Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

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For the American photographer, see Christina Fernandez (photographer).
This name uses Argentine naming customs for married women: the birth family name is Fernández and the marital name is Kirchner.
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
President of Argentina
In office
10 December 2007 – 10 December 2015[1]
Vice President Julio Cobos
Amado Boudou
Preceded by Néstor Kirchner
Succeeded by Mauricio Macri
First Lady of Argentina
In role
25 May 2003 – 10 December 2007
Preceded by Hilda de Duhalde
Succeeded by Néstor Kirchner
as First Gentleman
National Senator of Argentina
In office
10 December 2005 – 28 November 2007
Constituency Buenos Aires
In office
10 December 2001 – 9 December 2005
Constituency Santa Cruz
In office
10 December 1995 – 3 December 1997
Constituency Santa Cruz
National Deputy of Argentina
In office
10 December 1997 – 9 December 2001
Constituency Santa Cruz
Personal details
Born Cristina Elisabet Fernández
(1953-02-19) 19 February 1953 (age 63)
La Plata, Argentina
Political party Justicialist
Other political
Front for Victory (2003–present)
Spouse(s) Néstor Kirchner
(m. 1975; d. 2010)
Children Máximo
Alma mater National University of La Plata
Religion Roman Catholicism

Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner (Spanish pronunciation: [kɾisˈtina elisaˈβet ferˈnandes ðe ˈkiɾʃneɾ]; born 19 February 1953), known as Cristina Kirchner[2] and often referred to by her initials CFK,[3][4][note 1] is an Argentine lawyer and politician.

She was the President of Argentina from 2007 to 2015 and she is the widow of former president Néstor Kirchner. She was the second woman to serve as President of Argentina (after Isabel Martínez de Perón, 1974–76), the first directly elected female president and the first woman re-elected. A member of the Justicialist Party, Fernández served one term as National Deputy and three terms as National Senator for both Santa Cruz and Buenos Aires provinces.

Born in La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Fernández is a graduate of the National University of La Plata.[7][8] She met her husband during her studies, and they moved to Santa Cruz to work as lawyers. In May 1991, she was elected to the provincial legislature. Between 1995 and 2007, she was repeatedly elected to the Argentine National Congress, both as a National Deputy and National Senator. During Néstor Kirchner's presidency (2003–07), she acted as First Lady. Fernández was chosen as the Front for Victory presidential candidate in 2007.

In the October 2007 general election, she obtained 45.3% of the vote and a 22 percentage point lead over her nearest rival, avoiding a runoff election. She was inaugurated on 10 December 2007, and was re-elected to a second term in the first round of the October 2011 general election, with 54.1% and 37.3 percentage points over the next candidate, Hermes Binner. Fernández de Kirchner's critics and political opposers have claimed her administration exhibited numerous cases of corruption, crony capitalism, falsification of public statistics, harassment of Argentina's independent media, and use of the tax agency as a censorship tool and use of public funds to attack political opponents.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

The election of the right wing politician and former businessman Mauricio Macri in November 2015 as President of Argentina was said to bring an end to the Kirchnerismo movement in the country;[17] nevertheless, Kirchnerismo's popularity remain strong generally, as well as Fernández de Kirchner herself.[17][18]

Early life and education[edit]

Cristina Fernández during her youth

Cristina Fernández was born on 19 February 1953, at Tolosa, a suburb of La Plata, capital of the Buenos Aires Province.[19] She was the daughter of Eduardo Fernández and Ofelia Esther Wilhelm. Eduardo Fernández, a bus driver, was anti-Peronist, and Wilhelm was a Peronist union leader. Wilhelm started as a single mother; Fernández married her and moved to the house when Cristina was two years old. Most details about her childhood, such as her elementary school, are unknown.[20] She attended high school at the schools "Popular Mercantil" and "Misericordia".[20]

She started her college studies at the University of La Plata. She studied psychology for a year, then dropped it and studied law instead. She met the fellow student Néstor Kirchner in 1973, who introduced her to political debates.

There were heated political controversies at the time, caused by the decline of the Argentine Revolution military government, the return of the former president Juan Perón from exile, the election of Héctor Cámpora as president of Argentina, and the early stages of the Dirty War. She became influenced by Peronism, left-wing politics and anti-imperialism.[20] Despite of the presence of sympathizers of the Montoneros guerrilla in La Plata, the Kirchners had never been Montoneros themselves.[20] Cristina and Néstor married on 9 May 1975, in a civil wedding. Wilhelm got them an administrative job at her union.[20] The 1976 Argentine coup d'état took place the following year. Cristina proposed to go to Río Gallegos, Néstor's home city, but he delayed the departure until his graduation, on 3 July.[20]

Cristina had not graduated yet when they moved to Río Gallegos, and was tested in free exams for the remaining subjects. There have been claims stating that she never graduated, and that she may have worked as a lawyer without having a degree. This idea was proposed by the constitutionalist Daniel Sabsay, and fueled by the reluctance of the UNLP to release her degree.[21] She registered at the "Tribunal Superior de Justicia" of Santa Cruz in 1980, the Comodoro Rivadavia's chamber of appeals in 1985 and worked as an attorney for the Justicialist Party in 1983. There are also logs of minor cases where she worked as a lawyer as well.[22] The case has been sent to trial four times, and the judges Norberto Oyarbide, Ariel Lijo, Sergio Torres and Claudio Bonadio all ruled that she has a degree.[23]

Néstor had established a law firm that Cristina joined in 1979.[24] The firm worked for banks and financial groups that filed eviction lawsuits, as the 1050 ruling of the Central Bank had increased the price of the mortgage loan's interests.[24] The Kirchners acquired twenty-one land lots at cheap prices, as they were about to be auctioned.[25] Although the forced disappearances were common during the Dirty War, Néstor and Cristina Kirchner never signed any Habeas corpus.[26] Their law firm took military involved in the Dirty War as clients.[27]

Political career[edit]

Cristina Kirchner was elected deputy for the provincial legislature of Santa Cruz in 1989. The Justicialist Party (PJ), led by Carlos Menem, returned to the presidency in the 1989 general elections. She served as interim governor of Santa Cruz for a couple of days, after the impeachment of Ricardo del Val in 1990.[28] She organized the successful political campaign of Néstor Kirchner, who was elected governor of Santa Cruz in 1991. She was elected in 1994 for the constituent assembly that amended the Constitution of Argentina.

