October 2011)
Yulia Tymoshenko says Ukraine trial 'like Stalin's Soviet Union' as she is jailed for 7 years, telegraph.co.uk (11 October 2011)
Ukraine minister insists Yulia Tymoshenko broke the law, telegraph.co.uk (29 August 2012)
Ukraine jails Tymoshenko for 7 years, irks EU, Russia, Reuters (11 October 2011)
Ukrainian ex-minister gets asylum, The Prague Post (19 January 2011)
U.S. Concerned Over Ukraine’s Prosecution of Former Officials, Bloomberg L.P. (30 December 2010)
U.S. State Department points to politically motivated prosecution of former officials in Ukraine in its human rights report, Interfax-Ukraine (24 May 2012)
World Report 2012: Ukraine, Human Rights Watch
A few more goals for Ukraine, Human Rights Watch (11 June 2012)
- "Amnesty International believes that "the verdict Tymoshenko" is politically motivated., 11.10.2011". Infosud.ru. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- European party demands permission for Tymoshenko to take tests at EU labs, Kyiv Post (1 March 2012)
European lawmakers: Association agreement should not be signed with opposition in jail, Kyiv Post (1 March 2012)
- "Amnesty International: Jailed former Ukraine prime minister must be released". Kyivpost.com. 2011-10-11. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- (Russian) Amnesty International: Суд над Тимошенко был пародией на правосудие Amnesty International: Tymoshenko's trial was a travesty of justice, Korrespondent (12 October 2011)
- (Ukrainian) МЗС Швеції: вирок Тимошенко ставить під загрозу наші відносини Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sweden Tymoshenko verdict jeopardizing our relationship, Ukrayinska Pravda (11 October 2011)
- EU leaders:Ratification of Association Agreement and DCFTA depends on settlement of Tymoshenko-Lutsenko issue, Kyiv Post (20 July 2012)
- Ukraine's Lutsenko jailed for 4 years (updated), Kyiv Post (27 February 2012)
- Ukraine: Tymoshenko on trial in Kiev for abuse of power, BBC News (24 June 2011)
- Ukraine timeline, BBC News
- "Yanukovych denies political motives for trial of Tymoshenko". Kyivpost.com. 2011-09-21. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Party of Regions: Tymoshenko verdict signal to all Ukrainian officials breaking law". Kyivpost.com. 2011-10-11. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Party of Regions: Gas inquiry began under President Yuschenko". Kyivpost.com. 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Yanukovych vows to put an end to corruption". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Yanukovych: 'Some misinform international community about Ukraine'". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Ukraine's parliament passes president's anti-corruption law RIA Novosti (7 April 2011)
- Vlasenko: Tymoshenko not to ask president for pardon, Kyiv Post (27 February 2012)
- Tymoshenko ready to sacrifice her freedom for liberation of Ukraine, together with Lutsenko, Kyiv Post (27 February 2012)
- "In the text of the resolution the European Parliament amended. For the first time there is a phrase in the text - prisoners for political reasons". Interfax.com.ua. 2012-05-23. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Fule: EU doesn't consider Tymoshenko, other former officials as political prisoners, Kyiv Post (20 September 2011)
- "Parliamentary Assembly, Counsil of Europe. Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights. "Keeping political and criminal responsibility separate Report". Rapporteur: Mr Pieter Omtzigt, Netherlands, Group of the European People’s Party. June 15, 2013." (PDF). Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "PACE. "Keeping political and criminal responsibility separate" (Doc. 13214). 28 May 2013". Assembly.coe.int. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Ukraine PM to stand for president". BBC News. 2009-06-07. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Because no candidate in the first round ballot had 50% or more votes, the two highest polling candidates faced off in a second round of the elections (Source: Presidential election gets under way in Ukraine, Kyiv Post (17 January 2010))
- Ukrainian PM to face old rival in runoff election, Reuters (18 January 2010)
- (Ukrainian)Regular elections of the President of Ukraine 17 January 2010, Central Election Commission of Ukraine
- Tomenko:Batkivschyna not planning to change its leader Tymoshenko, Kyiv Post (4 December 2012)
- After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (7 November 2012)
