Criticism of Facebook
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Part of a series on|
Criticism of Facebook relates to how Facebook's market dominance have led to international media coverage and significant reporting of its shortcomings. Notable issues include Internet privacy, such as its use of a widespread "like" button on third-party websites tracking users, possible indefinite records of user information, automatic facial recognition software, and its role in the workplace, including employer-employee account disclosure.
The use of Facebook can have psychological effects, including feelings of jealousy and stress, a lack of attention, and social media addiction, in some cases comparable to drug addiction.
Facebook's company tactics have also received prominent coverage, including electricity usage, tax avoidance, real-name user requirement policies, censorship, and its involvement in the United States PRISM surveillance program.
Due to allowing users to publish material by themselves, Facebook has come under scrutiny for the amount of freedom it gives users, including copyright and intellectual property infringement, hate speech, incitement of rape and terrorism, fake news, Facebook murder, crimes and violent incidents live-streamed through its Facebook Live functionality.
The company has also been subject to multiple litigation cases over the years, with its most prominent case concerning allegations that CEO Mark Zuckerberg broke an oral contract with Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra to build the then-named "HarvardConnection" social network in 2004, instead allegedly opting to steal the idea and code to launch Facebook months before HarvardConnection began. The original lawsuit was eventually settled in 2009, with Facebook paying approximately $20 million in cash and 1.25 million shares. A new lawsuit in 2011 was dismissed.
- 1 Privacy issues
- 1.1 Wrongful account suspensions and coercion of private identification out of its users
- 1.2 Widening exposure of member information 2011–12
- 1.3 Issues during 2007
- 1.4 News Feed and Mini-Feed
- 1.5 Cooperation with government search requests
- 1.6 Complaint from CIPPIC
- 1.7 Data mining
- 1.8 Inability to voluntarily terminate accounts
- 1.9 Memorials
- 1.10 Customization and security
- 1.11 Quit Facebook Day
- 1.12 Photo recognition and face tagging
- 1.13 Investigation by the Irish Data Protection Commissioner 2011/2012
- 1.14 Tracking of non-members of Facebook
- 1.15 Divorce
- 1.16 Stalking
- 1.17 Performative surveillance
- 1.18 Application privacy breach
- 1.19 Employer-employee privacy issues
- 1.20 Users violating minimum age requirements
- 1.21 Student-related issues
- 2 Psychological effects
- 3 Aggressive tax avoidance
- 4 Misleading campaigns
- 5 Content
- 5.1 Intellectual property infringement
- 5.2 Violent content
- 5.3 Pro-anorexia groups
- 5.4 Pro-mafia groups' case
- 5.5 Trolling
- 5.6 Rape pages
- 5.7 Child abuse images
- 5.8 Objectification of women
- 5.9 Anti-Semitism
- 5.10 Incitement of terrorism
- 5.11 Fake news
- 6 Technical
- 7 Censorship
- 7.1 Censorship on the Kashmir Freedom Movement
- 7.2 Kurdish opposition censorship
- 7.3 Search function
- 7.4 Censorship of editorial content
- 7.5 Accusation of politically biased granting of group upgrades
- 7.6 Censorship of the word "moskal"
- 7.7 Image censorship
- 7.8 Breastfeeding photos
- 7.9 Censorship of 'blasphemous' content
- 7.10 Censorship of 'hate speech'
- 7.11 Censorship of conservative news
- 8 Third-party responses to Facebook
- 9 Litigation
- 11 Interoperability and data portability
- 12 Better Business Bureau review
- 13 Security
- 14 Environmental impacts
- 15 Advertising
- 16 Fake accounts
- 17 User interface
- 18 Net neutrality
- 19 See also
- 20 References
- 21 Further reading
Wrongful account suspensions and coercion of private identification out of its users
In 2015, it was reported that a growing number of Facebook users are being wrongfully and inexplicably being suspended from their accounts by Facebook to give up copies of their private identification information, such as copies of their driver's license, state-issued ID cards, passports, military cards, etc, with users being permanently locked out of their accounts if this information isn't given up. This has created great displeasure for users who practice discretion with such information. Facebook does not require the release of such information when individuals sign up for the site. Although facebook is defending it as account security, because such information can seriously harm individuals, this method has been widely described by users as a presumptuous, dictatorial move and an offensive invasion of privacy by Facebook. Other popular websites have only asked for verification of identities through an e-mail confirmation link, or in some cases, a cellular phone text message confirmation. 
Widening exposure of member information 2011–12
In 2010, the Electronic Frontier Foundation identified two personal information aggregation techniques called "connections" and "instant personalization". They demonstrated that anyone could get access to information saved to a Facebook profile, even if the information was not intended to be made public. A "connection" is created when a user clicks a "Like" button for a product or service, either on Facebook itself or an external site. Facebook treats such relationships as public information, and the user's identity may be displayed on the Facebook page of the product or service.
Instant Personalization was a pilot program which shared Facebook account information with affiliated sites, such as sharing a user's list of "liked" bands with a music website, so that when the user visits the site, their preferred music plays automatically. The EFF noted that "For users that have not opted out, Instant Personalization is instant data leakage. As soon as you visit the sites in the pilot program (Yelp, Pandora, and Microsoft Docs) the sites can access your name, your picture, your gender, your current location, your list of friends, all the Pages you have Liked—everything Facebook classifies as public information. Even if you opt out of Instant Personalization, there's still data leakage if your friends use Instant Personalization websites—their activities can give away information about you, unless you block those applications individually."
On December 27, 2012, CBS News reported that Randi Zuckerberg, sister of Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, criticized a friend for being "way uncool" in sharing a private Facebook photo of her on Twitter, only to be told that the image had appeared on a friend-of-a-friend's Facebook news feed. Commenting on this misunderstanding of Facebook's privacy settings, Eva Galperin of the EFF said "Even Randi Zuckerberg can get it wrong. That's an illustration of how confusing they can be."
Issues during 2007
In August 2007, the code used to generate Facebook's home and search page as visitors browse the site was accidentally made public. A configuration problem on a Facebook server caused the PHP code to be displayed instead of the web page the code should have created, raising concerns about how secure private data on the site was. A visitor to the site copied, published and later removed the code from his web forum, claiming he had been served and threatened with legal notice by Facebook. Facebook's response was quoted by the site that broke the story:
|“||A small fraction of the code that displays Facebook web pages was exposed to a small number of users due to a single misconfigured web server that was fixed immediately. It was not a security breach and did not compromise user data in any way. Because the code that was released powers only Facebook user interface, it offers no useful insight into the inner workings of Facebook. The reprinting of this code violates several laws and we ask that people not distribute it further.||”|
In November, Facebook launched Beacon, a system (discontinued in September 2009) where third-party websites could include a script by Facebook on their sites, and use it to send information about the actions of Facebook users on their site to Facebook, prompting serious privacy concerns. Information such as purchases made and games played were published in the user's news feed. An informative notice about this action appeared on the third party site and gave the user the opportunity to cancel it, and the user could also cancel it on Facebook. Originally if no action was taken, the information was automatically published. On November 29 this was changed to require confirmation from the user before publishing each story gathered by Beacon.
On December 1, Facebook's credibility in regard to the Beacon program was further tested when it was reported that the New York Times "essentially accuses" Mark Zuckerberg of lying to the paper and leaving Coca-Cola, which is reversing course on the program, a similar impression. A security engineer at CA, Inc. also claimed in a November 29, 2007 blog post that Facebook collected data from affiliate sites even when the consumer opted out and even when not logged into the Facebook site. On November 30, 2007, the CA security blog posted a Facebook clarification statement addressing the use of data collected in the Beacon program:
|“||When a Facebook user takes a Beacon-enabled action on a participating site, information is sent to Facebook in order for Facebook to operate Beacon technologically. If a Facebook user clicks 'No, thanks' on the partner site notification, Facebook does not use the data and deletes it from its servers. Separately, before Facebook can determine whether the user is logged in, some data may be transferred from the participating site to Facebook. In those cases, Facebook does not associate the information with any individual user account, and deletes the data as well.||”|
The Beacon service ended in September 2009 along with the settlement of a class-action lawsuit against Facebook resulting from the service.
News Feed and Mini-Feed
On September 5, 2006, Facebook introduced two new features called "News Feed" and "Mini-Feed". The first of the new features, News Feed, appears on every Facebook member's home page, displaying recent Facebook activities of the member's friends. The second feature, Mini-Feed, keeps a log of similar events on each member's profile page. Members can manually delete items from their Mini-Feeds if they wish to do so, and through privacy settings can control what is actually published in their respective Mini-Feeds.
Some Facebook members still feel that the ability to opt out of the entire News Feed and Mini-Feed system is necessary, as evidenced by a statement from the Students Against Facebook News Feed group, which peaked at over 740,000 members in 2006. Reacting to users' concerns, Facebook developed new privacy features to give users some control over information about them that was broadcast by the News Feed. According to subsequent news articles, members have widely regarded the additional privacy options as an acceptable compromise.
In May 2010, Facebook added privacy controls and streamlined its privacy settings, giving users more ways to manage status updates and other information that is broadcast to the public News Feed. Among the new privacy settings is the ability to control who sees each new status update a user posts: Everyone, Friends of Friends, or Friends Only. Users can now hide each status update from specific people as well. However, a user who presses "like" or comments on the photo or status update of a friend cannot prevent that action from appearing in the news feeds of all the user's friends, even non-mutual ones. The "View As" option, used to show a user how privacy controls filter out what a specific given friend can see, only displays the user's timeline and gives no indication that items missing from the timeline may still be showing up in the friend's own news feed.
Cooperation with government search requests
The 2013 mass surveillance disclosures identified Facebook as a participant in the U.S. National Security Administration's PRISM program. Facebook now reports the number of requests it receives for user information from governments around the world.
Complaint from CIPPIC
On May 31, 2008 the Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic (CIPPIC), per Director Phillipa Lawson, filed a 35-page complaint with the Office of the Privacy Commissioner against Facebook based on 22 breaches of the Canadian Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA). University of Ottawa law students Lisa Feinberg, Harley Finkelstein, and Jordan Eric Plener, initiated the "minefield of privacy invasion" suit. Facebook's Chris Kelly contradicted the claims, saying that: "We've reviewed the complaint and found it has serious factual errors—most notably its neglect of the fact that almost all Facebook data is willingly shared by users." Assistant Privacy Commissioner Elizabeth Denham released a report of her findings on July 16, 2009. In it, she found that several of CIPPIC's complaints were well-founded. Facebook agreed to comply with some, but not all, of her recommendations. The Assistant Commissioner found that Facebook did not do enough to ensure users granted meaningful consent for the disclosure of personal information to third parties and did not place adequate safeguards to ensure unauthorized access by third party developers to personal information.
There have been some concerns expressed regarding the use of Facebook as a means of surveillance and data mining.
Two Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) students were able to use an automated script to download the publicly posted information of over 70,000 Facebook profiles from four schools (MIT, NYU, the University of Oklahoma, and Harvard University) as part of a research project on Facebook privacy published on December 14, 2005. Since then, Facebook has bolstered security protection for users, responding: "We've built numerous defenses to combat phishing and malware, including complex automated systems that work behind the scenes to detect and flag Facebook accounts that are likely to be compromised (based on anomalous activity like lots of messages sent in a short period of time, or messages with links that are known to be bad)."
In the United Kingdom, the Trades Union Congress (TUC) has encouraged employers to allow their staff to access Facebook and other social-networking sites from work, provided they proceed with caution.
In September 2007, Facebook drew criticism after it began allowing search engines to index profile pages, though Facebook's privacy settings allow users to turn this off.
Concerns were also raised on the BBC's Watchdog program in October 2007 when Facebook was shown to be an easy way in which to collect an individual's personal information in order to facilitate identity theft. However, there is barely any personal information presented to non-friends - if users leave the privacy controls on their default settings, the only personal information visible to a non-friend is the user's name, gender, profile picture, networks, and user name.
A New York Times article in February 2008 pointed out that Facebook does not actually provide a mechanism for users to close their accounts, and raised the concern that private user data would remain indefinitely on Facebook's servers. As of 2013[update], Facebook gives users the options to deactivate or delete their accounts. Deactivating an account allows it to be restored later, while deleting it will remove the account "permanently", although some data submitted by that account ("like posting to a group or sending someone a message") will remain.
Inability to voluntarily terminate accounts
Some of these memorial groups have also caused legal issues. Notably, on January 1, 2008, one such memorial group posted the identity of murdered Toronto teenager Stefanie Rengel, whose family had not yet given the Toronto Police Service their consent to release her name to the media, and the identities of her accused killers, in defiance of Canada's Youth Criminal Justice Act which prohibits publishing the names of the under-age accused. While police and Facebook staff attempted to comply with the privacy regulations by deleting such posts, they noted difficulty in effectively policing the individual users who repeatedly republished the deleted information.
Customization and security
Quit Facebook Day
Quit Facebook Day was an online event which took place on May 31, 2010 (coinciding with Memorial Day), in which Facebook users stated that they would quit the social network, due to privacy concerns. It was estimated that 2% of Facebook users coming from the United States would delete their accounts. However, only 33,000 (roughly 0.0066% of its roughly 500 million members at the time) users quit the site. The number one reason for users to quit Facebook was privacy concerns (48%), being followed by a general dissatisfaction with Facebook (14%), negative aspects regarding Facebook friends (13%) and the feeling of getting addicted to Facebook (6%). Facebook quitters were found to be more concerned about privacy, more addicted to the Internet and more conscientious.
Photo recognition and face tagging
Facebook enabled an automatic facial recognition feature in June 2011, called "Tag Suggestions", a product of a research project named "DeepFace". The feature compares newly uploaded photographs to those of the uploader's Facebook friends, in order to suggest photo tags.
National Journal Daily claims "Facebook is facing new scrutiny over its decision to automatically turn on a new facial recognition feature aimed at helping users identify their friends in photos". Facebook has defended the feature, saying users can disable it. Facebook introduced the feature in an opt-out basis. European Union data-protection regulators said they would investigate the feature to see if it violated privacy rules. Naomi Lachance stated in web blog for NPR:All Tech Considered that Facebook's facial recognition is 98% of the time compared to the FBI's 85% out of 50 people. It's also noted, however, that the accuracies of Facebook searches being from a larger, more diverse photo selection compared to the FBI's closed database. Mark Zuckerberg showed no worries when speaking about Facebook's AIs saying, "Unsupervised learning is a long term focus of our AI research team at Facebook, and it remains an important challenge for the whole AI research community" and "It will saves lives by diagnosing diseases and driving us around more safely. It will enable breakthroughs by helping us find new planets and understand Earth's climate. It will help in areas we haven't even thought of today".
Investigation by the Irish Data Protection Commissioner 2011/2012
In August 2011, the Irish Data Protection Commissioner (DPC) started an investigation after receiving 22 complaints by europe-v-facebook.org, which was founded by a group of Austrian students. The DPC stated in first reactions that the Irish DPC is legally responsible for privacy on Facebook for all users within the European Union and that he will "investigate the complaints using his full legal powers if necessary". The complaints were filed in Ireland because all users who are not residents of the United States or Canada have a contract with "Facebook Ireland Ltd", located in Dublin, Ireland. Under European law Facebook Ireland is the "data controller" for facebook.com, and therefore, facebook.com is governed by European data protection laws. Facebook Ireland Ltd. was established by Facebook Inc. to avoid US taxes (see Double Irish arrangement).
The group 'europe-v-facebook.org' made access requests at Facebook Ireland and received up to 1,222 pages of data per person in 57 data categories that Facebook was holding about them, including data that was previously removed by the users. Despite the amount of information given, the group claimed that Facebook did not give them all of its data. Some of the information not included was "likes", data about the new face recognition function, data about third party websites that use "social plugins" visited by users and information about uploaded videos. Currently the group claims that Facebook holds at least 84 data categories about every user.
In an interview with the Irish Independent a spokesperson said that the DPC will "go and audit Facebook, go into the premises and go through in great detail every aspect of security". He continued by saying: "It's a very significant, detailed and intense undertaking that will stretch over four or five days." In December 2011 the DPC has published a first report on Facebook. This report was not legally binding but suggested changes that Facebook should undertake until July 2012. The DPC is planning to do a review about Facebook's progress in July 2012.
Tracking of non-members of Facebook
An article published by USA Today in November 2011 claimed that Facebook creates logs of pages visited both by its members and by non-members. Relying on tracking cookies to keep track of pages visited, the United States Congress and the World Wide Web Consortium are attempting to set new guidelines to deal with Internet privacy concerns, potentially giving users the ability to limit or stop technology companies from tracking their activities.