She was elected national senator in the 1995 general elections. She opposed most bills proposed by Menem, such as a treaty with the Chilean president Patricio Aylwin that benefited Chile on a dispute at the Argentina–Chile border.[29] The minister of Defense Oscar Camilión was questioned in Congress about the Argentine arms trafficking scandal; Kirchner told him that he had to resign, which he refused.[30] As a result, she got a fame of troublemaker. She was removed from the PJ bloc in the Congress in 1997 for misconduct.[29] She resigned to her senatorial seat on that year, and ran for national deputy instead in the 1997 midterm elections. Menem ended his term of office in 1999, being replaced by Fernando de la Rúa. Kirchner took part in a commission to investigate money laundering with fellow legislator Elisa Carrió, and got in conflicts with her. She ran for senator again in the 2001 midterm elections.[29]

Néstor Kirchner was elected president in 2003, and so Cristina became the First Lady. Under those circumstances, she sought a lower profile in Congress.[29] Néstor Kirchner had a political dispute with the previous president, Eduardo Duhalde. Their dispute continued in the 2005 midterm elections. Without consensus in the PJ for a single candidate for senator of the Buenos Aires province, both leaders had their respective wives run for the office: Hilda González de Duhalde for the PJ, and Cristina Kirchner for the Front for Victory, which was kept by the Kirchners.[31] Cristina Kirchner won those elections.[32]

Presidential campaigns[edit]

2007 presidential campaign[edit]

Campaigning with her husband, then-President Néstor Kirchner (outgoing), and their respective running mates, Daniel Scioli and Julio Cobos.

With Fernández leading all the pre-election polls by a wide margin, her challengers focused on forcing her into a runoff. A candidate needs either more than 45% of the vote, or 40% of the vote and a lead of more than 10 percentage points over the runner-up, to win in a single round. However, with 13 challengers splitting the vote, Fernández won the election decisively in the first round with just over 45% of the vote, followed by 23% for Elisa Carrió (candidate for the Civic Coalition) and 17% for former Economy Minister Roberto Lavagna.[33] Kirchner was popular among the suburban working class and the rural poor, while Carrió and Lavagna both received more support from the urban middle class.[34] Kirchner lost the election in the large cities of Buenos Aires and Rosario.[34]

On 14 November the president-elect announced the names of her new cabinet, which was sworn in on 10 December. Of the twelve ministers appointed, seven had been ministers in Néstor Kirchner's government, while the other five took office for the first time. The selections anticipated the continuation of the policies implemented by Néstor Kirchner.[35]

She began a four-year term on 10 December 2007, facing challenges including inflation, poor public security, international credibility, a faulty energy infrastructure and protests from the agricultural sectors over an increase of nearly 30% on export taxes.[35] Kirchner was the second female president of Argentina, after Isabel Martínez de Perón but, unlike Perón, Kirchner was elected to the office, whereas Isabel Perón was elected as vice president of Juan Perón, and automatically assumed the presidency on his death.[34] The transition from Néstor Kirchner to Cristina Fernández de Kirchner was also the first time a democratic head of state was replaced by their spouse without the death of either. He remained highly influential during his wife's term,[36] supervising the economy and leading the PJ.[37] Their marriage has been compared with those of Juan and Eva Perón and Bill and Hillary Clinton.[38] Media observers suspected that Kirchner stepped down as president to circumvent the term limit, swapping roles with his wife.[38][37][39]

2011 presidential campaign[edit]

Kirchner on election night.

When Néstor Kirchner refused to run for re-election in 2007, and proposed Cristina Kirchner instead, it was rumored that the couple may attempt to run for the presidency in alternate periods, to skip the constitutional limit of a single re-election. The death of Néstor Kirchner in 2010 derailed such a plan.[40] She had a low positive image, below 30%.[40] On 21 June 2011, Cristina Kirchner announced she would run for a second term as president. A few days later, she announced that her economic minister Amado Boudou would run for vice-president on her ticket. This selection was an unexpected one, as Boudou usually acts like a rock star instead of a politician.[41] She personally chose most of the candidates for deputy in the Congress, favoring members of the Cámpora.

The elections took place on 23 October. She was re-elected by the 54% of the vote, followed by socialist Hermes Binner, 37 points behind her. The opposition was divided in several candidates, and the perceived economic prosperity prevailed among voter's concerns over corruption and cronysm.[40] It was the highest victory in national elections since 1983. The Peronist party also won eight of the nine governor elections held that day, increased their number of senators and got the majority of the chamber of deputies, including the number of legislators needed for quorum. The Kirchners had lost that majority in the 2009 elections. She invited kids to the stage during the celebrations, and vice president Amado Boudou played an electric guitar. As in 2007, she gave a conciliatory speech.[42]

Presidency (2007–2015)[edit]

Domestic policy[edit]

Economic policy[edit]

Cristina Fernández de Kirchner with the minister of economy Axel Kicillof.

When she first took office, Kirchner replaced the minister el economy Peirano, who had been serving with his husband, with the young Martín Lousteau. The attempt to increase of taxes to agricultural exports caused a conflict with the sector. As a result, the taxes were not increased, and Lousteau resigned. He was replaced by minister Carlos Rafael Fernández. As an alternative to the raise of taxes, and facing debts payments the following year, the government nationalized the private pension funds, known as "AFJP". The ammount of money involved in the operation was nearly 30 billions of dollars, and the debt obligations were nearly 24 billions of dollars.[43] The nationalization was justified by the president as government protectionism during the crisis, and compared with the bank bailouts in Europe and the United States. It was critizised as a threat to property rights and rule of law.[43] Fernández resigned after the Kirchnerite defeat in the 2009 elections, and was replaced by Amado Boudou, president of the ANSES that worked for that nationalization. Although inflation was nearing 25% and on the rise, Boudou did not consider it an important problem.[44] On January 2010 Cristina Kirchner created the bicentennial fund with a necessity and urgency decree, to pay debt obligations with foreign-exchange reserves. Martín Redrado, president of the Central Bank, refused to implement it, and was fired with another decree.[45] Judge María José Sarmiento anulled both decrees, on the grounds of the independence of the Central Bank. Redrado resigned one month later, and was replaced by Mercedes Marcó del Pont.[46]

Kirchner was reelected in 2011, with Boudou as vicepresident. Hernán Lorenzino became the new minister of economy. The government established currency controls, that limited the power to buy or sell foreign currencies, specially American dollars. Many Argentines kept their savings in dollars as a prevention against inflation; the government considered that the controls were required to prevent capital flight and tax evasion.[47] Axel Kicillof was appointed minister in 2013, and served for the remainder of Kirchner's term. He arranged the payment of the debt to the Paris Club, and the compensations requested by Repsol for the nationalization of YPF.[48] One month later, negotiations with hedge funds failed, and the American judge Thomas Griesa ordered that Argentina had to pay to all creditors and not just those who accepted a reduced payment with the Argentine debt restructuring.[49] Kicillof, however, refused that the country would have fallen into a sovereign default.[50]

Energy policy[edit]

President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner announces the bill to renationalize YPF.