- You Scratch My Back, and I’ll Scratch Yours, The Ukrainian Week (26 September 2012)
- Ukraine right-wing politics: is the genie out of the bottle?, openDemocracy.net (3 January 2011)
- Ukraine viewpoint: Novelist Andrey Kurkov, BBC News (13 January 2011)
- "Ukraine ex-PM Tymoshenko charged with misusing funds". Bbc.co.uk. 2010-12-20. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- The Party of Regions monopolises power in Ukraine, Centre for Eastern Studies (29 September 2010)
- Ukraine launches battle against corruption, BBC News (18 January 2011)
- "Ukrainians' long wait for prosperity". Bbc.co.uk. 2010-10-15. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Ukraine:Journalists Face Uncertain Future, Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting (27 October 2010)
- Yanukovych Tells U.K's Cameron No Fears for Ukraine's Democracy, Turkish Weekly (6 October 2010)
- Yulia Kovalevska:Only some bankrupt politicians try to use the Day of Unification with the aim of self-PR, Party of Regions official website (21 January 2011)
- President: Ukraine must fulfill its commitments to Council of Europe, president.gov.ua (13 January 2011)
- Our Ukraine comes to defense of Tymoshenko, Lutsenko, Didenko, Makarenko in statement, Interfax-Ukraine (25 May 2011)
- Ukraine jails Tymoshenko ex-minister Ivashchenko, BBC News (12 April 2012)
- "Jailhouse Watch: Many former top officials remain in jail for months". Kyivpost.com. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Yanukovych: Over 400 officials of current government stand trial Kyiv Post (Augustus 25, 2011)
- These criminal cases were opened against officials from the second Tymoshenko Government (prosecutors have not accused them of corruption, or assignment of funds, but rather have accused them of abuse of power):
- Prime Minister – Tymoshenko
- Minister of Police – Yuriy Lutsenko
- Minister of Defence – Ivashchenko
- Minister of Finance – Danylyshyn
- Minister of Natural Resources – Filipchuk
- Deputy Minister of Justice – Korneichuk
- Head of Customs of Ukraine – Makarenko
- Head of the regional customs – Shepitko
- Head of the State Treasury of Ukraine – Slyuz; Deputy head – Gritsoun
- Deputy head of "Naftogaz" (state monopoly on trade in gas and oil) – Didenko
- Governor of Dnipropetrovsk Oblast (former Minister of Transport) – Bondar
- Governor of Kharkiv Oblast – Arsen Avakov Source: Interpol puts ex-governor of Kharkiv region Avakov on wanted list
- Minister and former mayor of Lviv – Kuybida. Source: Minister and former mayor of Lviv – Kuybida
- First Deputy Prime Minister Oleksandr Turchynov – repeatedly summoned for questioning.
- Ukrainian Court Releases Jailed Ex-Minister, RIA Novosti (14 August 2012)
Ex-minister Ivashchenko’s son: ‘This is about revenge’, Kyiv Post (2 September 2011)
- Ex-environment minister Filipchuk’s sentence another proof of political repression in Ukraine, says Batkivschyna Party, Interfax (6 April 2012)
- From exile in Czech Republic, Danylyshyn launches group, may seek seat in parliament, Kyiv Post (19 May 2011)
- Ukrainian ex-Minister Lutsenko Jailed for Two Years, RIA Novosti (17 August 2012)
- Are Continued Arrests of Ukraine’s Former Top Officials Politically Motivated?, The Jamestown Foundation (14 January 2011)
- Brussels Chooses to Initial Only Part of Association Agreement with Ukraine, The Jamestown Foundation (2 April 2012)
Tymoshenko asks Italian government not to extradite Avakov to Ukraine, Kyiv Post (5 April 2012)
- Ukraine’s Oligarchs and Democratic Regression: Why Are They Silent?, The Jamestown Foundation (22 September 2010)
- Roman Ilyk: Police wants lists of Lviv Batkivshchyna branch members, Z I K (21 June 2011)
- Yanukovych bears no grudges against Tymoshenko, Z I K (12 May 2010)
- "Trials of Tymoshenko, other officials fall short of European standards, Yanukovych admits". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Lawmaker: Hamburg court ruling in Tymoshenko vs. Azarov case available on open access, Kyiv Post (25 January 2013)
- ""Criminal cases by Yulia Tymoshenko. References". Site "RIA. News", 09.09.2008". Rian.ru. 2011-12-21. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "EU Hopes Fade As Gas Lobby Triumphs". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Tymoshenko's decision to institute criminal proceedings. RIA Novyny.". Rian.ru. 12.5.2011. Retrieved 2014-03-21. Check date values in:
- На аудит деятельности Тимошенко потратили $10 млн [$10 million spent on the audit of Tymoshenko]. Главком (in Ukrainian). October 20, 2010.
