Criterion validity

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In psychometrics, criterion validity, or criterion-related validity, is the extent to which an operationalization of a construct, such as a test, relates to, or predicts, a theoretical representation of the construct—the criterion.[1][2] Criterion validity is often divided into concurrent and predictive validity based on the timing of measurement for the "predictor" and outcome.[2]:page 282 Concurrent validity refers to a comparison between the measure in question and an outcome assessed at the same time. In Standards for Educational & Psychological Tests, it states, "concurrent validity reflects only the status quo at a particular time."[3] Predictive validity, on the other hand, compares the measure in question with an outcome assessed at a later time. Although concurrent and predictive validity are similar, it is cautioned to keep the terms and findings separated. "Concurrent validity should not be used as a substitute for predictive validity without an appropriate supporting rationale."[3] Criterion validity is typically assessed by comparison with a gold standard test.[4]

An example of concurrent validity is a comparison of the scores of the CLEP College Algebra exam with course grades in college algebra to determine the degree to which scores on the CLEP are related to performance in a college algebra class.[5] An example of predictive validity is IQ tests, it was originally developed predict future school performance. Another example is a comparison of scores on the SAT with first semester grade point average (GPA) in college; this assesses the degree to which SAT scores are predictive of college performance.[5]

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  1. ^ Trochim, William M.K. "Measurement Validity Types". Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  2. ^ a b Cronbach, Lee J.; Meehl, Paul E. (July 1955). "Construct validity in psychological tests". Psychological Bulletin. 52 (4): 281–302. doi:10.1037/h0040957. hdl:11299/184279.
  3. ^ a b American Psychological Association, Inc. (1974). "Standards for educational & psychological tests" Washington D. C.: Author.
  4. ^ Jones, J.Mary (March 2004). "Validity of nutritional screening and assessment tools". Nutrition. 20 (3): 312–317. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2003.11.005. PMID 14990274.
  5. ^ a b "Validity Evidence – Research – The College Board". Archived from the original on 2015-09-28. Retrieved 2015-09-27.

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