Back in 2002, Eduardo Duhalde fixed the taxes for public services, such as electricity, gas and water supply. The prices stayed fixed during the terms of Duhalde, Néstor and Cristina Kirchner, despite of the end of the crisis that motivated them. As the inflation grew during the period, the state financed part of those taxes with subsidies. Investment in the area decreased, and the generation and distribution networks suffered as a result. Argentina lost the self-supply on energy, and had to import it, instead of export.[51]

Kirchner proposed a fiscal austerity program in early 2012, including the gradual removal of subsidies.[52] The proposal turned to be unpopular, and was not implemented. She opted instead to send a bill to the Congress for the renationalization of YPF, privatized in 1993, blaming the Spanish Repsol for the energy trade deficit. The bill was approved by the chamber of deputies by a 207-32 margin. It was critizised as an authoritarian move, as there was no negotiation with Repsol.[53] The Vaca Muerta unconventional oil field was also discovered by the time. However, YPF was unable to afford the costs of oil exploitation at the site, and the rights to exploit Vaca Muerta were given to the Chevron Corporation.[54] The costs of the energy imports increased the trade deficit and the inflation, and power outages became frequent. Those outages usually took place in the hottests days of the summer seasons, as the use of air conditioning increased the electricity consumption to peak levels.[55]

Conflict with the agricultural sector[edit]

Road blockade during the 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector in Villa María, Córdoba

In March 2008, Kirchner introduced a new sliding-scale taxation system for agricultural exports, so that it fluctuated with international prices. This would effectively raise levies on soybean exports from 35% to 44% at the time of the announcement. This new taxation scheme, proposed by minister Martín Lousteau, led to a nationwide lockout by farming associations, with the aim of forcing the government to back down on it. They were joined on 25 March by thousands of pot-banging demonstrators massed around the Buenos Aires Obelisk and the presidential palace. Those demonstrations were followed by others at other locations across the country, road bloackades and food shortages.[56]

The protest became highly polarizing. The government argued that the new taxes would allow for a better Redistribution of wealth, and to keep down the food prices. They also claimed that the farmers were staging a Coup d'état against Kirchner.[57] Farmers said instead that the high cost of taxes made cultivation unviable.[56] The activist Luis D'Elía interrupted one of the demonstrations with stick-wielding pro-government supporters, who attacked the demonstrators.[56] The minister Lousteau resigned during the crisis, and the Peronist governors opted to negotiate on their own with the farmers, ignoring the approach of Kirchner. Her public image plummeted to its lowest level.[58]

After four months of conflict, and having the majority of both houses of the Argentine Congress, the president sent a bill with the new taxes. However, many legislators gave priority to the local agendas of their provinces, and many of their economies depended heavily on agriculture. Many FPV legislators, such as Rubén Marín, opposed the bill. Marín argued that "For us, agriculture is the economy".[57] There were two demonstrations the day of the vote: one against the bill, attended by 235.000 people, and other in support of the bill, attended by 100.000 people.[57] Farmers had announced that they would continue with the demonstrations if the bill was approved without amends.[56] Senator Emilio Rached from Santiago del Estero casted the vote that set a 36-36 tie. In those cases, the vicepresident, who also serves as president of the Senate but without right to vote, is required to cast the tie-breaking vote. Julio Cobos voted against the bill, which was thus rejected, saying that "My vote is not in favor, my vote is against".[57] Despite of the cold relation between Cobos and Cristina since that event, he completed his term as vice president.

Other protests[edit]

In 2012 labor leader and Secretary General of the CGT Hugo Moyano organized a protest at Plaza de Mayo, with 30,000 people, requesting the abolition of capital gains tax.[59]

200,000 people took part in a cacerolazo against Kirchner.

Several other political scandals came to light in 2012, such as the liberation of sentenced prisoners for government-organized demonstrations,[60] political advocacy of The Cámpora at elementary and high schools,[61] and the creation of paramilitary units in Jujuy, led by Milagro Sala.[citation needed] More than 200,000 people in many cities of the country took part in a protest against Kirchner in September 2012;[62] the protest was followed by a protest of the gendarmeria and another of the CTA.[63] The largest demonstration was the 8N, which took place on 8 November.

Buenos Aires and La Plata suffered floods in April, with more than 70 deaths. Mayor Mauricio Macri pointed that the national government prevents the city from taking international loans, which did not allow for infrastructure improvements.[64] A week later, Kirchner announced an amendment of the Argentine judiciary. Three bills were controversial: the first proposes to limit the injunctions against the state, the second to include people selected in national elections at the body that appoints or accuses judges, and the third to create a new court that would limit the number of cases treated by the Supreme Court. The opposition considered that those bills attempt to control the judiciary.[65] The 2013 season of the investigative journalism program Periodismo para todos revealed an ongoing case of political corruption, named "The Route of the K-Money", which generated a huge political controversy.[66] Both things led to a huge cacerolazo on 18 April, known as the 18A.[67]

Corruption scandals[edit]

During the first days of Fernández's presidency, Argentina's relations with the United States deteriorated as a result of allegations made by an Assistant United States Attorney of illegal campaign contributions, in a case known as the maletinazo (suitcase scandal). According to these allegations, Venezuelan agents tried to pressure Venezuelan American citizen Guido Antonini Wilson to lie about the origin of US$790,550 in cash found in his suitcase on 4 August 2007 at a Buenos Aires airport. U.S. prosecutors allege the money was sent to help Kirchner's presidential campaign.[68] Fernández de Kirchner and Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez called the allegations "a trashing operation" and part of a conspiracy orchestrated by the US to divide Latin American nations. On 19 December 2007, she restricted the US ambassador's activities and limited his meetings to Foreign Ministry officials; a treatment reserved for hostile countries, in the opinion of a former US Assistant Secretary of State.[69][70] However, on 31 January in a special meeting with Kirchner, the US Ambassador to Argentina, Earl Anthony Wayne, clarified that the allegations "were never made by the United States government", saying that the prosecutors making the charges are part of the independent judicial branch of the US government, and the dispute cooled down.[71] Elisa Carrió and María Estenssoro, both high-ranking members of the main opposition parties, have claimed that the Argentine government's response to the allegations and its criticism of the US are a "smokescreen"; that the US involvement in the affair was merely symptomatic, and the root cause of the scandal is corruption in the Argentine and Venezuelan governments.[72]