- Правительство Украины сделало официальное заявление по Киотскому протоколу [The Government of Ukraine made an official statement on the Kyoto Protocol]. Цензор.НЕТ (in Ukrainian). December 21, 2010.
- "Tymoshenko government accused of misappropriating $8.5 mln to advocate Ukraine's image". RIA Novosti. December 20, 2010.
- Дела объединились вокруг Юлии Тимошенко [The cases combined against Yulia Tymoshenko]. Коммерсантъ Украина (in Ukrainian). February 22, 2011.
- "(Russian language) Auditing on Tymoshenko caused world-wide response". Segodnya.ua. 2010-10-15. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Company Covington & Burling LLP and BDO concluded that the charges against Tymoshenko are politically motivated". Youtube.com. 2011-06-18. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Наталка Хижняк Бі-Бі-Сі, Вашингтон (June 18, 2011). "(Russian language) American lawyers defended Tymoshenko. ''Natalia Khyzhnyak''. BBC, Washington.". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Leading US auditors find no evidence of crime or corruption in Yulia Tymoshenko’s actions. June 17, 2011". Tymoshenko.ua. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Freedom House: the government is destroying Ukraine's Euro-Atlantic future with the trial of Yulia Tymoshenko". Tymoshenko.ua. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "In "Freedom House" urging Ukrainian authorities to stop. Site news agency UNIAN. August 8, 2011". Unian.net. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- August 5, 2011 (2011-08-05). "Freedom House Denounces Arrest And Continued Harassment of Yulia Tymoshenko.". Freedomhouse.org. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Resolution of the General Prosecutor's Office of Ukraine on the prosecution accused Tymoshenko as for "gas contract with Russia-2009". The site "Ukrainian Truth", 07/04/2011". Pravda.com.ua. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- ""Ukraine can safely terminate the contract with Gazprom?". Site "Ura.inform", 29.07.2011". Ura-inform.com. 2011-07-29. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Site «Commodities. Reviews of prices for oil and metals", section "The price of oil" for the 1998-2012 year. Russia". Fx-commodities.ru. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Representative of Kremlin blamed Yushchenko in lies. "Ukrayinska Pravda" website. 17.8.2011". Pravda.com.ua. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "A witness: Tymoshenko did not abuse office duties, website Leviy Bereg newspaper, 15.08.2011". Lb.ua. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- ""The Institution of State and Law" did not see any crime in Tymoshenko’s directives. Website of "Focus" magazine". Focus.ua. 2011-08-15. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Boiko: Naftogaz will not withdraw civil suit against Tymoshenko". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Party of Regions: Gas inquiry began under President Yuschenko, Kyiv Post (20 October 2011)
- "Profile: Yulia Tymoshenko". BBC News. 2010-03-04. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Ukraine Retreats to a Dark Past, Der Spiegel (18 October 2011)
- Linette Lopez (19 August 2011). "Yulia Tymoshenko Has Developed A 'Mysterious Ailment' in Ukrainian Jail". Business Insider. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- The Tymoshenko verdict. Full text of the sentence, "Law & Business" (13 October 2011)
- "Tymoshenko convicted, sentenced to 7 years in prison, ordered to pay state $188 million (update)". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Interior Ministry claims that the Kreshchatik still "fun" five thousand commandos". Fraza.ua. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Ukraine ex-PM gets 7-year jail for abuse of office". Indiavision news. 11 October 2011.