In early November 2015, Facebook was ordered by the Belgian Privacy Commissioner to cease tracking non-users, citing European laws, or else risk fines of up to £250,000 per day. As a result, instead of removing tracking cookies, Facebook prevents non-users from seeing any material on Facebook, including publicly-posted content. Arguing that the cookies provided better security, Facebook said in a statement: "We're disappointed we were unable to reach an agreement and now people will be required to log in or register for an account to see publicly available content on Facebook."
Social networks, like Facebook, can have a detrimental effect on marriages, with users becoming worried about their spouse's contacts and relations with other people online, leading to marital breakdown and divorce. According to a 2009 survey in the UK, around 20 percent of divorce petitions included some kind of reference to Facebook.
By statistics, 63% of Facebook profiles are automatically set "visible to the public" meaning anyone can access the profiles that users have updated. Facebook also has its own built in messaging system that people can send message to any other user, unless they have disabled the feature to "from friends only". Stalking is not only limited to SNS stalking, but can lead to further 'in person' stalking, because nearly 25% of real life stalking victims reported it started with online instant messaging (e.g. Facebook chat).
The notion that people are very much aware that they are being surveiled on websites, like Facebook, and use the surveillance as an opportunity to portray themselves in a way that connotes a certain lifestyle—of which, that individual may, or may not, distort how they are perceived in reality.
Application privacy breach
In 2010, The Wall Street Journal found that many of Facebook's top-rated apps were transmitting identifying information to "dozens of advertising and Internet tracking companies". The apps used an HTTP referer that exposed the user's identity and sometimes their friends' identities. Facebook said that "While knowledge of user ID does not permit access to anyone’s private information on Facebook, we plan to introduce new technical systems that will dramatically limit the sharing of User ID’s". A blog post by a member of Facebook's team further stated that "press reports have exaggerated the implications of sharing a user ID", though still acknowledging that some of the apps were passing the ID in a manner that violated Facebook's policies.
Employer-employee privacy issues
In an effort to surveil the personal lives of current, or prospective employees, some employers have asked employees to disclose their Facebook log-in information. This has resulted in the passing of a bill in New Jersey making it illegal for employers to ask potential or current employees for access to their Facebook accounts. Although, the U.S government has yet to pass a national law protecting prospective employees and their social networking sites, from employers, the fourth amendment of the US constitution can protect prospective employees in specific situations.
Users violating minimum age requirements
A 2011 study in the online journal First Monday, examines how parents consistently enable children as young as 10 years old to sign up for accounts, directly violating Facebook's policy banning young visitors. This policy is in compliance with a United States law, the 1998 Children's Online Privacy Protection Act, which requires minors aged 13 or younger to gain explicit parental consent to access commercial websites. In other jurisdictions where a similar law sets a lower minimum age, Facebook enforces the lower age. Of the 1,007 households surveyed for the study, 76% of parents reported that their child joined Facebook at an age younger than 13, the minimum age in the site's terms of service. The study also reported that Facebook removes roughly 20,000 users each day for violating its minimum age policy. The study's authors also note, "Indeed, Facebook takes various measures both to restrict access to children and delete their accounts if they join." The findings of the study raise questions primarily about the shortcomings of United States federal law, but also implicitly continue to raise questions about whether or not Facebook does enough to publicize its terms of service with respect to minors. Only 53% of parents said they were aware that Facebook has a minimum signup age; 35% of these parents believe that the minimum age is merely a recommendation, or thought the signup age was 16 or 18, and not 13.
Student privacy concerns
Students who post illegal or otherwise inappropriate material have faced disciplinary action from their universities, colleges, and schools including expulsion.[further explanation needed] Others posting libelous content relating to faculty have also faced disciplinary action. The Journal of Education for Business states that "a recent study of 200 Facebook profiles found that 42% had comments regarding alcohol, 53% had photos involving alcohol use, 20% had comments regarding sexual activities, 25% had seminude or sexually provocative photos, and 50% included the use of profanity." It is inferred that negative or incriminating Facebook posts can effect alumnis' and potential employers' perception of them. This perception can greatly impact the students' relationships, ability to gain employment, and maintain school enrollment. The desire for social acceptance leads individuals to want to share the most intimate details of their personal lives along with illicit drug use and binge drinking. Too often, these portrayals of their daily lives are exaggerated and/or embellished to attract others like minded to them.
Effect on higher education
On January 23, 2006, The Chronicle of Higher Education continued an ongoing national debate on social networks with an opinion piece written by Michael Bugeja, director of the Journalism School at Iowa State University, entitled "Facing the Facebook". Bugeja, author of the Oxford University Press text Interpersonal Divide (2005), quoted representatives of the American Association of University Professors and colleagues in higher education to document the distraction of students using Facebook and other social networks during class and at other venues in the wireless campus. Bugeja followed up on January 26, 2007 in The Chronicle with an article titled "Distractions in the Wireless Classroom", quoting several educators across the country who were banning laptops in the classroom. Similarly, organizations such as the National Association for Campus Activities, the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, and others have hosted seminars and presentations to discuss ramifications of students' use of Facebook and other social-networking sites.
The EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative has also released a brief pamphlet entitled "7 Things You Should Know About Facebook" aimed at higher education professionals that "describes what [Facebook] is, where it is going, and why it matters to teaching and learning".
Some research on Facebook in higher education suggests that there may be some small educational benefits associated with student Facebook use, including improving engagement which is related to student retention. 2012 research has found that time spent on Facebook is related to involvement in campus activities. This same study found that certain Facebook activities like commenting and creating or RSVPing to events were positively related to student engagement while playing games and checking up on friends was negatively related. Furthermore, using technologies such as Facebook to connect with others can help college students be less depressed and cope with feelings of loneliness and homesickness.
Effect on college student grades
As of February 2012, only four published peer-reviewed studies have examined the relationship between Facebook use and grades. There is considerable variance in the findings. Pasek et al. (2009) found there was no relationship between Facebook use and grades. Kolek and Saunders (2008) found that there were no differences in overall grade point average (GPA) between users and non-users of Facebook. Kirschner and Karpinski (2010) found that Facebook users reported a lower mean GPA than non-users. Junco's (2012) study clarifies the discrepancies in these findings. While Junco (2012) found a negative relationship between time spent on Facebook and student GPA in his large sample of college students, the real-world impact of the relationship was negligible. Furthermore, Junco (2012) found that sharing links and checking up on friends were positively related to GPA while posting status updates was negatively related. In addition to noting the differences in how Facebook use was measured among the four studies, Junco (2012) concludes that the ways in which students use Facebook are more important in predicting academic outcomes.
Facebook has been criticized for making people envious and unhappy due to the constant exposure to positive yet unrepresentative highlights of their peers. Such highlights include, but are not limited to, wall posts, videos, and photos that depict or reference such positive or otherwise outstanding activities, experiences, and facts. This effect is caused mainly by the fact that most users of Facebook usually only display the positive aspects of their lives while excluding the negative, though it is also strongly connected to inequality and the disparities between social groups as Facebook is open to users from all classes of society. Sites such as AddictionInfo.org state that this kind of envy has profound effects on other aspects of life and can lead to severe depression, self-loathing, rage and hatred, resentment, feelings of inferiority and insecurity, pessimism, suicidal tendencies and desires, social isolation, and other issues that can prove very serious. This condition has often been called "Facebook Envy" or "Facebook Depression" by the media.
A joint study conducted by two German universities demonstrated Facebook envy and found that as many as one out of three people actually feel worse and less satisfied with their lives after visiting the site. Vacation photos were found to be the most common source of feelings of resentment and jealousy. After that, social interaction was the second biggest cause of envy, as Facebook users compare the number of birthday greetings, likes, and comments to those of their friends. Visitors who contributed the least tended to feel the worst. "According to our findings, passive following triggers invidious emotions, with users mainly envying happiness of others, the way others spend their vacations; and socialize," the study states.
Research performed by psychologists from Edinburgh Napier University indicated that Facebook adds stress to users' lives. Causes of stress included fear of missing important social information, fear of offending contacts, discomfort or guilt from rejecting user requests or deleting unwanted contacts or being unfriended or blocked by Facebook friends or other users, the displeasure of having friend requests rejected or ignored, the pressure to be entertaining, criticism or intimidation from other Facebook users, and having to use appropriate etiquette for different types of friends. Many people who started using Facebook for positive purposes or with positive expectations have found that the website has negatively impacted their lives.
Next to that, the increasing number of messages and social relationships embedded in SNS also increases the amount of social information demanding a reaction from SNS users. Consequently SNS users perceive they are giving too much social support to other SNS friends. This dark side of SNS usage is called ‘social overload’. It is caused by the extent of usage, number of friends, subjective social support norms, and type of relationship (online-only vs offline friends) while age has only an indirect effect. The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include perceptions of SNS exhaustion, low user satisfaction, and high intentions to reduce or stop using SNS.
The "World Unplugged" study, which was conducted in 2011, claims that for some users quitting social networking sites is comparable to quitting smoking or giving up alcohol. Another study conducted in 2012 by researchers from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business in the United States found that drugs like alcohol and tobacco could not keep up with social networking sites regarding their level of addictiveness. A 2013 study in the journal CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking found that some users decided to quit social networking sites because they felt they were addicted. In 2014, the site went down for about 30 minutes, prompting several users to call 9-1-1.
Other psychological effects
It has been admitted by many students that they have experienced bullying on the site, which leads to psychological harm. Students of high schools face a possibility of bullying and other adverse behaviors over Facebook every day. Many studies have attempted to discover whether Facebook has a positive or negative effect on children’s and teenagers’ social lives, and many of them have come to the conclusion that there are distinct social problems that arise with Facebook usage. British neuroscientist Susan Greenfield stuck up for the issues that children encounter on social media sites. She said that they can rewire the brain, which caused some hysteria over whether or not social networking sites are safe. She did not back up her claims with research, but did cause quite a few studies to be done on the subject. When that self is then broken down by others by badmouthing, criticism, harassment, criminalization or vilification, intimidation, demonization, demoralization, belittlement, or attacking someone over the site it can cause much of the envy, anger, or depression.
Sherry Turkle, in her book Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other, argues that social media bring people closer and further apart at the same time. One of the main points she makes is that there is a high risk in treating persons online with dispatch like objects. Although people are networked on Facebook, their expectations of each other tend to be lessened. According to Turkle, this could cause a feeling of loneliness in spite of being together.
2014 emotion manipulation study
A 2014 study titled "Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks" manipulated the balance of positive and negative messages seen by 689,000 Facebook users. The paper details the experiment running from January 11 to 18, 2012, in an attempt to identify emotional contagion effects by altering the amount of emotional content in the targeted users' news feed. The researchers concluded that they had found "some of the first experimental evidence to support the controversial claims that emotions can spread throughout a network, [though] the effect sizes from the manipulations are small".
The study was criticized for both its ethics and methods/claims. As controversy about the study grew, Adam Kramer, a lead author of both studies and member of the Facebook data team, defended the work in a Facebook update. A few days later, Sheryl Sandburg, Facebook's COO, made a statement while travelling abroad. While at an Indian Chambers of Commerce event in New Delhi she stated that: "This was part of ongoing research companies do to test different products, and that was what it was. It was poorly communicated and for that communication we apologize. We never meant to upset you."
Shortly thereafter, on July 3, 2014, USA Today reported that the privacy watchdog group Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) had filed a formal complaint with the Federal Trade claiming that Facebook had broken the law when it conducted the study on the emotions of its users without their knowledge or consent. In its complaint the EPIC alleged that Facebook had deceived it users by secretly conducting a psychological experiment on their emotions: "At the time of the experiment, Facebook did not state in the Data Use Policy that user data would be used for research purposes. Facebook also failed to inform users that their personal information would be shared with researchers."
In the UK, the study was also criticised by the British Psychological Society, which said, in a letter to The Guardian, "There has undoubtedly been some degree of harm caused, with many individuals affected by increased levels of negative emotion, with consequent potential economic costs, increase in possible mental health problems and burden on health services. The so-called 'positive' manipulation is also potentially harmful."
The consequences of the controversy are pending (be it FTC or court proceedings) but it did prompt an "Editorial Expression of Concern" from its publisher, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, as well as an blog posting from OkCupid that "We experiment on human beings!" In September 2014, law professor James Grimmelmann argued that the actions of both companies were "illegal, immoral, and mood-altering" and filed notices with the Maryland Attorney General and Cornell Institutional Review Board.
Aggressive tax avoidance
Facebook uses a complicated series of shell companies in tax havens to avoid paying billions of dollars in corporate tax. For example, in 2011, Facebook paid £2.9m tax on £840m profits, no tax in 2012, no tax in 2013, and £4,327 in 2014 on hundreds of millions of pounds in UK revenues which were transferred to tax havens. Facebook routes billions of dollars in profits using the Double Irish and Dutch Sandwich tax avoidance schemes to bank accounts in the Cayman Islands.
On July 6, 2016, the U.S. Department of Justice filed a petition in the U.S. District Court in San Francisco, asking for a court order to enforce an administrative summons issued to Facebook, Inc., under Internal Revenue Code section 7602, in connection with an Internal Revenue Service examination of Facebook's year 2010 U.S. Federal income tax return.
In May 2011, emails were sent to journalists and bloggers making critical allegations about Google's privacy policies; however, it was later discovered that the anti-Google campaign, conducted by PR giant Burson-Marsteller, was paid for by Facebook in what CNN referred to as "a new level skullduggery" and which Daily Beast called a "clumsy smear". While taking responsibility for the campaign, Burson-Marsteller said it should not have agreed to keep its client's (Facebook's) identity a secret. "Whatever the rationale, this was not at all standard operating procedure and is against our policies, and the assignment on those terms should have been declined", it said in a statement.
Intellectual property infringement
Facebook has also been criticized for having lax enforcement of third-party copyrights for videos uploaded to the service. In 2015, some Facebook pages were accused of plagiarizing videos from YouTube users and re-posting them as their own content using Facebook's video platform, and in some cases, achieving higher levels of engagement and views than the original YouTube post. Videos hosted by Facebook are given a higher priority and prominence within the platform and its user experience (including direct embedding within the News Feed and pages), giving a disadvantage to posting it as a link to the original external source. In August 2015, Facebook announced a video-matching technology aiming to identify reposted videos, and also stated its intention to improve its procedures to remove infringing content faster. In April 2016, Facebook implemented a feature known as "Rights Manager", which allows rightsholders to manage and restrict the upload of their content onto the service by third-parties.
In 2013, Facebook was criticized for allowing users to upload and share videos depicting violent content, including clips of people being decapitated. Having previously refused to delete such clips under the guideline that users have the right to depict the "world in which we live", Facebook changed its stance in May, announcing that it would remove reported videos while evaluating its policy. The following October, Facebook stated that it would allow graphic videos on the platform, as long as the intention of the video was to "condemn, not glorify, the acts depicted", further stating that "Sometimes, those experiences and issues involve graphic content that is of public interest or concern, such as human rights abuses, acts of terrorism, and other violence. When people share this type of graphic content, it is often to condemn it. If it is being shared for sadistic pleasure or to celebrate violence, Facebook removes it." However, Facebook once again received criticism, with the Family Online Safety Institute saying that such videos "crossed a line" and can potentially cause psychological damage among young Facebook users, and then-Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron calling the decision "irresponsible", citing the same concerns regarding young users. Two days later, Facebook removed a video of a beheading following "worldwide outrage", and while acknowledging its commitment to allowing people to upload gory material for the purpose of condemnation, it also stated that it would be further strengthening its enforcement to prevent glorification. The company's policies were also criticized as part of these developments, with some drawing particular attention to Facebook's permission of graphic content but potential removal of breastfeeding images. In January 2015, Facebook announced that new warnings would be displayed on graphic content, requiring users to explicitly confirm that they wish to see the material.
Facebook Live, introduced in August 2015 for celebrities and gradually rolled out for regular users starting in January 2016, lets users broadcast live videos, with Facebook's intention for the feature to be presenting public events or private celebrations. However, the feature has been used to record multiple crimes, deaths, and violent incidents, causing significant media attention.
Facebook has received criticism for not removing videos faster, and Facebook Live has been described as a "monster [Facebook] cannot tame" and "a gruesome crime scene for murders". In response, CEO Mark Zuckerberg announced in May 2017 that the company would hire 3,000 people to review content and invest in tools to remove videos faster.