Allegations of impropriety have contributed increasingly to the Kirchners' decline in approval. The couple's own, latest federal financial disclosure in July 2009 revealed an increase in their personal assets by seven times since Néstor Kirchner's 2003 inauguration. The increase was partly the product of land deals in El Calafate, a scenic, Santa Cruz Province town where the couple had long vacationed and owned property (including 450 acres (1.8 km2) of land and two hotels).[73]

Following charges of embezzlement filed by a local attorney, Enrique Piragini, on 29 October, Federal Judge Norberto Oyarbide ordered an accounting expert to investigate the origin of the Kirchners' wealth. Public records show that since their arrival to power in 2003, the declared assets of the Kirchners increased by 572%. A preliminary report on the investigation by the Argentine Anti Corruption Office (OA) established that the official figures provided by the Kirchners "don't stack up".[74] The investigation was suspended by Judge Oyarbide on 30 December, though a week later, Piragini appealed the ruling.[75]

The Vice President Amado Boudou got involved in a political scandal, suspected of favoring the Ciccone currency printing business.[76]

Fernández’s net worth increase has been subject to controversy.[77] She claims that her net worth has been influenced by her successful law firm.[78] Fernandez' net worth dropped in 2010 because 50 percent of Kirchner's assets were inherited by his sons after Néstor's death.

The firm Hotesur, which belongs to Cristina Kirchner, manages her hotels in El Calafate. The deputy Margarita Stolbizer pointed that it had not paid taxes in years, that there are no people at its legal address, and that it did not report its annual balances or its currect authorities to the IGJ as all such firms are expected to do. Those hotels are hired by the businessman Lázaro Báez, who makes public works, but the rooms stay empty most of the time.[79] Báez is, in turn, accused of money laundering in The Route of the K-Money scandal.[80] The IGJ had not requested Hotesur to fix its situation, and refuses since 2012 to provide information about it to the press.[81]

Human rights[edit]

On 17 October 2009 Fernández de Kirchner proposed the compulsory submission of DNA samples in cases related to the dirty war, in a move lauded by the Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo, but excoriated by opposition figures as a political move against Clarín Media Group Chairperson Ernestina Herrera de Noble, who is in litigation over the Noble siblings case and whose previous cordial relations with Kirchnerism had recently soured.[82]

Relationship with the media[edit]

Kirchner holding a Clarín newspaper

It is estimated that the Kirchner government controlled nearly 80% of the Argentine media, either directly or indirectly.[83] TV Pública Digital, the state-owned TV channel, was turned into a government-propaganda vehicle.[83] Soccer broadcasting was nationalized in the program Fútbol para todos, and then filled with pro-government advertisements.[84] On the other hand, the Clarín group publishes the Clarín newspaper, the largest selling one in the country, which is not aligned with them.[83]

The Kirchner government made a campaign against the Clarín group, which included over 450 legal and administrative acts of harassment, as reported by the Global Editors Network. One of those actions was a selective use of state advertising, to benefit the media aligned with the government.[83]

The government tries to enforce a controversial media law that would force Clarín to sell most of the assets and lose licences. The law was initially sanctioned as a competition law for the media, but critics point out that it is only used to further the campaign against Clarín.[83] The government had little interest to enforce measures of the law that were not related to Clarín.[85] Clarín launched a constitutional challenge on some articles of the law at the judiciary; and the government released an advertisement against Clarín, claiming that they refused to obey the law and that they may be subverting democracy.[86] The conflict even led to disputes with the judiciary, as the minister Julio Alak said that benefiting Clarín with an extended injunction during the trial would be an insurrection, and it was rumored that judges that did not rule as the government wanted may face impeachment.[85]

Cristina Kirchner claims that journalistic objectivity does not exist, and that all journalists act on behalf of certain interests.[86] She also justified the lack of press conferences, arguing that it is not important for her administration.[86]

Anthony Mills, deputy director of the International Press Institute, compared the harassment against the press in Argentina with the cases of Venezuela and Ecuador. He considered unfortunate that the president disparaged journalism, and pointed that the freedom of the press may be declining in Argentina.[86]

2009 midterm elections[edit]

Following the 28 June 2009, mid-term elections, the ruling FPV's party list lost its absolute majority in both houses of Congress, shedding a further 24 seats in the Lower House (including allies) and 4 in the Senate. They lost in the four most important electoral districts (home to 60% of Argentines), and among these, the loss was narrow only in the Province of Buenos Aires. The FPV obtained a very narrow victory, overall, as a percentage of the national vote, and retained their plurality in Congress which was reflected in strengthened opposition alliances, notably the center-right Unión Pro, the centrist Civic Coalition and the left-wing Proyecto Sur, when elected candidates in both chambers took office on 11 December 2009.[87]

Kirchner and Pope Francis

2013 midterm elections[edit]

The Front for Victory had plans for a new re-election of Cristina Kirchner in 2015, which would require an amendment to the constitution of Argentina. Cristina Kirchner never commented on those plans herself, which were always proposed by other politicians from her party. Although the Front for Victory had the majority in both houses of the Congress since 2011, it did not have the supermajority required for such an amendment. Sergio Massa, mayor of Tigre and a former chief of cabinet of Cristina Kirchner, was the main opposition figure. Argentina lacked a big opposition party since the collapse of the Radical Civic Union in 2001; Massa created instead an alternative party that also stood for Peronism.[88]

Foreign policy[edit]

Kirchner and German chancellor, Angela Merkel, in 2010

She said in a speech at the United Nations that the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant jihadist group may be trying to kill her, and later that there could be a conspiracy against her led by the US; Elisa Carrió dismissed such threats as mere conspiracy theories.[89] In her speech, she accused the "vulture funds" of destabilizing the economy of the countries and called them "economic terrorists".[90][91]

Latin America[edit]

Cristina Kirchner with Venezuelan president and personal friend, Hugo Chávez.

In March 2010, Fernández de Kirchner made a historic trip to Peru to make amends, a country with whom relations had been adversely affected following the Carlos Menem administration's illegal sale of weapons to Ecuador in the 1990s.[92][unreliable source?]