- "Tymoshenko files appeal against court ruling in gas case". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- On her 51st birthday (27 November 2011) an action called "Flowers for Yulia" happened in front of the Lukyanivska Prison where she was held at that time (Source: Flowers, songs for Ukraine's Tymoshenko outside jail
- "Yanukovych: Tymoshenko case thwarts Ukraine's European integration". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "http://www.kyivpost.com/news/politics/detail/114549/". Kyivpost.com. 2011-10-11. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Foreign Affairs Ministry issues statement on Tymoshenko case". Kyivpost.com. 2011-10-11. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Justice minister: EU reaction could soften if Tymoshenko offence is decriminalized". Kyivpost.com. 2011-10-12. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Yatseniuk: Opposition proposes its own amendments to law on decriminalization". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Rada passes law decriminalizing certain economic crimes at first reading". Kyivpost.com. 2011-10-06. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Ruling party opposes decriminalization of ‘Tymoshenko law', RIA Novosti (18 October 2011)
- "Batkivschyna blocking parliament's rostrum, demanding dissolution of Rada". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Parliament puts off Tymoshenko vote". Kyivpost.com. 2011-11-04. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Ukrainian lawmakers agree to put off second reading of decriminalization bill". Kyivpost.com. 2011-11-04. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Auyezov, Olzhas. "Ukraine parliament rejects Tymoshenko reprieve". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Ukraine's Tymoshenko loses appeal against jail term, BBC News (23 December 2011)
- Tymoshenko sentence in gas supply case takes legal force, Kyiv Post (23 December 2011)
- Official statement by Yulia Tymoshenko, Kyiv Post (22 December 2011)
- Press release, ECtHR (20 December 2011)
- Parliament again votes down proposal to decriminalize 'Tymoshenko article', Kyiv Post (8 February 2012)
- (Ukrainian) «Грищенко: «Європейська першість проводиться не для політиків» (Hryshchenko: The European championship is taking place not for politicians). Official website of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine (Full version). Retrieved 16 June 2012
- (Russian) Тимошенко посадили за решетку из-за Германии? (Tymoshenko was put behind the bars because of Germany?). Gazeta.ua. Retrieved 16 June 2012
- "Tymoshenko's defense submitted cassation appeal against "gas sentence"". En.for-ua.com. 2012-01-26. Retrieved 2013-12-28.
- "Tymoshenko's cassation in gas case read out in court". Kyivpost.com. 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2013-12-28.
- (Ukrainian) Russia has long forgiven debt UESU Corporation (application Colonel-General Leonid Ivashov). Site "Obozrevatel", 14 October 2011.
- "The site "NEWSru.com", section "Profile" Georgy Oleynik, 21.10.2011". Palm.newsru.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Ukraine's Tymoshenko refuses to attend new tax trial, BBC News (19 April 2012)
- Kharkiv court drops charges against Tymoshenko in UESU case, Interfax-Ukraine (28 February 2014)
- Ukraine 're-arrests' Tymoshenko, EU sends envoy, Kyiv Post (9 December 2011)
- Teixeira: EU concerned about new arrest Tymoshenko, Kyiv Post (9 December 2011)
- Tymoshenko faces indefinite arrest, Kyiv Post (9 December 2011)
- Lawyer: Tymoshenko arrested 'for life', Kyiv Post (9 December 2011)
- Jailed Tymoshenko seen by EU Commissioner Stefan Fuele, BBC News (13 December 2011)
- Ukraine to investigate Tymoshenko over murder-report, Kyiv Post (30 October 2011)
- (Ukrainian) Генпрокуратура перевіряє Тимошенко на причетність до ще одного вбивства, BBC Ukrainian (7 April 2012)
- Kuzmin's political bias in Tymoshenko persecution, Kyiv Post (5 October 2012)