Pro-mafia groups' case
In Italy in 2009, the discovery of pro-mafia groups, one of them claiming Bernardo Provenzano's sainthood, caused an alert in the country and brought the government to rapidly issue a law that would force Internet service providers to deny access to entire websites in case of refused removal of illegal contents. The amendment was passed by the Italian Senate and now needs to be passed unchanged by the Chamber of Deputies to become effective.
Facebook criticized the government's efforts, telling Bloomberg that it "would be like closing an entire railway network just because of offensive graffiti at one station", and that "Facebook would always remove any content promoting violence and already had a takedown procedure in place."
On March 31, 2010, The Today Show ran a segment detailing the deaths of three separate adolescent girls and trolls' subsequent reactions to their deaths. Shortly after the suicide of high school student Alexis Pilkington, anonymous posters began trolling for reactions across various message boards, referring to Pilkington as a "suicidal CUSS", and posting graphic images on her Facebook memorial page. The segment also included an exposé of a 2006 accident, in which an eighteen-year-old student out for a drive fatally crashed her father's car into a highway pylon; trolls e-mailed her grieving family the leaked pictures of her mutilated corpse.
There have been cases where Facebook "trolls" were jailed for their communications on Facebook, particularly memorial pages. In Autumn 2010, Colm Coss of Ardwick, Britain, was sentenced to 26 weeks in jail under s127 of the Communications Act 2003 of Great Britain, for "malicious communications" for leaving messages deemed obscene and hurtful on Facebook memorial pages.
In April 2011, Bradley Paul Hampson was sentenced to three years in jail after pleading guilty to two counts of using a carriage service, the Internet, to cause offense, for posts on Facebook memorial pages, and one count each of distributing and possessing child pornography when he posted images on the memorial pages of the deceased with phalluses superimposed alongside phrases such as "Woot I'm dead".
A series of pro-rape and 'rape joke' content on Facebook drew attention from the media and women's groups. Rape Is No Joke (RINJ), a group opposing the pages, argued that removing "pro-rape" pages from Facebook and other social media was not a violation of free speech in the context of Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the concepts recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. RINJ repeatedly challenged Facebook to remove the rape pages. RINJ then turned to advertisers on Facebook telling them not to let their advertising be posted on Facebook's 'rape pages'.
Following a campaign that involved the participation of Women, Action and the Media, the Everyday Sexism Project and the activist Soraya Chemaly, who were among 100 advocacy groups, Facebook agreed to update its policy on hate speech. The campaign highlighted content that promoted domestic and sexual violence against women, and used over 57,000 tweets and more than 4,900 emails to create outcomes such as the withdrawal of advertising from Facebook by 15 companies, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque and Nationwide UK. The social media website initially responded by stating that "While it may be vulgar and offensive, distasteful content on its own does not violate our policies", but then agreed to take action on May 29, 2013 after it had "become clear that our systems to identify and remove hate speech have failed to work as effectively as we would like, particularly around issues of gender-based hate".
Child abuse images
In June 2015, the U.K. National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children raised concerns about Facebook's apparent refusal when asked to remove controversial video material which allegedly showed a baby in emotional distress.
In March 2017, BBC News reported in an investigation that Facebook only removed 18 of the 100 groups and posts it had reported for containing child exploitation images. The BBC had been granted an interview with Facebook policy director Simon Milner under the condition that they provide evidence of the activity. However, when presented with the images, Facebook cancelled the interview, and told the BBC that it had been reported to the National Crime Agency for illegally distributing child exploitation images (the NCA could not confirm whether the BBC was actually being investigated). Milner later stated to the BBC that the investigation had exposed flaws in its image moderation process that have since been addressed, and that all of the reported content was removed from the service.
Objectification of women
In July 2017, GMA News reported that "a number" of secret Facebook groups that had been engaging in illegal activity of sharing "obscene" photos of women had been exposed, with the Philippine National Bureau of Investigation warning group members of the possibility of being liable for violating child pornography and anti-voyeurism laws. Facebook stated that it would remove the groups as violations of its community guidelines. A few days later, GMA News had an interview with one of the female victims targeted by one of the groups, who stated that she received friend requests from strangers and inappropriate messages. After reporting to authorities, the Philippine National Police's anti-cybercrime unit promised to take action in finding the accounts responsible. Senator Risa Hontiveros responded to the incidents with the proposal of a law that would impose "stiff penalties" on such group members, stating that "These people have no right to enjoy our internet freedom only to abuse our women and children. We will not allow them to shame our young women, suppress their right to express themselves through social media and contribute to a culture of misogyny and hate".
Facebook has been suspected of having a double-standard when it came to pages and posts regarding the Arab-Israeli conflict. When it comes to so-called incitement, Facebook has been accused of being unfair, removing only posts and pages that attack Palestinians, while turning a blind eye to similar posts that are violently anti-Semitic. The NGO Shurat Hadin-Israel Law Center conducted an experiment over the incitement issue, which sought to expose what it viewed as double standards regarding anti-Israel sentiment vis-a-vis the simultaneous launch of two Facebook pages: "Stop Palestinians" and "Stop Israel". Following the launch of the two nearly-identical pages, the NGO posted hateful content simultaneously on both pages. Next, Shurat Hadin's reported both faux-incitement pages to Facebook to see which, if either, would be removed. According to them, despite featuring nearly identical content, only one was removed from the online platform. They said the page inciting against Palestinians was closed by Facebook (on the same day that it was reported) for "containing credible threat of violence" which "violated our [Facebook's] community standards", but not the page inciting against Israelis. Shurat Hadin said that Facebook claimed that this page was "not in violation of Facebook's rules". Shurat Hadin's staged anti-Israel group "Stop Israel" still remains active on Facebook.
Incitement of terrorism
Facebook has been accused of being a public platform used to incite terrorism. In October 2015, 20,000 Israelis claimed that Facebook was ignoring Palestinian incitement on its platform and filed a class-action suit demanding that Facebook remove all posts "containing incitement to murder Jews".
Israeli politicians have complained that Facebook does not comply or assist with requests from the police for tracking and reporting individuals when they share their intent to kill or commit any other act of terrorism on their Facebook pages. In June 2016, following the murder of Hallel Ariel, 13, by a terrorist who posted on Facebook, Israeli Minister of Public Security Gilad Erdan charged that "Facebook, which has brought a positive revolution to the world, has become a monster...The dialogue, the incitement, the lies of the young Palestinian generation are happening on the Facebook platform." Erdan accused Facebook of "sabotaging the work of Israeli police" and "refusing to cooperate" when Israel Police turns to the site for assistance. It also "sets a very high bar" for removing inciteful content.
In July 2016, a civil action for $1 billion in damages was filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York on behalf of the victims and family members of four Israeli-Americans and one US citizen killed by Hamas terrorists since June 2014. The victims and plaintiffs in the case are the families of Yaakov Naftali Fraenkel, a 16-year-old who was kidnapped and murdered by Hamas operatives in 2014; Taylor Force, a 29-year-old American MBA student and US Army veteran killed in a stabbing spree in Jaffa in 2016; Chaya Braun, a three-month-old thrown from her stroller and slammed into the pavement when a Hamas attacker drove his car into a light rail station in Jerusalem in an October 2014; 76-year-old Richard Lakin who was killed in an October 2015 shooting and stabbing attack on a Jerusalem bus; and Menachem Mendel Rivkin, who was seriously wounded in a January 2016 stabbing attack in Jerusalem. The plaintiffs claimed that Facebook knowingly provided its social media platform and communication services to Hamas in violation of provisions of US Anti-Terrorism laws which prohibits US businesses from providing any material support, including services, to designated terrorist groups and their leaders. The government of the United States has designated Hamas as a "Foreign Terrorist Organization" as defined by US law. The suit claims that Hamas "used and relied on Facebook's online social network platform and communications services to facilitate and carry out its terrorist activity, including the terrorist attacks in which Hamas murdered and injured the victims and their families in this case".
In August 2016, Israel's security service, the Shin Bet, reported that it had arrested nine Palestinians who had been recruited by the Lebanon-based Hezbollah terrorist organization. Operatives of Hezbollah in Lebanon and Gaza Strip recruited residents of the West Bank, Gaza and Israel through Facebook and other social media sites. After recruiting cell leaders on Facebook, Hezbollah and the recruits used encrypted communications to avoid detection, and the leaders continued to recruit other members. The terror cells received Hezbollah funding and planned to conduct suicide bombings and ambushes and had begun preparing explosive devices for attacks, said the security service, which claimed credit for preventing the attacks. The Shin Bet said it also detected multiple attempts by Hezbollah to recruit Israeli Arabs through a Facebook profile.
Currently, legislation is being prepared in Israel, allowing fines of 300,000 shekels for Facebook and other social media like Twitter and YouTube for every post inciting or praising terrorism that isn't removed within 48 hours, and could possibly lead to further acts of terrorism.
In June 2017, Facebook published a blog post, offering insights into how it detects and combats terrorism content. The company claimed that the majority of the terrorism accounts that are found are discovered by Facebook itself, while it reviews reports of terrorism content "urgently", and, in cases of imminent harm, "promptly inform authorities". It also develops new tools to aid in its efforts, including the use of artificial intelligence to match terrorist images and videos, detecting when content is shared across related accounts, and developing technologies to stop repeat offenders. The company stated that it has 150 people dedicated to terrorism countermeasures, and works with governments and industries in an effort to curb terrorist propaganda. Its blog post stated that "We want Facebook to be a hostile place for terrorists."
Employee data leak
In June 2017, The Guardian reported that a software bug had exposed the personal details of 1,000 Facebook workers involved in reviewing and removing terrorism content, by displaying their profiles in the "Activity" logs of Facebook groups related to terrorism efforts,. In Facebook's Dublin, Ireland headquarters, six individuals were determined to be "high priority" victims of the error, after the company concluded that their profiles were likely viewed by potential terrorists in groups such as ISIS, Hezbollah and the Kurdistan Workers' Party. The bug itself, discovered in November 2016 and fixed two weeks later, was active for one month, and had also been retroactively exposing censored personal accounts from August 2016. One affected worker had fled Ireland, gone into hiding, and only returned to Ireland after five months due to a lack of money. Suffering from psychological distress, he filed a legal claim against Facebook and CPL Resources, an outsourcing company, seeking compensation. A Facebook spokesperson stated that "Our investigation found that only a small fraction of the names were likely viewed, and we never had evidence of any threat to the people impacted or their families as a result of this matter", and Craig D’Souza, Facebook's head of global investigations, said: "Keep in mind that when the person sees your name on the list, it was in their activity log, which contains a lot of information [...] there is a good chance that they associate you with another admin of the group or a hacker". Facebook offered to install a home-alarm monitoring system, provide transport to and from work, and counseling through its employee assistance program. As a result of the data leak, Facebook is reportedly testing the use of alternative, administrative accounts for workers reviewing content, rather than requiring workers to sign in with their personal profiles.
Facebook has been criticized for not doing enough to limit the spread of fake news stories on their site, especially after the 2016 United States presidential election, which some have claimed Donald Trump would not have won if Facebook had not helped spread what they claim to have been fake stories that were biased in his favor. Mark Zuckerberg has begun to take steps to eliminate the prevalence of fake news on Facebook as a result criticisms of Facebook's influence on the presidential election. At a conference called Techonomy Mark Zuckerberg stated in regards to Donald Trump, "There's a profound lack of empathy in asserting that the only reason why someone could have voted the way that they did is because they saw some fake news". Zuckerberg affirms the idea that people do not stray from their own ideals and political leanings. He stated, "I don't know what to do about that" and, "When we started, the north star for us was: We're building a safe community".
Mark Zuckerberg has also been quoted in his own Facebook post, "Of all the content on Facebook, more than 99 percent of what people see is authentic". In addition, The Pew Research Center, stated that "62% of Americans obtain some, or all, of their news on social media-the bulk of it from Facebook". The former editor at Facebook leaked inflammatory information about the websites' algorithm's pointing to certain falsehoods and bias by the news created within Facebook. Although Facebook initially denied claims of issues with fake new stories and their algorithims, they fired the entire trending team involved with a fake news story about Megyn Kelly being a "closeted liberal".
Other fake news such as the story headlined as "(Shocking Video Footage) 18 dead in horrific roller coaster accident" back in 2014 are meant to entice users into sharing information with them. They accomplish this by using an authorization app that allows them to see personal information such as your friends list and in some cases post to your wall on your behalf. Instructions for removing these permissions have been posted by companies like Dominant Domains Web Design and SEO.
Real-name policy controversy and compromise
Facebook has a real-name system policy for user profiles. The real-name policy stems from the position "that way, you always know who you're connecting with. This helps keep our community safe." The real-name system does not allow adopted names or pseudonyms, and in its enforcement has suspended accounts of legitimate users, until the user provides identification indicating the name. Facebook representatives have described these incidents as very rare. A user claimed responsibility via the anonymous Android and iOS app Secret for reporting "fake names" which caused user profiles to be suspended, specifically targeting the stage names of drag queens. On October 1, 2014, Chris Cox, Chief Product Officer at Facebook, offered an apology: "In the two weeks since the real-name policy issues surfaced, we've had the chance to hear from many of you in these communities and understand the policy more clearly as you experience it. We've also come to understand how painful this has been. We owe you a better service and a better experience using Facebook, and we're going to fix the way this policy gets handled so everyone affected here can go back to using Facebook as you were."
On December 15, 2015, Facebook announced in a press release that it would be providing a compromise to its real name policy after protests from groups such as the gay/lesbian community and abuse-victims. The site is developing a protocol that will allow members to provide specifics as to their "special circumstance" or "unique situation" with a request to use pseudonyms, subject to verification of their true identities. At that time, this was already being tested in the U.S. Product manager Todd Gage and vice president of global operations Justin Osofsky also promised a new method for reducing the number of members who must go through ID verification while ensuring the safety of others on Facebook. The fake name reporting procedure will also be modified, forcing anyone who makes such an allegation to provide specifics that would be investigated and giving the accused individual time to dispute the allegation.
Deleting users' statuses
There have been complaints of user statuses being mistakenly or intentionally deleted for alleged violations of Facebook's posting guidelines. Especially for non-English speaking writers, Facebook does not have a proper support system to genuinely read the content and make decisions. Sometimes the content of a status did not have any "abusive" or defaming language, but it nevertheless got deleted on the basis that it had been secretly reported by a group of people as "offensive". For other languages than English, Facebook till now is not able to identify the group approach that is used to vilify humanitarian activism. In another incident, Facebook had to apologize after it deleted a free speech group's post about the abuse of human rights in Syria. In that case, a spokesman for Facebook said the post was "mistakenly" removed by a member of its moderation team after receiving a high volume of take-down requests.
Enabling of harassment
Facebook instituted a policy by which it is now self-policed by the community of Facebook users.[when?] Some users have complained that this policy allows Facebook to empower abusive users to harass them by allowing them to submit reports on even benign comments and photos as being "offensive" or "in violation of Facebook Rights and Responsibilities" and that enough of these reports result in the user who is being harassed in this way getting their account blocked for a predetermined number of days or weeks, or even deactivated entirely.
Lack of customer support
Facebook lacks live support, making it difficult to resolve issues that require the services of an administrator or are not covered in the FAQs, such as the enabling of a disabled account. The automated emailing system used when filling out a support form often refers users back to the help center or to pages that are outdated and cannot be accessed, leaving users at a dead end with no further support available.[not in citation given]
Downtime and outages
Facebook has had a number of outages and downtime large enough to draw some media attention. A 2007 outage resulted in a security hole that enabled some users to read other users' personal mail. In 2008, the site was inaccessible for about a day, from many locations in many countries. In spite of these occurrences, a report issued by Pingdom found that Facebook had less downtime in 2008 than most social-networking websites. On September 16, 2009, Facebook started having major problems with loading when people signed in. On September 18, 2009, Facebook went down for the second time in 2009, the first time being when a group of hackers were deliberately trying to drown out a political speaker who had social networking problems from continuously speaking against the Iranian election results.
Facebook has been criticized heavily for 'tracking' users, even when logged out of the site. Australian technologist Nik Cubrilovic discovered that when a user logs out of Facebook, the cookies from that login are still kept in the browser, allowing Facebook to track users on websites that include "social widgets" distributed by the social network. Facebook has denied the claims, saying they have 'no interest' in tracking users or their activity. They also promised after the discovery of the cookies that they would remove them, saying they will no longer have them on the site. A group of users in the United States have sued Facebook for breaching privacy laws.