On 19 April, she was invited to the bicentenary of the independence celebrations in Venezuela, where she was the main speaker in front of the National Assembly.[93] She signed 25 trade agreements with Venezuela relating to food, technology and energy.[94]

On 30 September, she hosted the UNASUR presidents' emergency summit at Buenos Aires due to the Ecuador crisis. She then began an official visit to Germany the next day in order to participate as a Guest of Honor at the Frankfurt Book Fair and meet Chancellor Angela Merkel. In October she inaugurated the Three News Agencies World Congress held in Bariloche.[95]

United States[edit]

Kirchner and US President Barack Obama, 2011

Fernández received a visit of US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in Buenos Aires, where she received great support for the way her administration was managing its foreign debt[96] and emphasized the positive relationship between the two countries[97] something which was not reported by local major news media.[98]

She also had a major dispute with the United States after seizing an American military airplane, accusing the U.S. of smuggling in undeclared firearms, surveillance equipment, and morphine for ulterior motives.[99]

United Kingdom[edit]

On 22 February 2010 (2010-02-22),[100] British oil explorer Desire Petroleum started drilling exploration wells some 100 kilometres (60 mi) north of the disputed Falkland Islands, despite strong opposition from Argentina which took the issue to the Latin America and Caribbean presidents summit where it received unanimous support.[101] According to geological surveys carried out in 1998, there could be 60 billion barrels (9.5×10^9 m3) of oil in the area around the islands but the initial 2010 drilling produced poor results.[102] As a result, Desire's share price plummeted and the company announced further drilling could begin later in 2010.[103]

Middle East[edit]

Cristina Fernández with Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, in Jakarta, January 2013
Kirchner and Russian President Vladimir Putin in Argentina, July 2014

Her administration sought to increase bilateral relations with Angola and Iran. Since there is suspected Iranian involvement in the 1994 AMIA bombing, Kirchner's relations with the Argentine Jewish community deteriorated.[104] Fernández gave her United Nations General Assembly speech where she again criticized Britain over the Falklands issue, and Iran for the 1994 AMIA bombing while giving her support for an Israeli-Palestinian dialogue and an eventual Palestinian state.[105]

Argentina signed a memorandum of understanding with Iran in relation to the Amia bombing. According to it, the Iranian suspects will be interrogated in Iran, under Iranian law. Not all suspects would be interrogated, but only those with a "red alert" arrest order from Interpol. This accord was rejected by the opposition parties and the Jewish community, who deemed it unconstitutional.[106]

In 2004, Alberto Nisman was appointed as a special prosecutor in charge of the AMIA bombing investigation in which 85 people were killed. He produced an indictment for seven Iranian officials, including a former Iranian President and Hezbollah’s senior military commander. In 2013, Kirchner signed a deal establishing a "truth commission" permitting Argentine judges to travel to Tehran and interview the suspects. On 14 January 2015, Nisman accused the President of engaging in a criminal conspiracy to bury the AMIA case. On 18 January 2015 Nisman died. Initially, Kirchner declared his death a suicide, but reversed herself days later, saying that Nisman had been murdered in a conspiracy to frame her. The circumstances surrounding Nisman's death and Kirchner's comments have generated controversy among Argentinians.[107][108][109][110]


Cristina Kirchner and Chinese president Xi Jinping, in Buenos Aires, 2014

In July 2010, she traveled to the People's Republic of China with the goal of strengthening the strategic partnership between the two countries.[111] In 2015, during a trip to China, she tweeted a message replacing the letter "r" with the letter "l" so as to write in Spanish, "lice and petloleum", instead of "rice and petroleum", seemingly mocking the accent of the Chinese hosts. Another message was released shortly afterwards apologising for the initial message.[112][113]


On 14 November 2007, the president-elect publicly announced the names of her new cabinet, which was sworn in on 10 December. Of the 12 ministers appointed, seven were already ministers in Néstor Kirchner's government, while the other five took office for the first time.[35] Three other ministries were created afterwards.[114]

 The Presidential Standard of Argentina
Chief of Cabinet and Ministers
of Cristina Kirchner's Government
Office Name Term
Chief of the
Cabinet of Ministers
Alberto Fernández
Sergio Massa
Aníbal Fernández
Juan M. Abal Medina, Jr
Jorge Capitanich
Aníbal Fernández
10 Dec 2007 – 23 Jul 2008
24 Jul 2008 – 7 Jul 2009
8 Jul 2009 – 10 Dec 2011
10 Dec 2011 – 20 Nov 2013
20 Nov 2013 – 26 Feb 2015
26 Feb 2015 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Interior and Transport Florencio Randazzo 10 Dec 2007 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
International Trade and Worship
Jorge Taiana
Héctor Timerman
10 Dec 2007 – 18 Jun 2010
18 Jun 2010 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Defense Nilda Garré
Arturo Puricelli
Agustín Rossi
10 Dec 2007 – 15 Dec 2010
15 Dec 2010 – 3 Jun 2013
3 Jun 2013 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Economy Martín Lousteau
Carlos Fernández
Amado Boudou
Hernán Lorenzino
Axel Kicillof
10 Dec 2007 – 24 Apr 2008
25 Apr 2008 – 7 Jul 2009
8 Jul 2009 – 10 Dec 2011
10 Dec 2011 – 20 Nov 2013
20 Nov 2013 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Federal Planning,
Public Investment and Services
Julio de Vido 10 Dec 2007 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Justice,
and Human Rights
Aníbal Fernández
Julio Alak
10 Dec 2007 – 7 Jul 2009
8 Jul 2009 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Security Nilda Garré
Arturo Puricelli
María Cecilia Rodríguez
15 Dec 2010 – 3 Jun 2013
3 Jun 2013 – 4 Dec 2013
4 Dec 2013 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Work,
Labour and Social Security
Carlos Tomada 10 Dec 2007 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Health and Environment Graciela Ocaña
Juan Luis Manzur
Daniel Gollán
10 Dec 2007 – 30 Jun 2009
1 Jul 2009 – 26 Feb 2015
26 Feb 2015 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Social Development Alicia Kirchner de Mercado 10 Dec 2007 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Education Juan Carlos Tedesco
Alberto Sileoni
10 Dec 2007 – 20 Jul 2009
20 Jul 2009 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Science,
Technology and Productive Innovation
Lino Barañao 10 Dec 2007 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Industry Débora Giorgi 26 Nov 2008 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Agriculture Julián Domínguez
Norberto Yahuar
Carlos Casamiquela
1 Oct 2009 – 10 Dec 2011
10 Dec 2011 – 20 Nov 2013
20 Nov 2013 – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Tourism Carlos Enrique Meyer 28 Jun 2010[115] – 10 Dec 2015
Ministry of Culture Teresa Parodi 7 May 2014 – 10 Dec 2015


Cristina Kirchner intended to remain an influential figure over Argentine politics after her presidency, to eventually return in the 2019 elections. Her son Máximo Kirchner, leader of La Cámpora, said that "we may hand the government, but not the power". She counted with wealthy businessmen such as Lázaro Báez, ten thousand of members of La Cámpora working at the ministries, legislators that would reject all bills that Cambiemos may send to the Congress, and control of the Santa Cruz Province. However, her leadership is resisted in the Justicialist Party, who blame her for the defeat in the 2015 elections, and consider that her intransigence may be a liability for the party.[116] As a result, a group of legislators broke away from the Front for Victory bloc and started a non-kirchnerite bloc in the Congress.[117] Without a steady supply of money from the government, Báez soon neared bankruptcy. Macri fired a huge number of state employees that did not do actual jobs, and Santa Cruz got in an economic crisis.[118]