Scherban's son:'Money and influence played a fateful role in my father's death', Kyiv Post (13 July 2012)
- Kuchma says there were no grounds to prosecute Tymoshenko in Scherban case during his presidency, Kyiv Post (25 January 2013)
- Tymoshenko Denies Involvement In Murder Of Scherban, Ukrainian News Agency (22 January 2013)
- Court fines Vlasenko for contempt of court, Kyiv Post (13 February 2013)
- Vlasenko, Kozhemiakin, Plakhotniuk to be Tymoshenko's defense lawyers in Scherban case, Kyiv Post (22 January 2013)
- Germany and Canada want to send doctors to examine Tymoshenko, Kyiv Post (1 February 2012)
- Foreign physicians say Tymoshenko seriously ill, Kyiv Post (24 February 2012)
- Canadian doctors: Intimidation by Ukrainian authorities failed, Tymoshenko refused to be 'cowed', Kyiv Post (27 February 2012)
- Report: Tymoshenko's medical records kept from Canadian doctors, Kyiv Post (25 February 2012)
- Seven-doctor panel: Tymoshenko needs no surgery, Kyiv Post (24 February 2012)
- Interfax-Ukraine (16 March 2012). "Ex-doctor of Tymoshenko slams prison's health service". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- Lawyer: Tymoshenko's health state worsens, she can't walk, Kyiv Post (23 January 2013)
- Yulia Tymoshenko's daughter says condition worsening in Ukraine jail, telegraph.co.uk (27 April 2012)
- "French public figures urge FIFA to cancel Euro 2012 in Ukraine, unless Tymoshenko is freed". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Yulia Tymoshenko: Threat to boycott Euro football championship in Ukraine over PM jailing a 'Cold-War tactic,' Oleh Voloshin". National Post. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- Tymoshenko's health failing in Ukraine prison[dead link]
- "Swiss willing to help in Tymoshenko case". Swissinfo.ch. 2012-05-06. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- "Out of jail into hospital". en.europeonline-magazine.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
- Tymoshenko says goal of hunger strike was achieved, Kyiv Post (16 November 2012)
- Jailed Tymoshenko on hunger strike over EU U-turn by Ukraine, Euronews (25 November 2013)
- Ukraine opposition leader Tymoshenko ends prison hunger strike, Euronews (6 December 2013)
- Russia and Ukraine leaders seek partnership treaty, BBC News (6 December 2013)
- Yanukovych:Tymoshenko's pardon procedure could start after her trial, Kyiv Post (24 February 2012)
- Yanukovych supports revision of Tymoshenko's criminal case, Kyiv Post (25 February 2012)
- Ukraine's president hints at Tymoshenko reprieve, Kyiv Post (25 February 2012)
- (Ukrainian) Кузьмін визнав перед європейцями порушення демократичних принципів (Kuzmin acknowledged before Europeans violation of democratic principles), Ukrayinska Pravda (9 May 2012)
- (Polish) European Parliament debates on Yulia Tymoshenko's case, rogalinski.com.pl (20 August 2012)
- Female MPs' petition to Yanukovych to pardon Tymoshenko sent to commission for pardons, says Presidential Administration, Interfax-Ukraine (19 April 2013)
- Karmanau, Yuras (21 February 2014), "Tensions high at Kyiv protest camp despite ground-breaking deal", CTV News, retrieved 2014-02-24
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Walker, Shaun (23 February 2014), "Yulia Tymoshenko is back centre stage in Ukraine – but not all want her there", theguardian.com (Kiev), retrieved 2012-02-24
- "President Yanukovych and Ukraine opposition sign early poll deal", The Sun (Malaysia) (Kiev), 21 February 2014, retrieved 2014-02-24
- Ukrainian Prosecutor General’s Office opens case vs. judges who sentenced Tymoshenko, ITAR-TASS (25 April 2014)
- Ukrainian Supreme Court closes Tymoshenko’s ‘gas case’, ITAR-TASS (14 April 2014)
- Ukrainian Supreme Court rehabilitates Julia Tymoshenkovestnikkavkaza.net(24 June 2014)
- Judge Kireyev, who sent Tymoshenko to jail, put on wanted list – Interior Ministry, Interfax-Ukraine (7 July 2014)