As of December 2015, to comply with a court order citing violations of the European Union Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications—which requires users to consent to tracking and storage of data by websites, Facebook no longer allows users in Belgium to view any content on the service, even public pages, without being registered and logged in.
Email address change
In June 2012, Facebook removed all existing email addresses from user profiles, and added a new @facebook.com email address. Facebook claimed this was part of adding a "new setting that gives people the choice to decide which addresses they want to show on their timelines". However, this setting was redundant to the existing "Only Me" privacy setting which was already available to hide addresses from timelines. Users complained the change was unnecessary, they did not want an @facebook.com email address, and they did not receive adequate notification their profiles had been changed. The change in email address was synchronised to phones due to a software bug, causing existing email addresses details to be deleted. The facebook.com email service was retired in February 2014.
Safety Check bug
On March 27, 2016, following a bombing in Lahore, Pakistan, Facebook activated its "Safety Check" feature, which allows people to let friends and loved ones know they are okay following a crisis or natural disaster, to people who were never in danger, or even close to the Pakistan explosion. Some users as far as the US, UK and Egypt received notifications asking if they were okay.
Censorship on the Kashmir Freedom Movement
In 2016, Facebook banned and also removed content regarding the Kashmir dispute, triggering a response from The Guardian, BBC and other media group on the Facebook's policies on censorship. Facebook censorship policies have been criticised especially after the company banned the posts about the Indian army's attack on protesters, including children, with pellet gun. A human rights group superimposed pellet injuries similar to those inflicted on Kashmiri people on the faces of popular Indian actors, famous people including Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg and even Prime Minister Narendra Modi as a response, which went viral.
Kurdish opposition censorship
Facebook has a policy to censor anything related to Kurdish opposition against Turkey, such as maps of Kurdistan, flags of opposing parties (such as PKK and YPG), and criticism of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of Turkey.
Facebook's search function has been accused of preventing users from searching for certain terms. Michael Arrington of TechCrunch has written about Facebook's possible censorship of "Ron Paul" as a search term. MoveOn.org's Facebook group for organizing protests against privacy violations could for a time not be found by searching. The very word privacy was also restricted.
Censorship of editorial content
On February 4, 2010, a number of Facebook groups against the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB) were removed without any reason given. The DAB is one of the largest pro-Beijing political parties in Hong Kong. The affected groups have since been restored.
Accusation of politically biased granting of group upgrades
In May 2011, Facebook announced that in the coming months it will be "archiving" all groups in the old format, part of the consequence of which is losing all the existing members of a group, which would effectively destroy many groups, forcing them to re-acquire members from scratch. A few groups have been given an option to "upgrade" to the new groups format, which keeps the members, but the criteria for determining whether a group is offered this "upgrade" are unknown. Some groups have had success in getting this upgrade by having activity in their group, while others have not. One article has claimed an empirical observation that disproportionately more "liberal" groups have been able to upgrade than "conservative" groups, leading to accusations of potential political bias, or of politically motivated censorship of conservative groups.
Censorship of the word "moskal"
Around July 1, 2015 Facebook started to automatically ban accounts that use the word "moskal", which is a widely used historical slang term for people of Russia (formerly Moskovia until 1721), which may be seen offensive by some individuals. However, use of similar words such as "khokhol", which are widely used by Russian nationalists against Ukrainians, as well as insulting uses of "ukrop" (literally dill), were not prosecuted. In an experiment, journalist Max Kononenko has posted the poem "Моя родословная" by Alexander Pushkin for this account to be banned automatically within minutes. Posts of vice minister of Roskomnadzor, Max Ksenzov, were similarly automatically deleted. Ksenzov has accused Facebook of censorship and double standards and has removed his account in protest.
Facebook has a policy of removing photos which they believe violate the terms and conditions of the website. Images have been removed from user pages on topics such as breastfeeding, nudes in art, apparent breasts, naked mannequins, kisses between persons of the same sex and family photos.
In September 2016, a Norwegian newspaper has published an open letter to Zuckerberg after banning "Napalm Girl", a Pulitzer Prize-winning documentary photograph from the Vietnam War made by Nick Ut. Half of the ministers in the Norwegian government shared the famous Nick Ut photo on their Facebook pages, among them prime minister Erna Solberg from the Conservative Party (Høyre). But after only a few hours, several of the Facebook posts, including the Prime Minister's post, were deleted by Facebook.
As a reaction to the letter, Facebook reconsidered its opinion on this picture and republished it, recognizing "the history and global importance of this image in documenting a particular moment in time".
Facebook has been repeatedly criticized for removing photos uploaded by mothers breastfeeding their babies and canceling their Facebook accounts. Although photos that show an exposed breast violate Facebook's decency code, even when the baby covered the nipple, Facebook took several days to respond to criticism and deactivate a paid advertisement for a dating service that used a photo of a topless model.
The breastfeeding photo controversy continued following public protests and the growth in membership of a Facebook group titled "Hey, Facebook, breastfeeding is not obscene! (Official petition to Facebook)." In December 2011, Facebook removed photos of mothers breastfeeding and after public criticism, restored the photos. The company said it removed the photos they believed violated the pornographic rules in the company's terms and conditions. During February 2012, the company renewed its policy of removing photos of mothers breastfeeding. Founders of a Facebook group "Respect the Breast" reported that "women say they are tired of people lashing out at what is natural and what they believe is healthy for their children."
Censorship of 'blasphemous' content
Facebook has worked with Pakistani government to censor 'blasphemous' pages and speech inside Pakistan.
Censorship of 'hate speech'
In May 2016, Facebook and other technology companies agreed to a new "code of conduct" by the European Commission to review hateful online content within 24 hours of being notified, and subsequently remove such content if necessary. A year later, Reuters reported that the European Union had approved proposals to make Facebook and other technology companies tackle hate speech content on their platforms, but that a final agreement in the European Parliament is needed to make the proposals into law. In June 2017, the European Commission praised Facebook's efforts in fighting hateful content, having reviewed "nearly 58 percent of flagged content within 24 hours".
Censorship of conservative news
In May 2016, Facebook was accused by a former employee for leaving out conservative topics from the trending bar. Although Facebook denied these allegations, the site planned to improve the trending bar. Facebook was also in the news regarding this issue, on June 13, after anti-jihad activist Pamela Geller said that two of her pages were deleted (one was a page and the other a group, both named "Stop Islamization of America") and in the aftermath of the June 12 Orlando massacre, in which a pro-Islamic State gunman murdered 49 people, and injured 53 others, at a popular gay nightclub before being killed by a police tactical unit.
Third-party responses to Facebook
Several countries have banned access to Facebook, including Syria, China, and Iran. In 2010, the Office of the Data Protection Supervisor, a branch of the government of the Isle of Man, received so many complaints about Facebook that they deemed it necessary to provide a "Facebook Guidance" booklet (available online as a PDF file), which cited (amongst other things) Facebook policies and guidelines and included an elusive Facebook telephone number. This number when called, however, proved to provide no telephone support for Facebook users, and only played back a recorded message advising callers to review Facebook's online help information.
In 2010, Facebook reportedly allowed an objectionable page, deemed by the Islamic Lawyers Forum (ILF), to be anti-Muslim. The ILF filed a petition with Pakistan's Lahore High Court. On May 18, 2010, Justice Ijaz Ahmad Chaudhry ordered Pakistan's Telecommunication Authority to block access to Facebook until May 31. The offensive page had provoked street demonstrations in Muslim countries due to visual depictions of Prophet Mohammed, which are regarded as blasphemous by Muslims. A spokesman said Pakistan Telecommunication Authority would move to implement the ban once the order has been issued by the Ministry of Information and Technology. "We will implement the order as soon as we get the instructions", Khurram Mehran told AFP. "We have already blocked the URL link and issued instruction to Internet service providers yesterday", he added. Rai Bashir told AFP that "We moved the petition in the wake of widespread resentment in the Muslim community against the Facebook contents". The petition called on the government of Pakistan to lodge a strong protest with the owners of Facebook, he added. Bashir said a PTA official told the judge his organization had blocked the page, but the court ordered a total ban on the site. People demonstrated outside court in the eastern city of Lahore, Pakistan, carrying banners condemning Facebook. Protests in Pakistan on a larger scale took place after the ban and widespread news of that objectionable page. The ban was lifted on May 31 after Facebook reportedly assured the Lahore High Court that it would remedy the issues in dispute.
Organizations blocking access
Ontario government employees, Federal public servants, MPPs, and cabinet ministers were blocked from access to Facebook on government computers in May 2007. When the employees tried to access Facebook, a warning message "The Internet website that you have requested has been deemed unacceptable for use for government business purposes". This warning also appears when employees try to access YouTube, MySpace, gambling or pornographic websites. However, innovative employees have found ways around such protocols, and many claim to use the site for political or work-related purposes.
A number of local governments including those in the UK and Finland imposed restrictions on the use of Facebook in the workplace due to the technical strain incurred. Other government-related agencies, such as the US Marine Corps have imposed similar restrictions. A number of hospitals in Finland have also restricted Facebook use citing privacy concerns.
Schools blocking access
The University of New Mexico (UNM) in October 2005 blocked access to Facebook from UNM campus computers and networks, citing unsolicited e-mails and a similar site called UNM Facebook. After a UNM user signed into Facebook from off campus, a message from Facebook said, "We are working with the UNM administration to lift the block and have explained that it was instituted based on erroneous information, but they have not yet committed to restore your access." UNM, in a message to students who tried to access the site from the UNM network, wrote, "This site is temporarily unavailable while UNM and the site owners work out procedural issues. The site is in violation of UNM's Acceptable Computer Use Policy for abusing computing resources (e.g., spamming, trademark infringement, etc.). The site forces use of UNM credentials (e.g., NetID or email address) for non-UNM business." However, after Facebook created an encrypted login and displayed a precautionary message not to use university passwords for access, UNM unblocked access the following spring semester.
The Columbus Dispatch reported on June 22, 2006, that Kent State University's athletic director had planned to ban the use of Facebook by athletes and gave them until August 1 to delete their accounts. On July 5, 2006, the Daily Kent Stater reported that the director reversed the decision after reviewing the privacy settings of Facebook.
Several web sites concerned with social networking, such as Plugtodo.com and Salesforce.com have criticized the lack of information that users get when they share data. Advanced users cannot limit the amount of information anyone can access in their profiles, but Facebook promotes the sharing of personal information for marketing purposes, leading to the promotion of the service using personal data from users who are not fully aware of this. Facebook exposes personal data, without supporting open standards for data interchange. According to several communities and authors closed social networking, on the other hand, promotes data retrieval from other people while not exposing one's personal information.
Divya Narendra, Cameron Winklevoss, and Tyler Winklevoss, founders of the social network ConnectU, filed a lawsuit against Facebook in September 2004. The lawsuit alleged that Zuckerberg had broken an oral contract to build the social-networking site, copied the idea, and used source code that they provided to Zuckerberg to create competing site Facebook. Facebook countersued in regards to Social Butterfly, a project put out by The Winklevoss Chang Group, an alleged partnership between ConnectU and i2hub. It named among the defendants ConnectU, Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, Divya Narendra, and Wayne Chang, founder of i2hub. The parties reached a settlement agreement in February 2008, for $20 million in cash and 1,253,326 Facebook shares. On August 26, 2010, The New York Times reported that Facebook shares were trading at $76 per share in the secondary market, putting the total settlement value now at close to $120 million.
ConnectU filed another lawsuit against Facebook on March 11, 2008, attempting to rescind the settlement, claiming that Facebook, in settlement negotiations, had overstated the value of stock it was granting the ConnectU founders as part of the settlement. ConnectU argued that Facebook represented itself as being worth $15 billion at the time, due to the post-money valuation arising from Microsoft's purchase in 2007 of a 1.6% stake in Facebook for US $246 million. Facebook announced that valuation in a press release. However, Facebook subsequently performed an internal valuation that estimated a company value of $3.75 billion. ConnectU then fired the law firm Quinn Emanuel that had represented it in settlement discussions. Quinn Emanuel filed a $13 million lien against the settlement proceeds and ConnectU sued for malpractice. On August 25, 2010, an arbitration panel ruled that Quinn Emanuel had "earned its full contingency fee". It also found that Quinn Emanuel committed no malpractice. ConnectU's lawsuit against Facebook to quadruple its settlement remains ongoing.
In January 2010, it was reported that i2hub founder Wayne Chang and The i2hub Organization launched a lawsuit against ConnectU and its founders, Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra, seeking 50% of the settlement. The complaint states "Through this litigation, Chang asserts his ownership interest in The Winklevoss Chang Group and ConnectU, including the settlement proceeds." Lee Gesmer (of Gesmer Updegrove, LLP) posted the detailed 33-page complaint online. On April 12, 2011, a three-judge panel of a federal appeals court in San Francisco ruled that the Winklevoss brothers, whose fight over Facebook's origins was a major narrative arc of the film The Social Network, cannot back out of a settlement they signed with the company in 2008.
Aaron Greenspan created a web portal as a Harvard undergraduate called houseSYSTEM that launched in August 2003. In February 2004, when thefacebook.com launched, Greenspan recognized aspects of his own work in the site, and later came to believe that Zuckerberg was copying his work one feature at a time—a claim that Zuckerberg denied. Regarding Greenspan's allegations, Zuckerberg was described in The New York Times as "saying through a spokeswoman that he was not sure how to respond". Greenspan's company filed a Petition to Cancel the "Facebook" trademark, which included claims of prior use and fraud by Facebook, Inc. against the USPTO. Facebook, Inc. agreed to a formal settlement with Greenspan in late May 2009 and issued a press release, but the terms were not disclosed.
2009 class action lawsuit
On November 17, 2009, Rebecca Swift, on behalf of herself and all others similarly situated, filed a class action lawsuit against Zynga Game Network Inc. and Facebook, Inc. in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California for violation of the Unfair competition law and the Consumers Legal Remedies Act, and for unjust enrichment.
On June 30, 2010, Paul Ceglia, the owner of a wood pellet fuel company in Allegany County, New York, filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, claiming 84% ownership of Facebook as well as additional monetary damages. According to Ceglia, he and Zuckerberg signed a contract on April 28, 2003, that for an initial fee of $1,000, entitles Ceglia to 50% of the website's revenue, as well as additional 1% interest per each day after January 1, 2004, until website completion. Zuckerberg was developing other projects at the time, among which was Facemash, the predecessor of Facebook, but did not register the domain name thefacebook.com until January 1, 2004. Facebook management has dismissed the lawsuit as "completely frivolous". Facebook spokesman Barry Schnitt issued a statement indicating that the counsel for Ceglia had unsuccessfully attempted to seek an out-of-court settlement. In an interview to ABC World News, Zuckerberg stated he is confident of never signing such an agreement. At the time, Zuckerberg worked for Ceglia as a code developer on a project named "StreetFax". Judge Thomas Brown of Allegany Court issued a restraining order on all financial transfers concerning ownership of Facebook until further notice; in response, Facebook management successfully filed for the case to be moved to federal court. According to Facebook, the order does not affect their business but lacks legal basis.
Young v. Facebook, Inc.
In Young v. Facebook, Inc., plaintiff Karen Beth Young alleged violations of the Americans with Disabilities Act and related state laws on disability as well as breach of contract and negligence. A District Court judge dismissed the complaint, ruling that Facebook is a website, not a physical place, so the Americans with Disabilities Act does not apply.
Lane v. Facebook, Inc.
In March 2010, Judge Richard Seeborg issued an order approving the class settlement in Lane v. Facebook, Inc. This lawsuit charged that user's private information was being posted on Facebook without consent using Facebook's Beacon program.
Fraley v. Facebook, Inc.
Fraley v. Facebook, Inc. was a class-action case that alleged that Facebook had misappropriated users' names and likenesses in advertisements. The case settled in 2013, with checks to class members mailed in November 2016.
You may remove your User Content from the Site at any time. If you choose to remove your User Content, the license granted above will automatically expire, however you acknowledge that the Company may retain archived copies of your User Content.
This new voting system was initially applauded as Facebook's step to a more democratized social network system. However, the new terms were harshly criticized in a report by computer scientists from the University of Cambridge, who stated that the democratic process surrounding the new terms is disingenuous and significant problems remain in the new terms. The report was endorsed by the Open Rights Group.