Cristina made her first public appearance after leaving the presidency in April 2016, when judge Claudio Bonadio summoned her to testify in a judicial case. In a political rally organised outside of the courthouse, she claimed that the case was a politically motivated conspiracy.[119]

On June 2016, the Buenos Aires Federal Court ordered the federal judge Sebastian Casanello to further investigate the alleged links between the arrested Lazaro Baez and former Presidents Néstor and Cristina Kirchner. He also confirmed the preventive prison detention for Báez for money laundering allegations.[120]

Public image[edit]

The magazine Forbes ranked her as thirteenth in the list of the 100 most powerful women in the world in 2008, at the start of her presidency.[121] By 2014, she was listed at 19th.[122]

Following the death of her husband Néstor Kirchner, she dressed in black for over three years.[123]

Personal life[edit]

In 1973, during her studies at the National University of La Plata, she met her future spouse, Néstor Kirchner. They were married on 9 May 1975, and had two children: Máximo (1977) and Florencia (1990).[20] Néstor Kirchner died on 27 October 2010 after suffering a heart attack.[124]


On 27 December 2011, presidential spokesman Alfredo Scoccimarro announced that Fernández had been diagnosed with thyroid cancer on 22 December and that she would undergo surgery on 4 January 2012. However, it was later released that she had been misdiagnosed and did not have cancer.[125] On 5 October 2013, doctors ordered Fernández to rest for a month after they found blood on her brain, due to a head injury she received on 8 August 2012.[126] Fernández was re-admitted to hospital and had successful surgery on 8 October 2013 to remove blood from under a membrane covering her brain.[127]

Increasingly long periods without public appearances have led to media speculation regarding her health.[128]

In December 2014 she was hospitalized after she broke her ankle.[129]



Foreign honours[edit]



  1. ^ She is variously known as Cristina Fernández,[4][5] Cristina K,[6] or Cristina.[5]