- «Проблема Т.» и законные средства ее решения ("Problem T." and legal issues of its solution). Zerkalo Nedeli. March 23, 2012
- По статье Тимошенко в Украине редко дают реальные сроки (Under the Tymoshenko's article in Ukraine is rare to be convicted). Zerkalo Nedeli. June 16, 2013
- За статтею Тимошенко зазвичай дають "умовно", - юрист (Under Tymoshenko's article usually give probation, - jurist). Ukrayinska Pravda. June 16, 2013
- Statement by Senator John McCain & EPP President Wilfried Martens on Ukraine, European People's Party (7 March 2011)
- Tymoshenko to present a picture of Ukrainian events in Brussels, forUM (17 March 2011)
- EU says Tymoshenko sentence could hit Ukraine ties (updated), Kyiv Post (11 October 2011)
- Reaction to Tymoshenko verdict swift and harsh, Kyiv Post (11 October 2011)
- Russia and West condemn Tymoshenko verdict, RIA Novosti (11 October 2011)
- Czech Republic can't accept politically motivated verdict, Kyiv Post (12 October 2011)
- Italian foreign minister says Tymoshenko verdict unacceptable, Kyiv Post (12 October 2011)
- British Foreign Secretary deeply concerned by conviction of Tymoshenko, Kyiv Post (12 October 2011)
- EU: Yanukovych trip to Brussels canceled (updated), Kyiv Post (18 October 2011)
- Party of Regions: Yanukovych's delayed Brussels visit will not affect Association Agreement, Kyiv Post (18 October 2011)
- EU ‘continues working’ with Ukraine, RIA Novosti (18 October 2011)
- EU: Ukraine deal awaiting action on Tymoshenko, Kyiv Post (20 October 2011)
- EU-Ukraine summit 'unlikely' this year, EU Observer (5 November 2012)
- Maria Danilova (2012-04-27). "Opposition suggests government were behind Ukraine bomb attacks in Dnipropetrovsk - Europe - World". The Independent. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Tymoshenko:Austria ministers in Euro 2012 boycott, BBC News (2 May 2012)
Euro 2012: Belarus leader Lukashenko to attend final
UK ministers boycott England games in Ukraine
Euro 2012 blog: Yanukovych did not feel boycott during Euro finale, Kyiv Post (2 July 2012)
The Ukrainian government is losing two PR battles, The Economist (26 June 2012)
- "Council of Europe concerned about Tymoshenko trial". Kyivpost.com. 2011-10-12. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Medvedev: Ministry's statement on Tymoshenko trial reflects government position, Kyiv Post (31 August 2011)
- Putin: Tymoshenko verdict unfair, Kyiv Post (11 October 2011)
- "US calls for release of Tymoshenko". Kyivpost.com. 2011-10-11. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
- Clinton sends jailed Ukrainian ex-PM message of support, Reuters (22 January 2012)
- Senate: US should punish those responsible for Tymoshenko's imprisonment (full text), Kyiv Post (23 September 2012)
- , RIA Novosti (12 October 2011)
- French human rights ambassador to try to meet with Tymoshenko again, Kyiv Post (17 April 2012)
Jailed Ukrainian Ex-Premier Goes on Hunger Strike, RIA Novosti (24 April 2012 2012)
- (Russian) Евродепутат Хармс будет настаивать на проведении ЕС проверки "газового дела" Тимошенко (The Euro-deputy Harms will insist on conducting by EU an inspection of the Tymoshenko's "gas affair"). Interfax-Ukraine. (16 June 2012)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trial of Yulia Tymoshenko.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Demonstrations and protests in support of Yulia Tymoshenko.|
International organization Freedom House claims of political persecution in Ukraine:
- Freedom House Denounces Arrest And Continued Harassment of Yulia Tymoshenko. August 5, 2011.
- A Misguided Report on the Tymoshenko Case.December 19, 2012.
- Freedom House Welcomes Pardon of Ukrainian Opposition Figures. Washington. April 8, 2013
- Ukrainian Democracy Declines as Tymoshenko Plight Drags On. August 7, 2013
- "Tymoshenko's ordeal". Euronews. August 5, 2011.
- Company Covington & Burling LLP and BDO concluded that the charges against Tymoshenko are politically motivated. June 17, 2011.