In December 2009, EPIC and a number of other U.S. privacy organizations filed another complaint with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regarding Facebook's Terms of Service. In January 2011 EPIC filed a subsequent complaint claiming that Facebook's new policy of sharing users' home address and mobile phone information with third-party developers were "misleading and fail[ed] to provide users clear and privacy protections", particularly for children under age 18. Facebook temporarily suspended implementation of its policy in February 2011, but the following month announced it was "actively considering" reinstating the third-party policy.
Interoperability and data portability
Facebook has been criticized for failing to offer users a feature to export their friends' information, such as contact information, for use with other services or software. The inability of users to export their social graph in an open standard format contributes to vendor lock-in and contravenes the principles of data portability. Automated collection of user information without Facebook's consent violates its Statement of Rights and Responsibilities, and third-party attempts to do so (e.g., Web scraping) have resulted in litigation, Power.com.
Lawsuits over privacy
Facebook’s strategy of making revenue through advertising has created a lot of controversy for its users as some argue that it is "a bit creepy… but it is also brilliant." Some Facebook users have raised privacy concerns because they do not like that Facebook sells user’s information to third parties. In 2012, users sued Facebook for using their pictures and information on a Facebook advertisement. Facebook gathers user information by keeping track of pages users have "Liked" and through the interactions users have with their connections. They then create value of the gathered data by selling it. In 2009 users also filed a lawsuit for Facebook’s privacy invasion through Facebook Beacon system. Facebook’s team believed that through the Beacon system people could inspire their friends to buy similar products, however, users did not like the idea of sharing certain online purchases with their Facebook friends. Users were against Facebook’s invasion of privacy and sharing that privacy with the world. Facebook users became more aware of Facebook’s behavior with user information in 2009 as Facebook launched their new Terms of Service. In Facebook’s terms of service, Facebook admits that user information may be used for some of Facebook’s own purposes such as sharing a link to your posted images or for their own commercials and advertisements.
As Dijck argues in his book that, "the more users know about what happens to their personal data, the more inclined they are to raise objections." This created a battle between Facebook and Facebook users described as the "battle for information control." Facebook users have become aware of Facebook’s intentions and people now see Facebook "as serving the interests of companies rather than its users." In response to Facebook selling user information to third parties, concerned users have resorted to the method of "Obfuscation." Through obfuscation users can purposely hide their real identity and provide Facebook with false information that will make their collected data less accurate. By obfuscating information through sites such as "FaceCloak," Facebook users have regained control of their personal information. In other cases, Facebook’s revenue strategy of collecting user data and selling it to third parties is described as a "good business." This is because there have been cases where Facebook users that are "engaged" have been targeted with advertisements that are wedding correlated. This is regarded as a "good business" because the strategy is beneficial for Facebook and the user that will be planning their wedding. Marketing brands via Facebook can help create an organic reach as opposed to billboards because fans are directly targeted with information and ads of companies that they "like" or may benefit from. Although some users or marketers may appreciate the direct marketing that Facebook has produced, users that have filed lawsuits win the case. That is because in the end "Facebook’s response to lawsuits and other allegations over its privacy policies has been to listen to user complaints."
Better Business Bureau review
As of December 2010[update], the 36-month running count of complaints about Facebook logged with the Better Business Bureau is 1136, including 101 ("Making a full refund, as the consumer requested"), 868 ("Agreeing to perform according to their contract"), 1 ("Refuse [sic] to adjust, relying on terms of agreement"), 20 ("Unassigned"), 0 ("Unanswered") and 136 ("Refusing to make an adjustment").
Facebook's software has proven vulnerable to likejacking. On July 28, 2010, the BBC reported that security consultant Ron Bowes used a piece of code to scan Facebook profiles to collect data of 100 million profiles. The data collected was not hidden by the user's privacy settings. Bowes then published the list online. This list, which has been shared as a downloadable file, contains the URL of every searchable Facebook user's profile, their name and unique ID. Bowes said he published the data to highlight privacy issues, but Facebook claimed it was already public information.
In early June 2013, the New York Times reported that increase in malicious links related to the Trojan horse malware program Zeus were identified by Eric Feinberg, founder of the advocacy group Fans Against Kounterfeit Enterprise (FAKE). Feinberg said that the links were present on popular NFL Facebook fan pages and, following contact with Facebook, was dissatisfied with the corporation's "after-the-fact approach". Feinberg called for oversight, stating, "If you really want to hack someone, the easiest place to start is a fake Facebook profile—it's so simple, it's stupid."
Rewards for vulnerability reporting
On August 19, 2013, it was reported that a Facebook user from Palestinian Autonomy, Khalil Shreateh, found a bug that allowed him to post material to other users' Facebook Walls. Users are not supposed to have the ability to post material to the Facebook Walls of other users unless they are approved friends of those users that they have posted material to. To prove that he was telling the truth, Shreateh posted material to Sarah Goodin's wall, a friend of Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg. Following this, Shreateh contacted Facebook's security team with the proof that his bug was real, explaining in detail what was going on. Facebook has a bounty program in which it compensates people a $500+ fee for reporting bugs instead of using them to their advantage or selling them on the black market. However, it was reported that instead of fixing the bug and paying Shreateh the fee, Facebook originally told him that "this was not a bug" and dismissed him. Shreateh then tried a second time to inform Facebook, but they dismissed him yet again. On the third try, Shreateh used the bug to post a message to Mark Zuckerberg's Wall, stating "Sorry for breaking your privacy ... but a couple of days ago, I found a serious Facebook exploit" and that Facebook's security team was not taking him seriously. Within minutes, a security engineer contacted Shreateh, questioned him on how he performed the move and ultimately acknowledged that it was a bug in the system. Facebook temporarily suspended Shreateh's account and fixed the bug after several days. However, in a move that was met with much public criticism and disapproval, Facebook refused to pay out the 500+ fee to Shreateh; instead, Facebook responded that by posting to Zuckerberg's account, Shreateh had violated one of their terms of service policies and therefore "could not be paid." Included with this, the Facebook team strongly censured Shreateh over his manner of resolving the matter. In closing, they asked that Shreateh continue to help them find bugs.
On August 22, 2013, Yahoo News reported that Marc Maiffret, a chief technology officer of the cybersecurity firm BeyondTrust, is prompting hackers to help raise a $10,000 reward for Khalil Shreateh. On August 20, Maiffret stated that he had already raised $9,000 in his efforts, including the $2,000 he himself contributed. He and other hackers alike have denounced Facebook for refusing Shreateh compensation. Maiffret said: "He is sitting there in Palestine doing this research on a five-year-old laptop that looks like it is half broken. It's something that might help him out in a big way." Facebook representatives have since responded, "We will not change our practice of refusing to pay rewards to researchers who have tested vulnerabilities against real users." Facebook representatives also claimed they'd paid out over $1 million to individuals who have discovered bugs in the past.
In 2010, Prineville, Oregon was chosen as the site for a new Facebook data center. However, the center has been met with criticism from environmental groups such as Greenpeace because the power utility company contracted for the center, PacifiCorp, generates 60% of its electricity from coal. In September 2010, Facebook received a letter from Greenpeace containing half a million signatures asking the company to cut its ties to coal-based electricity.
On April 21, 2011, Greenpeace released a report showing that of the top ten big brands in cloud computing, Facebook relied the most on coal for electricity for its data centers. At the time, data centers consumed up to 2% of all global electricity and this amount was projected to increase. Phil Radford of Greenpeace said "we are concerned that this new explosion in electricity use could lock us into old, polluting energy sources instead of the clean energy available today."
On Thursday, December 15, 2011, Greenpeace and Facebook announced together that Facebook would shift to use clean and renewable energy to power its own operations. Marcy Scott Lynn, of Facebook's sustainability program, said it looked forward "to a day when our primary energy sources are clean and renewable" and that the company is "working with Greenpeace and others to help bring that day closer."
Facebook offers an advertising tool for pages to get more "likes". According to Business Insider, this advertising tool is called "Suggested Posts" or "Suggested Pages", allowing companies to market their page to thousands of new users for as little as US$50.
Global Fortune 100 firms are increasingly using social media marketing tools as the number of "likes" per Facebook page has risen by 115% globally.[clarification needed] Biotechnology company Comprendia investigated Facebook’s "likes" through advertising by analyzing the life science pages with the most likes. They concluded that at as much as 40% of "likes" from company pages are suspected to be fake. to Facebook’s annual report, an estimated 0.4% and 1.2% of active users are undesirable accounts that create fake likes.
Small companies such as PubChase have publicly testified against Facebook’s advertising tool, claiming legitimate advertising on Facebook creates fraudulent Facebook "likes". In May 2013, PubChase decided to build up their Facebook following through Facebook’s advertising, which promises to "connect with more of the people who matter to you." After the first day, the company grew suspicious of the increased likes as they ended up with 900 likes from India. According to PubChase, none of the users behind the "likes" seemed to be scientists. The statistics from Google Analytics indicate that India is not in the company’s main user base. PubChase continues by stating that Facebook has no interface to delete the fake likes; rather, the company must manually delete each follower themselves.
In February 2014, Derek Muller used his YouTube account Veritasium to upload a video titled "Facebook Fraud". Within 3 days, the video had gone viral with more than a million views (it has reached 2,521,614 views as of June 10, 2014). In the video, Muller illustrates how after paying US$50 to Facebook advertising, the "likes" to his fan page have tripled in a few days and soon reached 70,000 "likes", compared to his original 2,115 likes before the advertising. Despite the significant increase in likes, Muller noticed his page has actually decreased in engagement – there were fewer people commenting, sharing, and liking his posts and updates despite the significant increase in "likes". Muller also noticed that the users that "liked" his page were users that liked hundreds of other pages, including competing pages such as AT&T and T-Mobile. He theorizes that users are purposely clicking "like" on any and every page in order to deter attention away from the pages they were paid to "like". Muller claims, "I never bought fake likes, I used Facebook legitimate advertising, but the results are as if I paid for fake likes from a click farm"[better source needed]
In response to the fake "likes" complaints, Facebook told Business Insider:
|“||We're always focused on maintaining the integrity of our site, but we've placed an increased focus on abuse from fake accounts recently. We've made a lot of progress by building a combination of automated and manual systems to block accounts used for fraudulent purposes and Like button clicks. We also take action against sellers of fake clicks and help shut them down.||”|
On August 3, 2007, British companies including First Direct, Vodafone, Virgin Media, The Automobile Association, Halifax and the Prudential removed their advertisements from Facebook. A Virgin Media spokeswoman said "We want to advertise on social networks but we have to protect our brand". The companies found that their services were being advertised on pages of the British National Party, a far-right political party in the UK. New Media Age magazine was first to alert the companies that their ads were coming up on BNP's Facebook page.
In August 2012, Facebook revealed that more than 83 million Facebook accounts (8.7% of total users) are fake accounts. These fake profiles consist of duplicate profiles, accounts for spamming purposes and personal profiles for business, organization or non-human entities such as pets. As a result of this revelation, the share price of Facebook dropped below $20. Furthermore, there are lots of work which try to detect fake profile using automated means, in one such work machine learning techniques are used to detect fake users.
In September 2008, Facebook permanently moved its users to what they termed the "New Facebook" or Facebook 3.0. This version contained several different features and a complete layout redesign. Between July and September, users had been given the option to use the new Facebook in place of the original design, or to return to the old design.
In October 2009, Facebook redesigned the news feed so that the user could view all types of things that their friends were involved with. In a statement, they said,
... your applications [stories] generate can show up in both views. The best way for your stories to appear in the News Feed filter is to create stories that are highly engaging, as high quality, interesting stories are most likely to garner likes and comments by the user's friends.
This redesign was explained as:
News Feed will focus on popular content, determined by an algorithm based on interest in that story, including the number of times an item is liked or commented on. Live Feed will display all recent stories from a large number of a user's friends.
The redesign was met immediately with criticism with users, many who did not like the amount of information that was coming at them. This was also compounded by the fact that people couldn't select what they saw.
The change was described by Ryan Tate as Facebook's Great Betrayal, forcing user profile photos and friends lists to be visible in users' public listing, even for users who had explicitly chosen to hide this information previously, and making photos and personal information public unless users were proactive about limiting access. For example, a user whose "Family and Relationships" information was set to be viewable by "Friends Only" would default to being viewable by "Everyone" (publicly viewable). That is, information such as the gender of partner the user is interested in, relationship status, and family relations became viewable to those even without a Facebook account. Facebook was heavily criticized for both reducing its users' privacy and pushing users to remove privacy protections. Groups criticizing the changes include the Electronic Frontier Foundation and American Civil Liberties Union. Mark Zuckerberg, CEO, had hundreds of personal photos and his events calendar exposed in the transition. Facebook has since re-included an option to hide friends lists from being viewable; however, this preference is no longer listed with other privacy settings, and the former ability to hide the friends list from selected people among one's own friends is no longer possible. Journalist Dan Gillmor deleted his Facebook account over the changes, stating he "can't entirely trust Facebook" and Heidi Moore at Slate's Big Money temporarily deactivated her account as a "conscientious objection". Other journalists have been similarly disappointed and outraged by the changes. Defending the changes, founder Mark Zuckerberg said "we decided that these would be the social norms now and we just went for it". The Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada launched another investigation into Facebook's privacy policies after complaints following the change.
"Free basics" controversy in India
In February 2016, TRAI ruled against differential data pricing for limited services from mobile phone operators effectively ending zero-rating platforms in India. Zero rating provides access to limited number of websites for no charge to the end user. Net-neutrality supporters from India (SaveTheInternet.in) brought out the negative implications of Facebook Free Basic program and spread awareness to the public. Facebook's Free Basics program was a collaboration with Reliance Communications to launch Free Basics in India. The TRAI ruling against differential pricing marked the end of Free Basics in India.
Earlier, Facebook had spent $44 million USD in advertising and it implored all of its Indian users to send an email to the Telecom Regulatory Authority to support its program. TRAI later asked Facebook to provide specific responses from the supporters of Free Basics.
- Social media and suicide
- Unauthorized access in online social networks
- Filter bubble
- Surveillance capitalism
- Criticism of Google
- Criticism of Microsoft
- Criticism of Yahoo!