  1. ^
  2. ^ Thornhill, Ted (28 January 2014). "Castro holds court in Cuba as Argentina's Cristina Kirchner stops by for a friendly pre-summit chat as pictures scotch rumours they are both ill". Daily Mail. Mail Online. Archived from the original on 2014-06-28. 
  3. ^ "CFK back at Olivos presidential residency after CELAC summit". Buenos Aires Herald. 29 January 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. 
  4. ^ a b "CFK to Harvard students: there is no 'dollar clamp'; don't repeat monochord questions". MercoPress. 28 September 2012. 
  5. ^ a b "Profile: Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner". BBC News. 8 October 2013. 
  6. ^ "Aerolineas takeover shadows Cristina K visit to Spain". MercoPress. 9 February 2009. Archived from the original on 2014-06-28. 
  7. ^ "El título de CFK: doctor Sabsay, ¿ahora le pedirá disculpas a la Presidenta?". 6 November 2014. 
  8. ^ ""Confirman que Cristina "egresó con título de abogada""". 1 October 2011. 
  9. ^ "Latin America's crony capitalism. (Alvaro Vargas Llosa)(Interview)". Reason  – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). 28 January 2013. 
  10. ^ Roberts, James M. (22 April 2010). "Cronyism and Corruption are Killing Economic Freedom in Argentina". Heritage Foundation. HighBeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  11. ^ Barbieri, Pierpaolo (8 August 2012). "Pierpaolo Barbieri: A Lesson in Crony Capitalism". WSJ. (subscription required (help)). 
  12. ^ "Don't lie to me, Argentina". The Economist. 25 February 2012. Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. 
  13. ^ "The price of cooking the books". The Economist. 25 February 2012. Archived from the original on 29 March 2013. 
  14. ^ "Knock, knock". The Economist. 21 June 2012. Archived from the original on 29 March 2013. 
  15. ^ "El Gobierno usó a Fútbol para Todos para atacar a Macri". Clarín. 11 August 2012. 
  16. ^ "El Gobierno difundió un aviso polémico aviso sobre el subte". La Nación. 11 August 2012. 
  17. ^ a b Noel, Andrea (29 December 2015). "The Year the 'Pink Tide' Turned: Latin America in 2015 | VICE News". VICE News. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  18. ^ Argentina's Ex-President Wants Everyone to Know She's Not Scared of Corruption Probes - VICE News, 14 April 2016
  19. ^ Uki Goñi (21 February 2015). "Cristina Fernández de Kirchner: is the fairytale ending for Argentina's new Evita?". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Carlos Pagni (9 December 2015). "Cristina, la presidenta" [Cristina, the president] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  21. ^ "Cristina Fernandez challenged to show her law degree and Timerman described as a 'traitor'". Merco Press. 25 October 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2016. 
  22. ^ Laura Di Marco (2 November 2014). "Cristina no es abogada: la noticia deseada de los anti-K" [Cristina is not a lawyer: the desired news of the anti-K] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
  23. ^ Hernán Cappiello (7 June 2016). "Bonadio sobreseyó a Cristina Kirchner por su título de abogada" [Bonadio aquited Cristina Kirchner over her lawyer degree] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  24. ^ a b Mariela Arias (28 September 2012). "Cómo fueron los "exitosos años" de Cristina Kirchner como abogada en Santa Cruz" [How were the "successful years" of Cristina Kirchner in Santa Cruz] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  25. ^ Majul, p. 22
  26. ^ ""Los Kirchner no firmaron nunca un hábeas corpus"" ["The Kirchner never signed any habeas corpus"] (in Spanish). La Nación. 13 December 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  27. ^ Majul, p. 20
  28. ^ Lucía Salinas. "La historia de los días en que la Presidenta fue gobernadora" [The history of the days when the president was governor] (in Spanish). Clarín. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  29. ^ a b c d Maia Jastreblansky (5 September 2011). "Cristina legisladora: 10 recuerdos de una opositora mediática y rebelde" [Cristina, legislator: 10 scenes of a noteworthy and rebellious opposition] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved 16 August 2016. 
  30. ^ Carlos M. Reymundo Roberts (9 May 1996). "Impidió el Gobierno la interpelación a Camilión" [The government prevented the interpellation of Camilion] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  31. ^ "Fracasó la negociación entre Kirchner y Duhalde" [The negotiations between Kirchner and Duhalde failed] (in Spanish). La Nación. 1 July 2005. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  32. ^ Ramón Indart (25 December 2009). "El PJ bonaerense se resquebraja por la pelea Duhalde – Kirchner" [The PJ in Buenos Aires gets fragmented by the Duhalde – Kirchner conflict] (in Spanish). Perfil. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  33. ^ Attewill, Fred (29 October 2007). "Argentina elects first woman president". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  34. ^ a b c Goni, Uki (29 October 2007). "A Mixed Message in Argentina's Vote". Time. Buenos Aires. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  35. ^ a b c "New Argentine cabinet targeted to face pending agenda". Merco Press. 24 November 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  36. ^ Daniel Schweimler (18 June 2008). "Argentina's farm row turns to crisis". BBC. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  37. ^ a b Alexei Barrionuevo (27 October 2010). "Argentine Ex-Leader Dies; Political Impact Is Murky". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  38. ^ a b Kevin Gray (7 December 2007). "Argentina's Kirchner to become "first gentleman"". Reuters. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  39. ^ "Argentina ex-leader Kirchner to be buried". BBC. 29 October 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  40. ^ a b c Barrionuevo, Alexei (23 October 2011). "Kirchner Achieves an Easy Victory in Argentina Presidential Election". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  41. ^ Goñi, Uki (28 August 2011). "Amado Boudou set to be Argentina's first rock'n'roll vice-president". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  42. ^ "A one-woman show". The Economist. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  43. ^ a b Alexei Barrionuevo (21 October 2008). "Argentina Nationalizes $30 Billion in Private Pensions". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 September 2016. 
  44. ^ Uki Goni (28 August 2011). "Amado Boudou set to be Argentina's first rock'n'roll vice-president". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  45. ^ Matt Moffett (8 January 2010). "Kirchner Fires Central Banker, Steering Into Crisis". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  46. ^ Alexei Barrionuevo (3 February 2010). "Argentine Bank President Is Formally Dismissed". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  47. ^ "Argentina tightens dollar exchange controls". BBC. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  48. ^ Ken Parks (29 May 2014). "Argentina Agrees to Pay $9.7 Billion to Paris Club". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  49. ^ Angela Monaghan (31 July 2014). "Argentina's government blames 'conspiracy' for defaulting on debt". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  50. ^ "Saying Argentina has defaulted is "an atomic nonsense" underlines Kicillof". Merco Press. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  51. ^ Jude Webber (14 July 2011). "Argentina restricts foreign trade". Financial Times. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  52. ^ Matt Moffett (6 January 2012). "Era of Argentine Subsidies Ending". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  53. ^ Hugh Bronstein (4 May 2012). "Argentina nationalizes oil company YPF". Reuters. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  54. ^ Taos Turner (16 July 2013). "Chevron, YPF Sign $1.5 Billion Shale-Oil Deal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  55. ^ "Blackouts continue in Argentina while government keeps threatening power distributors". Merco Press. 27 December 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  56. ^ a b c d Andrew Willis (July 1, 2008). "Argentine farmers take tax battle to parliament". The Irish Times. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  57. ^ a b c d Alexei Barrionuevo (July 18, 2008). "Argentina Blocks Farm Export Tax". The New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  58. ^ Oliver Balch (May 25, 2008). "Argentina turns against new president as strike worsens". The Guardian. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  59. ^ "Moyano llenó la Plaza contra la "soberbia abrumadora" de CFK" [Moyano filled the plaza against the "overwhelming arrogance" of CFK]. Perfil (in Spanish). 27 June 2012. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. 
  60. ^ "Argentina: hacen salir presos para asistir a actos kirchneristas" [Argentina: Prisoners are let out of prison to assist in Kirchnerist events] (in Spanish). La Red 21. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  61. ^ "Otra cuña fascista, ahora en los colegios" [Another fascist action, now in the schools]. La Nación (in Spanish). 21 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  62. ^ "Multitudinario cacerolazo en la Capital y ciudades del Interior del país" [Multitudinous pot-banging protest in Capital and other cities of the country]. La Nación (in Spanish). 13 September 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  63. ^ Bullrich, Lucrecia (11 October 2012). "Tras marchar con el moyanismo Micheli anunció un paro general" [After protesting with Moyano, Micheli announced a general strike]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  64. ^ Gilbert, Jonathan (3 April 2013). "Dozens of Argentines Die in Flash Flooding". New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2013. 
  65. ^ Mary Anastasia O'Grady (28 April 2013). "Kirchner Targets Argentina's Judiciary". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  66. ^ "Allegations of a network of corruption money involves former president Kirchner". Merco Press. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  67. ^ Taos Turner; Ken Parks (18 April 2013). "Thousands March in Argentina to Protest Kirchner's Judicial Plan". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  68. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei (18 December 2007). "Indictments Stir Plot in the Case of the Cash-Filled Bag". New York Times. 
  69. ^ "Argentina Protests Charges, Restricts US Ambassador". Bloomberg L.P. 19 December 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2007. 
  70. ^ "Argentina, Venezuela and America. Slush and garbage". The Economist. 3 January 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2008. 
  71. ^ "Declaración del Eembajador de EE.UU., Earl Anthony Wayne, luego de reunirse con la Presidenta Cristina Fernández de Kirchner" (in Spanish). US Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Retrieved 1 April 2008. 
  72. ^ "Troubles for Argentina's New Evita". TIME. 20 December 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 
  73. ^ "''El Mundo''". El Mundo. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  74. ^ "Avanza la causa por la fortuna de los Kirchner". La Nación. 9 November 2009. 
  75. ^ "Intentan reabrir la investigación". Clarín (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  76. ^ Alconada Mon, Hugo (20 May 2012). "Negocios y viejas amistades, en la trama del caso contra Boudou". La Nación. 
  77. ^ "La evolución patrimonial de los ministros kirchneristas". La Nación. 11 December 2012. 
  78. ^ "A Public Address by Her Excellency Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, President of Argentina". Hardvard. 28 September 2012. 
  79. ^ Wiñazki, Nicolás (10 November 2014). "Hotesur, la empresa de Cristina que no presenta balances y debe impuestos" [Hotesur, Cristina's firm which does not show balances and has unpaid taxes]. Clarín (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 November 2014. 
  80. ^ Arias, Mariela (7 February 2010). "En el hotel de Kirchner todo lleva a Lázaro Báez". La Nación. 
  81. ^ Hugo Alconada Mon (10 November 2014). "El Gobierno protegió a Hotesur, una sociedad anónima de los Kirchner" [The government protected Hotesur, a firm of the Kirchner]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 November 2014. 
  82. ^ "''El País''". (in Spanish). 19 October 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  83. ^ a b c d e Greenslade, Roy (10 October 2012). "Global editors group raises alarm over Argentina press freedom threat". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  84. ^ Mary Anastasia O'Grady (13 October 2013). "Kirchner Moves Against Argentina's Free Press". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 1 September 2014.  (subscription required)
  85. ^ a b Politi, Daniel (14 December 2012). "Kirchner Stumbles Again". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  86. ^ a b c d Griffen, Scott (27 September 2012). "IPI condemns Argentine government's attacks on Grupo Clarín". International Press Institute. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  87. ^ "Infografía". 28 June 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  88. ^ Parks, Ben (29 June 2013). "Argentine President Stumps for Congressional Candidates". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  89. ^ Goñi, Uki (1 October 2014). "Argentina president claims US plotting to oust her". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  90. ^ Staff writers. "Leaders from Latin America, Caribbean region urge action to erase inequality, spur development". UN news center. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  91. ^ "Cristina characterized the vulture funds as "terrorists" and accused them of destabilization". Fact Check: Argentina. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  92. ^ "Cristina decorated in Peru". YouTube. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  93. ^ "Venezuela commemorates bicentenary of the independence struggle with patriotic event". 19 April 1961. Archived from the original on 25 April 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  94. ^ "Poder 360°: Venezuela and Argentina Deepen Trade Relations". 20 April 2010. Archived from the original on 8 August 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  95. ^ "III News Agencies World Congress inauguration". YouTube. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  96. ^ "Argentina's debt-to-GDP ratio is a lower percentage now than the United States debt-to-GDP ratio. So whatever Argentina is doing, it's working". 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  97. ^ "Where we agree is so much greater than where we disagree". 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  98. ^ "Carlos Escude about Cristina's Foreign Policy". YouTube. 16 April 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  99. ^ Turner, Taos (15 February 2011). "Argentina Holds Confiscated U.S. Air Force Cargo -". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  100. ^ Jaffrey, Sharon (2010-02-26). "Falkland Islands: Desire chief says it's boom or bust as drilling begins". MercoPress. Archived from the original on 2014-06-30. 
  101. ^ "Summit backs Argentine claim to Falkland Islands". BBC News. 2010-02-24. Archived from the original on 2014-06-30. 
  102. ^ "Oil exploration off Falklands turns up poor quality crude". Sify News. IANS. 2010-03-30. Archived from the original on 2014-04-08. 
  103. ^ "Fuel card news: Falklands set for further oil drilling". Archived from the original on 26 April 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  104. ^ Rosemberg, Jaime (30 October 2012). "La comunidad judía redefine su vínculo con el Gobierno por la apertura con Teherán" [The Jewish community redefines its link with the government after the opening of relations with Teheran]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  105. ^ "Statement Summary.H.E. Ms. Cristina Fernández, President". 25 September 2012. 
  106. ^ "Jewish organization pledges to take Argentina/Iran accord to the Supreme Court". Merco Press. 28 February 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2013. 
  107. ^ "Death of a Prosecutor". New Yorker. 20 July 2015. 
  108. ^ "Alberto Nisman, Argentine Prosecutor, Was Killed, His Ex-Wife Says". The New York Times. 5 March 2015. 
  109. ^ "Puzzling Death of a Prosecutor Grips Argentina". The New York Times. 19 January 2015. 
  110. ^ "How Argentina 'Suicides' the Truth". The New York Times. 10 February 2015. 
  111. ^ "Cristina llegó a China para cerrar varios acuerdos comerciales". Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  112. ^ Argentina’s President Mocks Chinese Accents During Visit to China from The New York Times, 4 February 2015, Retrieved 23 July 2015
  113. ^ Argentina president posts tweet mocking Chinese accent from CNN, 4 February 2015, Retrieved 23 July 2015
  114. ^ "Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments". Central Intelligence Agency. 
  115. ^ "Argentina upgrades Tourism to Ministry given its growing economic contribution". MercoPress. 2 July 2010. Archived from the original on 7 May 2014. 
  116. ^ Joaquín Morales Solá (7 February 2016). "El rápido derrumbe del cristinismo" [The swift fall down of Kirchnerism] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
  117. ^ Sued, Gabriel (3 February 2016). "Doce diputados abandonaron el bloque del FPV" [Twelve deputees left the FPV bloc] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
  118. ^ Jorge Fernández Díaz (7 February 2016). "La soberbia de Cristina y el país real de Macri" [The arrogance of Cristina and the real country of Macri] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
  119. ^ Uki Goñi (13 April 2016). "Former Argentina president defiant after court appearance in fraud case". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  120. ^ "La Cámara Federal confirmó el procesamiento de Lázaro Báez y ordenó investigar a Cristina Kirchner" [The Federal Court confirmed the prosecution of Lazaro Baez and ordered an investigation of Cristina Kirchner] (in Spanish). La Nación. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016. 
  121. ^ "Cristina figura entre las más poderosas". Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  122. ^ "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. 
  123. ^ "Definitivo: el paso a paso de cómo Cristina abandonó el luto" [Definitive: the step by step of how did Cristina left her widowness] (in Spanish). Todo Noticias. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2014. 
  124. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei (27 October 2010). "Argentine Ex-Leader Dies; Political Impact Is Murky". The New York Times. São Paulo. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  125. ^ Bronstein, Hugh; Rizzi, Maximiliano (7 January 2012). "Argentina's Fernandez sent home, never had cancer". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  126. ^ Warren, Michael (5 October 2013). "Blood on brain, rest ordered for Argentine leader". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2014-06-28. 
  127. ^ "Cristina Fernández de Kirchner to have surgery following head injury". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 
  128. ^ Jose Manuel Rodriguez; Catherine E. Shoichet (16 January 2014). "Argentina's president Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner goes off the grid". CNN. 
  129. ^ "Argentine President in hospital". Gulf Times. 
  130. ^ a b c El origen gallego de C.F.K. The Galician origin of C.F.K.
  131. ^ Cristina Kirchner dijo sentir envidia de la Furia Roja "España no es un país cualquiera: tres de mis cuatro abuelos son españoles y para todos los argentinos hay un lazo especial". Three of my grandparents are Spanish
  132. ^ "Ofelia Wilhelm, la madre de Cristina, de empleada estatal a jubilada VIP". 
  133. ^
  134. ^

External links[edit]

Honorary titles
Preceded by
Hilda de Duhalde
First Lady of Argentina
Succeeded by
Néstor Kirchner
as First Gentleman of Argentina
Political offices
Preceded by
Néstor Kirchner
President of Argentina
Succeeded by
Mauricio Macri