- Europe v Facebook
- Duncan, Geoff (June 17, 2010). "Open letter urges Facebook to strengthen privacy". Digital Trends. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Paul, Ian (June 17, 2010). "Advocacy Groups Ask Facebook for More Privacy Changes". PC World. International Data Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Aspen, Maria (February 11, 2008). "How Sticky Is Membership on Facebook? Just Try Breaking Free". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Anthony, Sebastian (March 19, 2014). "Facebook’s facial recognition software is now as accurate as the human brain, but what now?". ExtremeTech. Ziff Davis. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Gannes, Liz (June 8, 2011). "Facebook facial recognition prompts EU privacy probe". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Friedman, Matt (March 21, 2013). "Bill to ban companies from asking about job candidates' Facebook accounts is headed to governor". NJ.com. Advance Digital. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "How Facebook Breeds Jealousy". Seeker. Group Nine Media. February 10, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Matyszczyk, Chris (August 11, 2009). "Study: Facebook makes lovers jealous". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Ngak, Chenda (November 27, 2012). "Facebook may cause stress, study says". CBS News. CBS. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Smith, Dave (November 13, 2015). "Quitting Facebook will make you happier and less stressed, study says". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Bugeja, Michael J. (January 23, 2006). "Facing the Facebook". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Archived from the original on February 20, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Hough, Andrew (April 8, 2011). "Student 'addiction' to technology 'similar to drug cravings', study finds". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Facebook and Twitter 'more addictive than tobacco and alcohol'". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. February 1, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Wauters, Robin (September 16, 2010). "Greenpeace Slams Zuckerberg For Making Facebook A "So Coal Network" (Video)". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Neate, Rupert (December 23, 2012). "Facebook paid £2.9m tax on £840m profits made outside US, figures show". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Grinberg, Emanuella (September 18, 2014). "Facebook 'real name' policy stirs questions around identity". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Doshi, Vidhi (July 19, 2016). "Facebook under fire for 'censoring' Kashmir-related posts and accounts". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Arrington, Michael (November 22, 2007). "Is Facebook Really Censoring Search When It Suits Them?". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 7, 2013). "NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Setalvad, Ariha (August 7, 2015). "Why Facebook’s video theft problem can’t last". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Facebook, Twitter and Google grilled by MPs over hate speech". BBC News. BBC. March 14, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Toor, Amar (September 15, 2015). "Facebook will work with Germany to combat anti-refugee hate speech". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Sherwell, Philip (October 16, 2011). "Cyber anarchists blamed for unleashing a series of Facebook 'rape pages'". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "20,000 Israelis sue Facebook for ignoring Palestinian incitement". The Times of Israel. October 27, 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Israel: Facebook’s Zuckerberg has blood of slain Israeli teen on his hands". The Times of Israel. July 2, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Burke, Samuel (November 19, 2016). "Zuckerberg: Facebook will develop tools to fight fake news". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Hillary Clinton says Facebook 'must prevent fake news from creating a new reality'". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. June 1, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Fiegerman, Seth (May 9, 2017). "Facebook's global fight against fake news". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Grinberg, Emanuella; Said, Samira (March 22, 2017). "Police: At least 40 people watched teen's sexual assault on Facebook Live". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Grinberg, Emanuella (January 5, 2017). "Chicago torture: Facebook Live video leads to 4 arrests". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Sulleyman, Aatif (April 27, 2017). "Facebook Live killings: Why the criticism has been harsh". The Independent. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Oweis, Khaled Yacoub (November 23, 2007). "Syria blocks Facebook in Internet crackdown". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Wauters, Robin (July 7, 2009). "China Blocks Access To Twitter, Facebook After Riots". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Iranian government blocks Facebook access". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. May 24, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Farivar, Cyrus (January 7, 2016). "Appeals court upholds deal allowing kids’ images in Facebook ads". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Levine, Dan; Oreskovic, Alexei (March 12, 2012). "Yahoo sues Facebook for infringing 10 patents". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Wagner, Kurt (February 1, 2017). "Facebook lost its Oculus lawsuit and has to pay $500 million". Recode. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Brandom, Rusell (May 19, 2016). "Lawsuit claims Facebook illegally scanned private messages". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Tryhorn, Chris (July 25, 2007). "Facebook in court over ownership". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Michels, Scott (July 20, 2007). "Facebook Founder Accused of Stealing Idea for Site". ABC News. ABC. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Carlson, Nicholas (March 5, 2010). "How Mark Zuckerberg Hacked Into Rival ConnectU In 2004". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Arthur, Charles (February 12, 2009). "Facebook paid up to $65m to founder Mark Zuckerberg's ex-classmates". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Singel, Ryan (April 11, 2011). "Court Tells Winklevoss Twins to Quit Their Facebook Whining". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Stempel, Jonathan (July 22, 2011). "Facebook wins dismissal of second Winklevoss case". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Facebook Locks Out Thousands, Now Wants Photo ID". conspiracyclub. March 25, 2015. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- Brinkmann, Martin (October 29, 2013). "Facebook asking locked out users to provide Government ID". Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- Bowen, Barry (November 20, 2013). "Privacy Watch: Facebook Requests Copy of Driver's License". Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "A Handy Facebook-to-English Translator | Electronic Frontier Foundation". Eff.org. April 28, 2010. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- "Zuckerberg family pic stirs Facebook privacy debate". CBS News. December 27, 2012. Retrieved June 4, 2012.
- Hoffman, Harrison (August 12, 2007). "Facebook's source code goes public". CNET News.com.
- Richards, Jonathan (August 14, 2007). "Facebook Source Code Leaked Onto Internet". Fox News Channel.
- "Facebook's PHP leak SNAFU". Szinf.com. July 6, 2015.
- Cubrilovic, Nik (August 11, 2007). "Facebook Source Code Leaked". TechCrunch.
- Ortutay, Barbara (September 21, 2009). "Facebook to end Beacon tracking tool in settlement". USA Today. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- Henry Blodget (December 1, 2007). "NYT: Facebook's Zuckerberg Misled Us; Coke: Ditto - Silicon Alley Insider". Alleyinsider.com. Archived from the original on January 31, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Stefan Berteau (November 29, 2007). "Facebook's Misrepresentation of Beacon's Threat to Privacy: Tracking users who opt out or are not logged in.". CA Security Advisor Research Blog. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved December 24, 2007.
- Stefan Berteau (November 30, 2007). "Update: A Statement From Facebook". CA Security Advisor Research Blog. Archived from the original on November 28, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- Rosmarin, Rachel (September 5, 2006). "Facebook's Makeover". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 5, 2006. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
- "Facebook CEO: 'We Really Messed This One Up'". NBC11.com. September 8, 2006. Archived from the original on January 28, 2007. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
- Kirkpatrick, David (2010). The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World. New York City: Simon & Schuster. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-4391-0211-4.
- Jesdanun, Anick (2006). "Facebook offers new privacy options". Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 13, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- "Making Control Simple". Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "John Lynch & Jenny Ellickson, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section, Obtaining and Using Evidence from Social Networking Sites: Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn, and more" (PDF). Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- "From Facebook to Mug Shot: How the Dearth of Social Networking Privacy Rights Revolutionized Online Government Surveillance". SSRN .
- http://digitalcommons.pace.edu/plr/vol31/iss1 Pace Law Review
- Rapport over verzoeken tot gegevensverstrekking van internationale overheden. Facebook. Retrieved on September 4, 2013.
- ap.google.com, Canada launches privacy probe into Facebook Archived June 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Privacy Commissioner's Findings in the case of CIPPIC against Facebook" (PDF). Retrieved January 15, 2010.
- Jones, Harvey & Soltren, José Hiram (2005). "Facebook: Threats to Privacy" (PDF). Cambridge, MA: MIT (MIT 6.805/STS085: Ethics and Law on the Electronic Frontier - Fall 2005). (PDF)
- "Facebook Security Response". TheIndyChannel.com. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- Peterson, Chris (February 13, 2006). "Who's Reading Your Facebook?". The Virginia Informer.
- Buckley, Christine (August 30, 2007). "Get a life and allow your staff to use Facebook, TUC tells bosses". London: The Times. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- "Facebook Opens Profiles to Public". BBC Online. September 7, 2007.
- "Facebook security". BBC. October 24, 2007. Archived from the original on February 20, 2008. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- "Controlling How You Share". Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- Aspan, Maria (February 11, 2008). "How Sticky Is Membership on Facebook? Just Try Breaking Free". New York Times. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "Information we receive about you". Facebook. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- "Net generation grieves with Facebook postings". News Observer. Archived from the original on August 20, 2007. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- Batista, Sarah (November 21, 2005). "UVA Student Remembered". Charlottesville Newsplex. Archived from the original on January 19, 2008. Retrieved April 10, 2006.
- Bernhard, Stephanie (January 25, 2006). "Community mourns death of Pagan '06". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved April 10, 2006.
- Kelleher, Kristina (February 22, 2007). "Facebook profiles become makeshift memorials". The Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- Hortobagyi, Monica (May 8, 2007). "USA Today article". USA Today. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- Drudi, Cassandra (January 5, 2008). "Facebook proves problematic for police". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- "Angry Facebook Users Illegally Leaked the Names of Accused Underage Murderers". Digital Journal. January 5, 2008. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- "Defacing Facebook". July 27, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
- Paul, Ian (May 31, 2010). "It's Quit Facebook Day, Are You Leaving? - PCWorld". PC World. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
- Woollacott, Emma (May 31, 2010). "Quit Facebook Day set to be a flop". TG Daily. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
- Jemima Kiss (June 1, 2010). "Facebook: Did anyone really quit?". London: Guardian.
- "Who Commits Virtual Identity Suicide? Differences in Privacy Concerns, Internet Addiction, and Personality Between Facebook Users and Quitters". Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.(subscription required)
- "Facebook’s facial recognition software is now as accurate as the human brain, but what now? | ExtremeTech". extremetech.com. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Facebook Taking Hits Over Facial Recognition Feature. Washington: Atlantic Media, Inc, 2011. ProQuest. Web. December 6, 2016.
- "Facebook facial recognition raises eyebrows in Germany, EU". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
- Milian, Mark. "Facebook lets users opt out of facial recognition". CNN International. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
- Gannes, Liz. "Facebook facial recognition prompts EU privacy probe". Cnet News. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
- Lachance, Naomi. Facebook's Facial Recognition Software is Different from the FBI's. here's Why. Washington: NPR, 2016. ProQuest. Web. December 6, 2016.
- Computer, Express. "Facebooks' Mark Zuckerberg: 'we should Not be Afraid of AI'." Express Computer (2016) ProQuest. Web. December 6, 2016.
- "Was Facebook über User weiß - news.ORF.at". Orf.at. November 27, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Interview with "Midlands 103", August 28, 2011 http://www.europe-v-facebook.org/midlands103.mp3
- "An Coimisineir Cosanta Sonrai (Data Protection Commissioner) letter" (PDF). August 24, 2011. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Drucker, Jesse (October 21, 2010). "Google 2.4% Rate Shows How $60 Billion Lost to Tax Loopholes - Bloomberg". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved May 21, 2013.
- "Facebook’s Data Pool". europe-v-facebook.org.
- "Removed content" (PDF). August 22, 2011. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Facebook Data Categories" (PDF). April 3, 2012. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Legal Procedure against "Facebook Ireland Limited"". europe-v-facebook.org.
- Saturday, August 27, 2011 (August 27, 2011). "Facebook won’t ‘like’ its 17th complaint". Irish Examiner. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- "Europe versus Facebook". Europe-v-facebook.org. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Achohido, Byron (November 15, 2011). "Facebook tracking is under scrutiny". USA Today. Gannett Company. Archived from the original on November 16, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- "Belgian court orders Facebook to stop tracking non-members". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. November 10, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Baraniuk, Chris (December 2, 2015). "Facebook bows to Belgian privacy ruling over cookies". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Statt, Nick (December 2, 2015). "After privacy ruling, Facebook now requires Belgium users to log in to view pages". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Divorce cases get the Facebook factor. - MEN Media. Published January 19, 2011. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- Facebook's Other Top Trend of 2009: Divorce - Network World. Published December 22, 2009. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- "Facebook to Blame for Divorce Boom". Fox News. April 12, 2010.
- Facebook is divorce lawyers' new best friend - MSNBC. Published June 28, 2010. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- "Facebook flirting triggers divorces". The Times Of India. January 1, 2012.
- Anson, Alexander (Nov 12, 2012). "Facebook Stalking Statistics 2012". ansonalex.com. Anson, Alexander. Retrieved Oct 26, 2014.
- "Stalking Statistics". Violence Prevention and Action Center. John Carroll University. Retrieved Oct 26, 2014.
- Westlake, E. J. (2008), "Friend Me if You Facebook: Generation Y and Performative Surveillance", The Drama Review, 52 (4): 21–40, doi:10.1162/dram.2008.52.4.21
- Steel, Emily; Fowler, Geoffrey A. (October 18, 2010). "Facebook in Privacy Breach". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Takahashi, Dean (October 17, 2010). "WSJ reports Facebook apps — including banned LOLapps games — transmitted private user data". VentureBeat. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Friedman, Matt (March 21, 2013). "Bill to ban companies from asking about job candidates' Facebook accounts is headed to governor". NJ.com. Advance Digital. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- N. Landers, Richard (2016). Social Media in Employee Selection and Recruitment: theory, practice, and current challenges (PDF). Switzerland: Springer international publishing. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9783319299891. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
- Fourth Amendment, U.S Constitution
- "Why Parents Help Their Children Lie to Facebook About Age: Unintended Consequences of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act". Journalist's Resource.org.
- Schweitzer, Sarah (October 6, 2005). "Fisher College expels student over website entries". The Boston Globe.
- O'Toole, Catie (January 24, 2010). "Seventh-grade North Syracuse student suspended, 25 others disciplined for Facebook page about teacher". The Post-Standard. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- Peluchette, Joy; Karl, Katherine (2010). "Examining Students' Intended Image on Facebook: "what were they Thinking?!".". Journal of Education for Business. 85 (1): 30–7. doi:10.1080/08832320903217606.
- Bugeja, Michael (January 3, 2006). "Facing the Facebook". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Archived from the original on February 20, 2008. Retrieved October 6, 2006.
- Bugeja, Michael J. (January 26, 2007). "Distractions in the Wireless Classroom". Chronicle Careers. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved June 26, 2007.
- National Association of Campus Activities (July 12, 2006). "Facing the Facebook". Archived from the original on June 27, 2006. Retrieved October 6, 2006.
- Association for Education in Journalism and Communication (2006). "Facing the Facebook: Administrative Issues Involving Social Networks". Archived from the original on October 8, 2007. Retrieved October 6, 2006.
- EDUCAUSE Learning Institute (2006). "7 Things You Should Know About Facebook". Archived from the original on September 16, 2006. Retrieved October 6, 2006.
- Junco, R (2012). "Too much face and not enough books: The relationship between multiple indices of Facebook use and academic performance" (PDF). Computers in Human Behavior. 28 (1): 187–198. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2011.08.026.
- Junco, R (2012). "The relationship between frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook activities, and student engagement" (PDF). Computers & Education. 58 (1): 162–171. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.004.
- Heiberger, Greg and Harper, Ruth (2008). Have you Facebooked Astin lately? In Reynol Junco and Dianne M. Timm (Eds). Using Emerging Technologies to Enhance Student Engagement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Cotten, Shelia R. (2008). Students' technology use and the impacts on well-being. In Reynol Junco and Dianne M. Timm (Eds). Using Emerging Technologies to Enhance Student Engagement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Kirschner, P. A.; Karpinski, A. C. (2010). "Facebook and academic performance". Computers in Human Behavior. 26: 1237–1245. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.024.
- Kolek, E. A., & Saunders, D. (2008). Online disclosure: An empirical examination of undergraduate Facebook proﬁles. NASPA Journal, 45(1), 1–25.
- Pasek, J., More, E., & Hargittai, E. (2009). Facebook and academic performance: Reconciling a media sensation with data. First Monday, 14(5). http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2498/2181
- "Potential for Facebook addiction and consequences". July 15, 2012.
- "The Anti-Social Network". slate.com. January 26, 2011.
- "How Facebook Breeds Jealousy". discovery.com. February 10, 2010.
- "Study: Facebook makes lovers jealous". cnet.com. August 11, 2009.
- "Jealous much? MySpace, Facebook can spark it". msnbc.msn.com. July 31, 2007.
- "Facebook Causes Jealousy, Hampers Romance, Study Finds". University of Guelph. February 13, 2007.
- "Facebook jealousy sparks asthma attacks in dumped boy". usatoday.com. November 19, 2010.
- Hanna Krasnova; Helena Wenninger; Thomas Widjaja; Peter Buxmann (January 23, 2013). "Envy on Facebook: A Hidden Threat to Users’ Life Satisfaction?" (PDF). 11th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, February 27 – March 1, 2013, Leipzig, Germany. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 1, 2014. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- BBC News - Facebook use 'makes people feel worse about themselves'. Bbc.co.uk (August 15, 2013). Retrieved on 2013-09-04.
- "Does Facebook Stress You Out?". webpronews.com. February 17, 2010.
- Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. Online Social Networks as a Source and Symbol of Stress: An Empirical Analysis Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS) 2012, Orlando (FL)
- Maier, C., Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., and Weitzel, T. Giving too much Social Support: Social Overload on Social Networking Sites, European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS). 2014 doi:10.1057/ejis.2014.3
- Hough, Andrew (April 8, 2011). "Student 'addiction' to technology 'similar to drug cravings', study finds". London: Telegraph Media Group.
- "Facebook and Twitter 'more addictive than tobacco and alcohol'". London: Telegraph Media Group. February 1, 2012.
- Edwards, Ashton (August 1, 2014). "Facebook goes down for 30 minutes, 911 calls pour in". Fox13. Retrieved August 2, 2016.
- Bromley, Alanna (2011). "Are social networking sites breeding antisocial young people?" (PDF). Journal of Digital Research and Publishing.
- "Students Take On Cyberbullying".
- Baron, Naomi S. (2007). "My Best Day: Presentation of Self and Social Manipulation in Facebook and IM" (PDF).
- "A new addiction for teacher candidates: social networks" (PDF). The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology. 11 (3). 2012.
- Turkle, Sherry (2011): Alone Together. Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. New York: Basic Books.
- Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks, 
- Robert Booth (2014). "Facebook reveals news feed experiment to control emotions". The Guardian. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- Adam D. I. Kramer, Jamie E. Guillory. Jeffrey T. Hancock (2014). "Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111 (24): 8788–8790. PMC . PMID 24889601. doi:10.1073/pnas.1320040111.
- "OK so. A lot of people have asked me... - Adam D. I. Kramer - Facebook". facebook.com.
- David Goldman (July 2, 2014). "Facebook still won't say 'sorry' for mind games experiment". CNNMoney. Retrieved July 3, 2014.
- Guynn, Jessica (July 3, 2014). "Privacy watchdog files complaint over Facebook study". USA Today. USA Today. Retrieved July 5, 2014.
- "Facebook's 'experiment' was socially irresponsible | Technology". The Guardian. July 1, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- Verma, IM (July 22, 2014). "Editorial Expression of Concern: Experimental evidence of massivescale emotional contagion through social networks". PNAS. 111 (29): 10779–10779. PMC . PMID 24994898. doi:10.1073/pnas.1412469111. Retrieved October 25, 2016 – via www.pnas.org.
- Grimmelmann, James (September 23, 2014). "Illegal, immoral, and mood-altering: How Facebook and OkCupid broke the law when they experimented on users". Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- Neate, Rupert (December 23, 2012). "Facebook paid £2.9m tax on £840m profits made outside US, figures show". Retrieved October 25, 2016 – via The Guardian.
- "Facebook paid £4,327 corporation tax in 2014". October 12, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2016 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- 26 U.S.C. § 7602.
- Seth Fiegerman, "Facebook is being investigated by the IRS," July 7, 2016, CNN, at .
- United States of America v. Facebook, Inc. and Subsidiaries, case no. 16-cv-03777, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (San Francisco Div.).
- Facebook vs. Google fight turns nasty "
- Setalvad, Ariha (August 7, 2015). "Why Facebook’s video theft problem can’t last". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
- Oremus, Will (July 8, 2015). "Facebook’s Piracy Problem". Slate. The Slate Group. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
- Luckerson, Victor (August 28, 2015). "Facebook to Crack Down on Online Video Piracy". Time. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
- Constine, Josh (April 12, 2016). "Facebook launches video Rights Manager to combat freebooting". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
- Kelion, Leo (May 1, 2013). "Facebook U-turn after charities criticise decapitation videos". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Winter, Michael (October 21, 2013). "Facebook again allows violent videos, with caveat". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- "Facebook pulls beheading video". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. October 23, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Harrison, Virginia (October 23, 2013). "Outrage erupts over Facebook's decision on graphic videos". CNNMoney. CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Gibbs, Samuel (January 13, 2015). "Facebook tackles graphic videos and photos with 'are you sure?' warnings". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Kelion, Leo (January 13, 2015). "Facebook restricts violent video clips and photos". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Mangalindan, JP (August 5, 2015). "Facebook launches live streaming, but only for famous people". Mashable. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Barrett, Brian (January 28, 2016). "Facebook Livestreaming Opens Up to Everyone With an iPhone". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Newton, Casey (January 28, 2016). "Facebook rolls out live video streaming to everyone in the United States". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Newton, Casey (December 3, 2015). "Facebook begins testing live video streaming for all users". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Chrisafis, Angelique; Willsher, Kim (June 14, 2016). "French police officer and partner murdered in 'odious terrorist attack'". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Madden, Justin (June 17, 2016). "Chicago man shot dead while live streaming on Facebook". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Chaykowski, Kathleen (July 7, 2016). "Philando Castile's Death On Facebook Live Highlights Problems For Social Media Apps". Forbes. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- McLaughlin, Eliott C.; Blau, Max; Vercammen, Paul (September 30, 2016). "Police: Man killed by officer pointed vaping device, not gun". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Berman, Mark; Hawkins, Derek (January 5, 2017). "Hate crime charges filed after ‘reprehensible’ video shows attack on mentally ill man in Chicago". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Steele, Billy (March 22, 2017). "Dozens watched a Facebook Live stream of sexual assault (updated)". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Gibbs, Samuel (April 25, 2017). "Facebook under pressure after man livestreams killing of his daughter". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Solon, Olivia (January 27, 2017). "Why a rising number of criminals are using Facebook Live to film their acts". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Solon, Olivia; Levin, Sam (January 6, 2017). "Facebook refuses to explain why live torture video wasn't removed sooner". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Krasodomski-Jones, Alex (January 9, 2017). "Facebook has created a monster it cannot tame". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Bhattacharya, Ananya (June 18, 2016). "Facebook Live is becoming a gruesome crime scene for murders". Quartz. Atlantic Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Gibbs, Samuel (May 3, 2017). "Facebook Live: Zuckerberg adds 3,000 moderators in wake of murders". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Murphy, Mike (May 3, 2017). "Facebook is hiring 3,000 more people to monitor Facebook Live for murders, suicides, and other horrific video". Quartz. Atlantic Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Ingram, David (May 3, 2017). "Facebook tries to fix violent video problem with 3,000 new workers". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Peng, Tina (November 22, 2008). "Pro-anorexia groups spread to Facebook". Newsweek. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- "Pro-anorexia site clampdown urged". BBC News. BBC. February 24, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- Masciarelli, Alexis (January 9, 2009). "Anger at pro-Mafia groups on Facebook". France 24. France Médias Monde. Archived from the original on September 6, 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- Donadio, Rachel (January 20, 2009). "Italian authorities wary of Facebook tributes to Mafia". The New York Times International Edition. Archived from the original on January 24, 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- Pullella, Philip (January 12, 2009). "Pro-mafia Facebook pages cause alarm in Italy". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- Krangel, Eric (February 11, 2009). "Italy Considering National Ban On Facebook, YouTube In Plan To Return To Dark Ages". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- Kington, Tom (February 16, 2009). "Italian bill aims to block mafia Facebook shrines". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- Nicole, Kristen (February 12, 2009). "Mafia Bosses Could Cause Italy's Blocking of Facebook". Adweek. Beringer Capital. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- Oates, John (February 12, 2009). "Facebook hits back at Italian ban". The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- "Trolling: The Today Show Explores the Dark Side of the Internet", March 31, 2010. Retrieved April 4, 2010. Archived June 8, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- s127 of the Communications Act 2003 of Great Britain. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- Murder victim-mocking troll jailed, The Register, November 1, 2010. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- Jade Goody website 'troll' from Manchester jailed, BBC, October 29, 2010. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- Facebook troll Bradley Paul Hampson seeks bail, appeal against jail term, The Courier-Mail, April 20, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- Facebook urged to ban teens from setting up tribute pages, The Australian, June 5, 2010. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- Sherwell, Philip (October 16, 2011). "Cyber anarchists blamed for unleashing a series of Facebook 'rape pages'". Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
- "Facebook ‘rape page’ whitelisted and campaign goes global". womensviewsonnews.org.
Meanwhile, campaigns in other countries have begun, most notably in Canada with the Rape is no joke (RINJ) campaign, which has not only campaigned fiercely but has also put together a YouTube video.
- "Facebook Refuses To Remove Rape Pages...". Albuquerque Express. October 23, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
- "Facebook Refuses to Remove ‘Rape Pages’ Linked to Australian, British Youth". International Business Times. October 18, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
O'Brien said the campaign is now focusing on Facebook advertisers telling them not to let their advertisements be posted on the "rape pages."
- Sara C Nelson (May 28, 2013). "#FBrape: Will Facebook Heed Open Letter Protesting 'Endorsement Of Rape & Domestic Violence'?". The Huffington Post UK. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- Rory Carroll (May 29, 2013). "Facebook gives way to campaign against hate speech on its pages". The Guardian UK. London. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- "Facebook criticised by NSPCC over baby ducking video clip". BBC News. June 5, 2015.
- "Facebook failed to remove sexualised images of children". BBC News. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
- "Facebook, Twitter and Google grilled by MPs over hate speech". BBC News. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
- Layug, Margaret Claire (July 3, 2017). "'Pastor Hokage' FB groups trading lewd photos of women exposed". GMA News. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- Layug, Margaret Claire (July 5, 2017). "Victim of 'Pastor' FB reports harassment, indecent proposals". GMA News. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- De Jesus, Julliane Love (July 6, 2017). "Hontiveros wants stiff penalties vs ‘Pastor Hokage’ FB groups". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- "20,000 Israelis sue Facebook for ignoring Palestinian incitement". The Times of Israel. October 27, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- "Israel: Facebook's Zuckerberg has blood of slain Israeli teen on his hands". The Times of Israel. July 2, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- Wittes, Benjamin; Bedell, Zoe (July 12, 2016). "Facebook, Hamas, and Why a New Material Support Suit May Have Legs". Lawfare.
- Pileggi, Tamar (July 11, 2016). "US terror victims seek $1 billion from Facebook for Hamas posts". The Times of Israel. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- "Hezbollah created Palestinian terror cells on Facebook, Israel says after bust". JTA. August 16, 2016. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- Zitun, Yoav (August 16, 2016). "Shin Bet catches Hezbollah recruitment cell in the West Bank". Ynet News. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- Gross, Judah Ari (August 16, 2016). "Hezbollah terror cells, set up via Facebook in West Bank and Israel, busted by Shin Bet". The Times of Israel. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- "Knesset approves Facebook bill in preliminary vote". July 20, 2016. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- Lecher, Colin (June 15, 2017). "Facebook says it wants ‘to be a hostile place for terrorists’". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- "Facebook using artificial intelligence to fight terrorism". CBS News. CBS. June 15, 2017. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- Solon, Olivia (June 16, 2017). "Revealed: Facebook exposed identities of moderators to suspected terrorists". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Wong, Joon Ian (June 16, 2017). "The workers who police terrorist content on Facebook were exposed to terrorists by Facebook". Quartz. Atlantic Media. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Shahani, Aarti (November 17, 2016). "From Hate Speech To Fake News: The Content Crisis Facing Mark Zuckerberg". NPR.
- Burke, Samuel (November 19, 2016). "Zuckerberg: Facebook will develop tools to fight fake news". CNN Money. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- Shahani, Aarti. Zuckerberg Denies Fake News on Facebook had Impact on the Election. Washington: NPR, 2016. ProQuest.
- Kravets, David. Facebook, Google Seek to Gut Fake News Sites’ Money Stream. New York: Condé Nast Publications, Inc, 2016. ProQuest. Web. December 5, 2016.
- Kravets, David. Facebook, Google Seek to Gut Fake News Sites’ Money Stream. New York: Condé Nast Publications, Inc, 2016. ProQuest. Web. December 6, 2016.
- Newitz, Annalee. Facebook Fires Human Editors, Algorithm Immediately Posts Fake News. New York: Condé Nast Publications, Inc, 2016. ProQuest. Web. December 6, 2016.
- Lysiak, Michael (February 23, 2014). "How to delete the Fox News Roller Coaster Accident Spam/Scam Post and App Permissions from Facebook". Dominant Domains Web Design and SEO.
- Grinberg, Emanuella (September 18, 2014). "Facebook 'real name' policy stirs questions around identity". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Copley, Caroline (March 4, 2016). "German court rules Facebook may block pseudonyms". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Ortutay, Barbara (May 25, 2009). "Real users caught in Facebook fake-name purge". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Levy, Karyne (October 1, 2014). "Facebook Apologizes For 'Real Name' Policy That Forced Drag Queens To Change Their Profiles". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Crook, Jordan (October 1, 2014). "Facebook Apologizes To LGBT Community And Promises Changes To Real Name Policy". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- Osofsky, Jason; Gage, Todd (December 15, 2015). "Community Support FYI: Improving the Names Process on Facebook". Facebook Newsroom. Facebook. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- AFP (December 16, 2015). "Facebook modifies 'real names' policy, testing use of assumed names". CTV News. Bell Media. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- Holpuch, Amanda (December 15, 2015). "Facebook adjusts controversial 'real name' policy in wake of criticism". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Halliday, Josh (July 6, 2013). "Facebook apologises for deleting free speech group's post on Syrian torture". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
- "Jealous Wives Are Getting Courtney Stodden Banned on Facebook - Softpedia". News.softpedia.com. October 14, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "When good lulz go bad: unpicking the ugly business of online harassment". wired.co.uk. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- "Niet compatibele browser". Facebook. Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- "Caroline McCarthy, "Facebook outage draws more security questions", CNET News.com, ZDNet Asia, August 2, 2007". Zdnetasia.com. August 2, 2007. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "David Hamilton, "Facebook Outage Hits Some Countries", Web Host Industry Review, Jun. 26, 2008". Thewhir.com. Archived from the original on April 2, 2010. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "K.C. Jones, "Facebook, MySpace More Reliable Than Peers", Information Week, February 19, 2009". Informationweek.com. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Facebook Outage and Facebook Down September 18 2009". Archived from the original on August 9, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
- McCarthy, Caroline (October 8, 2009). "Facebook's mounting customer service crisis | The Social - CNET News". News.cnet.com. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- McCarthy, Caroline (October 10, 2009). "Downed Facebook accounts still haven't returned | The Social - CNET News". News.cnet.com. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- "Facebook Outage Silences 150,000 Users". PC World. October 13, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- Gaudin, Sharon (October 13, 2009). "Facebook deals with missing accounts, 150,000 angry users". Computerworld.com. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- Reisinger, Don (May 18, 2012). "Facebook sued for $15 billion over alleged privacy infractions". News.cnet.com. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- "After privacy ruling, Facebook now requires Belgium users to log in to view pages". The Verge. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
- Gordon, Whitson. "Facebook Changed Everyone's Email to @Facebook.com; Here's How to Fix Yours". Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- Johnston, Casey (July 2, 2012). "@facebook.com e-mail plague chokes phone address books". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Hamburger, Ellis (February 24, 2014). "Facebook retires its troubled @facebook.com email service". Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- "Facebook mistakenly asked people if they were in Pakistan following a deadly explosion". Tech Insider. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- "Facebook's Safety Check malfunctions after Pakistan bombing". CNET. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- Photoshopped celebrities used for Kashmir pellet gun campaign. BBC News, July 28, 2016.
- Doshi, Vidhi. 2016. Facebook under fire for 'censoring' Kashmir-related posts and accounts. The Guardian, July 19, 2016.
- Lakshmi, Rama. 2016. Facebook is censoring some posts on Indian Kashmir. Washington Post, July 27, 2016.
- Who removes Kashmir posts on Facebook?. Daily Dawn, July 28, 2016.
- Adamczyk, Ed. 2016. Kashmir activist campaign shows Facebook CEO Zuckerberg shot in face. United Press International, July 29, 2016.
- "Facebook's Kurdish problem?". Al Jazeera. August 24, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Livesay, Christopher (October 7, 2015). "After battling ISIS, Kurds find new foe in Facebook". Public Radio International. WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Michael Arrington, Is Facebook Really Censoring Search When It Suits Them?, TechCrunch, November 22, 2007
- ' + name + ' (January 1, 1970). "組員逾八萬 疑有人眼寃不斷施壓 facebook鏟走反民建聯群組 | 蘋果日報 | 要聞港聞 | 20100205". Hk.apple.nextmedia.com. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- Munro, Neil (May 24, 2011). "Facebook upgrade spurs fears of political bias". Daily Caller.
- "Ответил за Пушкина". Livejournal.com. July 6, 2015. Archived from the original on July 8, 2015.
- "Журналист объяснил публикацию слова "хохол" в Facebook экспериментом". Lenta.Ru. July 7, 2015.
- "Колумнист Кононенко объяснил пост со словом "хохол" в Facebook желанием поэкспериментировать". govoritmoskva.ru. July 7, 2015.
- "Кононенко заявил о блокировке аккаунта в Facebook за отрывок из Пушкина". RBC.ru. July 6, 2015.
- Spanish newspaper El País, Estas son las imágenes que Facebook no quiso que vieras Ana Marcos, March 16, 2013, retrieved on March 17, 2015
- Norway newspaper aftenposten, Dear Mark. I am writing this to inform you that I shall not comply with your requirement to remove this picture. Espen Egil Hansen, September 9, 2016
- Norway newspaper aftenposten, Norway's prime minister and several government members censored by Facebook Kristin Jonassen Nordby, September 9, 2016
- Kafka, Peter (September 9, 2016). "Facebook changes its mind, and says it’s okay to publish an iconic war photo, after all". Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- "Protests mount over Facebook ban on breast-feeding photos; bigger turnout online than in Palo Alto". Mercury News. December 27, 2008.
- McGinty, Bill (December 30, 2011). "Facebook apologizes for removing breastfeeding photo". WCNC.COM. Archived from the original on April 10, 2012. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
- McGinty, Bill (February 16, 2012). "Photos on breastfeeding Facebook page removed again". WCNC.COM. Archived from the original on April 10, 2012. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
- "Facebook censored 54 posts for 'blasphemy' in Pakistan in second half of 2014 - The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- Faiola, Anthony (January 6, 2016). "Germany springs to action over hate speech against migrants". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Bender, Rush; Schechner, Sam (September 14, 2015). "Facebook Outlines Measures to Combat Racist and Xenophobic Content". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Toor, Amar (September 15, 2015). "Facebook will work with Germany to combat anti-refugee hate speech". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Toor, Amar (May 31, 2016). "Facebook, Twitter, Google, and Microsoft agree to EU hate speech rules". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Hern, Alex (May 31, 2016). "Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Microsoft sign EU hate speech code". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Dillet, Romain (May 31, 2016). "Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Microsoft agree to remove hate speech across the EU". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Fioretti, Julia (May 23, 2017). "EU states approve plans to make social media firms tackle hate speech". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Toor, Amar (May 24, 2017). "EU close to making Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter block hate speech videos". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Toor, Amar (June 2, 2017). "Facebook earns EU praise for combatting hate speech, as Twitter and YouTube lag behind". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Macdonald, Alastair; Fioretti, Julia (June 1, 2017). "Social media firms have increased removals of online hate speech: EU". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Bowles, Nellie; Thielman, Sam (May 9, 2016). "Facebook accused of censoring conservatives, report says". The Guardian. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Hunt, Elle (May 24, 2016). "Facebook to change trending topics after investigation into bias claims". the Guardian. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Richardson, Valerie (June 13, 2016). "Google, Facebook, Reddit are run by a bunch of ‘left-wing guys’". The Washington Times. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
- Yacoub Oweis, Khaled (November 23, 2007). "Syria blocks Facebook in Internet crackdown". Reuters. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- "China's Facebook Status: Blocked". ABC News. July 8, 2009. Archived from the original on July 11, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2009.
- "Facebook Faces Censorship in Iran". American Islamic Congress. August 29, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- ODPS (2010). "Isle of Man ODPS issues Facebook Guidance booklet" (PDF). Office of the Data Protection Supervisor. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 2, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
- "Pakistan court orders Facebook ban".
- Crilly, Rob (May 19, 2010). "Facebook blocked in Pakistan over Prophet Mohammed cartoon row". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- "Pakistan blocks YouTube, Facebook over 'sacrilegious content' - CNN.com". May 21, 2010.
- "Pakistan blocks YouTube over blasphemous material". GEO.tv. May 20, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- "Home - Pakistan Telecommunication Authority". Pta.gov.pk. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- The News International, May 4, 2011, http://www.thenews.com.pk/TodaysPrintDetail.aspx?ID=45034&Cat=5&dt=April 5, 2011
- The Express Tribune, May 6, 2011, http://tribune.com.pk/story/162801/permanently-banning-facebook-court-seeks-record-of-previous-petitions/
- "Organizations blocking Facebook". CTV news.
- Benzie, Robert (May 3, 2007). "Facebook banned for Ontario staffers". The Toronto Star. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- "Ontario politicians close the book on Facebook". Blog Campaigning. May 23, 2007. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- "Facebook banned for council staff". BBC News. September 1, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- "Tietoturvauhan poistuminen voi avata naamakirjan Kokkolassa (In Finnish)". Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- "Immediate Ban of Internet Social Networking Sites (SNS) On Marine Corps Enterprise Network (MCEN) NIPRNET". Archived from the original on December 25, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- "Facebook kiellettiin Keski-Suomen sairaanhoitopiirissä (In Finnish)". Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- "Sairaanhoitopiirin työntekijöille kielto nettiyhteisöihin (In Finnish)". Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- Fort, Caleb (October 12, 2005). "CIRT blocks access to Facebook.com". Daily Lobo (University of New Mexico). Retrieved April 3, 2006.[dead link]
- "Popular web site, Facebook.com, back online at UNM". University of New Mexico. January 19, 2006. Archived from the original on February 12, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2007.
- Loew, Ryan (June 22, 2006). "Kent banning athlete Web profiles". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved October 6, 2006.[dead link]
- "Closed Social Networks as a Gilded Cage". August 6, 2007.
- see NSTeens NSTeens video about private social networking Archived March 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- Lapeira's post (October 16, 2008) Three types of social networking[dead link]
- "Openbook - Connect and share whether you want to or not". Youropenbook.org. May 12, 2010. Archived from the original on August 3, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- Michael Levenson (June 27, 2008). "Facebook, ConnectU settle dispute:Case an intellectual property kerfuffle". Boston Globe.
- Malcom A. Glenn, "For Now, Facebook Foes Continue Fight Against Site", The Harvard Crimson, July 27, 2007
- O'Brien, Luke (November–December 2007). "Poking Facebook". 02138. p. 66. Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
- McGinn, Timothy J. (September 13, 2004). "Lawsuit Threatens To Close Facebook". Harvard Crimson. Archived from the original on August 15, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- Maugeri, Alexander (September 20, 2004). "TheFacebook.com faces lawsuit". The Daily Princetonian. Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- Tryhorn, Chris (July 25, 2007). "Facebook in court over ownership". The Guardian. London. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
- California Northern District Court (March 9, 2007). "The Facebook, Inc. v. Connectu, LLC et al". Justia.
- "Investors Value Facebook at Up to $33.7 Billion". New York Times. August 26, 2010.
- Eric Eldon (February 12, 2009). "Financial wrinkle lost ConnectU some Facebook settlement dollars". VentureBeat.
- Jagadeesh, Namitha (March 11, 2008). "Getting the start-up documentation right". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
- "FACEBOOK GOT ITS $15 BILLION VALUATION — NOW WHAT?". Retrieved July 7, 2014.
- "Internal Facebook valuation points to strategic merit - Valuation is far below the $15 billion cited at time of Microsoft investment". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 7, 2008.
- Dan Slater (June 27, 2008). "Facebook Wins ConnectU Appeal, Blames Fee Dispute". Wall Street Journal.
- Nate Raymond (September 15, 2010). "Arbitrators Confirm Quinn Emanuel's Fee in Facebook Settlement". The National Law Journal.
- Caroline McCarthy (January 4, 2010). "Fresh legal woes for ConnectU founders". CNET News.
- Lee Gesmer (January 18, 2010). "The Road Goes on Forever, But the Lawsuits Never End: ConnectU, Facebook, Their Entourages". Mass Law Blog.
- Lee Gesmer (January 18, 2010). "Chang v. Winklevoss Complaint". Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
- "A Critical Mass of Criticism". The Harvard Crimson. January 10, 2003. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- Markoff, John (September 1, 2007). "Who Founded Facebook? A New Claim Emerges". The New York Times. Retrieved September 2, 2007.
- "USPTO TTABVUE Trademark Trial and Appeal Board Inquiry System Cancellation No. 92049206". Ttabvue.uspto.gov. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- "Facebook and Think Computer Corporation Resolve Trademark Dispute". May 22, 2009.
- Tate, Ryan (November 19, 2009). "Facebook Named in Federal Class-Action Suit over Scammy Zynga Ads". Valleywag. Archived from the original on February 17, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- Tate, Ryan (November 19, 2009). "Initial Complaint in Swift vs. Zynga". Valleywag. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
- Oreskovic, Alexei (July 12, 2010). "Facebook fights New Yorker's claim of 84 percent stake". Reuters. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- Fowler, Geoffrey A. (July 13, 2010). "Man Claims Ownership of Facebook". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- Priyanka (July 22, 2010). "Zuckerberg ‘quite sure’ he didn't hand over 84% Facebook to Ceglia". The Money Times. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- Kawamoto, Dawn (July 13, 2010). "Facebook and Website Designer Paul Ceglia Brawl Over 84% Stake". DailyFinance.com. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- Chowdhry, Amit (July 13, 2010). "Paul Ceglia Files Lawsuit Against Facebook Claiming To Own 84% Of The Company". Pulse2. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- Bosker, Bianca (July 13, 2007). "Paul Ceglia Claims To Own 84% Stake In Facebook". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- Goldman, Eric (May 9, 2011), Facebook User Loses Lawsuit Over Account Termination--Young v. Facebook
- "FINDINGS OF FACT AND CONCLUSIONS OF LAW AND ORDER APPROVING SETTLEMENT. Signed by Judge Richard Seeborg on 03/17/2010.". Docket Alarm, Inc. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- Farivar, Cyrus (January 7, 2016). "Appeals court upholds deal allowing kids’ images in Facebook ads". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Bixenspan, David (November 21, 2016). "Yes, That Facebook Class Action Lawsuit Check You Got is Real". Law Newz. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- "Niet compatibele browser". Facebook. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- "Facebook Privacy Change Sparks Federal Complaint". PC World. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
- "Facebook's New Terms Of Service: "We Can Do Anything We Want With Your Content. Forever."". Consumerist. Consumer Media LLC. Retrieved February 20, 2009.
- "Improving Your Ability to Share and Connect". Facebook. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
- Haugen, Austin (October 23, 2009). "facebook DEVELOPERS". Facebook. Archived from the original on 23 December 2009. Retrieved October 25, 2009.
- "Facebook Town Hall: Proposed Facebook Principles". Facebook. Archived from the original on February 27, 2009. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
- "Facebook Town Hall: Proposed Statement of Rights and Responsibilities". Facebook. Archived from the original on February 27, 2009. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
- "Governing the Facebook Service in an Open and Transparent Way". Facebook. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
- "Rewriting Facebook's Terms of Service". PC World. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
- "Democracy Theatre on Facebook". University of Cambridge. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- "Facebook's theatrical rights and wrongs". Open Rights Group. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- Puzzanghera, Jim (March 1, 2011). "Facebook reconsiders allowing third-party applications to ask minors for private information". Los Angeles Times.
- Center, Electronic Privacy Information. "EPIC - Facebook Resumes Plan to Disclose User Home Addresses and Mobile Phone Numbers". epic.org.
- Baker, Gavin (May 27, 2008). "Free software vs. software-as-a-service: Is the GPL too weak for the Web?". Free Software Magazine. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
- "Statement of Rights and Responsibilities". Facebook. May 1, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
- Calore, Michael (December 1, 2008). "As Facebook Connect Expands, OpenID's Challenges Grow". Wired. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
Facebook Connect was developed independently using proprietary code, so Facebook's system and OpenID are not interoperable. ... This is a clear threat to the vision of the Open Web, a future when data is freely shared between social websites using open source technologies.
- Thompson, Nicholas. "What Facebook Can Sell". The New Yorker. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- Barnett, Emma (May 23, 2012). "Facebook Settles Lawsuit With Angry Users". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- Dijck 2013, p. 47.
- Farber, Dan. "Facebook Beacon Update: No Activities Published Without Users Proactively Consenting". ZDNet. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- Sinker, Daniel (February 17, 2009). "Face/Off: How a Little Change in Facebook's User Policy is Making People Rethink the Rights They Give Away Online". Huffingtonpost. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
- Dijck 2013, p. 48.
- Brunton, Finn. "Vernacular Resistance to Data Collection and Analysis: A Political Theory of Obfuscation". First Monday. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- Loomer, Jon. "Facebook Settles Lawsuit With Angry Users". Jon Lomer. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
- Dijck 2013, p. 61.
- "BBB Review of Facebook". Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- "TrustLink Review of Facebook.". Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- Emery, Daniel (July 29, 2010). "BBC News - Details of 100m Facebook users collected and published". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- Nicole Perlroth (June 3, 2013). "Bits: Malware That Drains Your Bank Account Thriving on Facebook". New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- Bort, Julie (April 20, 2011). "Researcher: Facebook Ignored the Bug I Found Until I Used It to Hack Zuckerberg - Yahoo! Finance". Finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- "Zuckerberg's Facebook page hacked to prove security exploit". CNN.com. May 14, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- Tom Warren (August 1, 2013). "Facebook ignored security bug, researcher used it to post details on Zuckerberg's wall". The Verge. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- Reuters (August 20, 2013). "Hacker who exposed Facebook bug to get reward from unexpected source - Yahoo! Finance". Finance.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on August 21, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- Rogoway, Mike (January 21, 2010). "Facebook picks Prineville for its first data center". OregonLive.com. Retrieved January 21, 2010.
- Kaufman, Leslie (September 17, 2010). "You're 'So Coal': Angling to Shame Facebook-NYTimes.com". The New York Times.
- Albanesius, Chloe (September 17, 2010). "Greenpeace Attacks Facebook on Coal-Powered Data Center". PC Magazine.
- "Facebook update: Switch to renewable energy now Greening Facebook from within". Greenpeace. February 17, 2010.
- Tonelli, Carla (September 1, 2010). "‘Friendly’ push for Facebook to dump coal|Analysis & Opinion|(Reuters)". Blogs.reuters.com. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- "Dirty Data Report Card" (PDF). Greenpeace. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- "Facebook and Greenpeace settle Clean Energy Feud". Techcrunch. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- "Facebook Commits to Clean Energy Future". Greenpeace. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- yesterday (January 4, 2011). "Startup Claims 80% Of Its Facebook Ad Clicks Are Coming From Bots". TechCrunch. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- Rodriguez, Salvador (July 30, 2012). "Start-up says 80% of its Facebook ad clicks came from bots". latimes.com. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- Sengupta, Somini (April 23, 2012). "Bots Raise Their Heads Again on Facebook - NYTimes.com". Bits.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- Shellon Norton 5/10/15 https://www.forbes.com/sites/roberthof/2012/08/08/stung-by-click-fraud-allegations-facebook-reveals-how-its-fighting-back/
- yesterday. "Guide to the Ads Create Tool". Facebook. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- yesterday (February 11, 2014). "Facebook Advertisers Complain Of A Wave Of Fake Likes Rendering Their Pages Useless". Business Insider. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- "Efficient Marketing Strategy". Science Direct. October 5, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- yesterday. "Are 40% Of Life Science Company Facebook Page 'Likes' From Fake Users?". Comprendia. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- yesterday (January 28, 2014). "FACEBOOK, Inc. Form 10K.". United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- "What Do Facebook "likes" of Companies Mean?". PubChase. January 23, 2014. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- yesterday (February 10, 2014). "Facebook Fraud". YouTube. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- "Firms withdraw BNP Facebook ads". BBC News. August 3, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- "Facebook: About 83 million accounts are fake". USA Today. August 3, 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- "Unreal: Facebook reveals 83 million fake profiles". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- Rushe, Dominic (August 2, 2012). "Facebook share price slumps below $20 amid fake account flap". London: The Guardian. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- Gupta, Aditi (2017). "Towards detecting fake user accounts in facebook". Asia Security and Privacy (ISEASP): 1–6. doi:10.1109/ISEASP.2017.7976996.
- "The Facebook Blog - Moving to the new Facebook".
- "The Facebook Blog - Check out the new Facebook".
- "Petition against Facebook redesign fails as old version disabled".
- "Facebook's New Privacy Changes: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly | Electronic Frontier Foundation". Eff.org. December 9, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
- "Gawker.com". Gawker.com. December 13, 2009. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- "What Does Facebook's Privacy Transition Mean for You? | ACLUNC dotRights". Dotrights.org. December 4, 2009. Archived from the original on December 12, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- "Facebook faces criticism on privacy change". BBC News. December 10, 2008. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- "ACLU.org". Secure.aclu.org. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- "Facebook CEO's Private Photos Exposed by the New 'Open' Facebook". Gawker.com. Archived from the original on December 14, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- McCarthy, Caroline. "Facebook backtracks on public friend lists | The Social - CNET News". News.cnet.com. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- "Mediactive.com". Mediactive.com. December 12, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Oremus, Will. "TheBigMoney.com". TheBigMoney.com. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- "ReadWriteWeb.com". ReadWriteWeb.com. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Benny Evangelista (January 27, 2010). "SFgate.com". SFgate.com. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- "The top 10 facts about FreeBasics". December 28, 2015.
- "Free Basics by Facebook". Internet.org.
- "TRAI Releases the 'Prohibition of Discriminatory Tariffs for Data Services Regulations, 2016'" (PDF). TRAI. February 8, 2016.
- "How India Pierced Facebook's Free Internet Program". Backchannel. February 1, 2016.
- "TRAI letter to Facebook" (PDF).
- "Trai to Seek Specific Replies From Facebook Free Basic Supporters". Press Trust of India. December 31, 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Criticism of Facebook.|
- Mims, Christopher (June 1, 2011). "How Facebook Leveraged Publishers' Desperation to Build a Web-Wide Tracking System". Technology Review. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
- Facebook: Friend or Foe? - LifeIvy Magazine - May 15, 2013
- Funk, McKenzie (November 19, 2016). "The Secret Agenda of a Facebook Quiz". New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
- How Facebook's tentacles reach further than you think (26 May 2017), BBC
- Lanchester, John (August 2017), "You Are the Product", London Review of Books, 39 (16): 3–10