Criticism of Huawei

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Chinese multinational information technology and consumer electronics company Huawei has faced numerous criticisms for various aspects of its operations, particularly in regards to cybersecurity, intellectual property, and human rights violations.

Huawei has faced allegations, primarily from the United States and its allies, that its wireless networking equipment could contain backdoors enabling surveillance by the Chinese government. Huawei has stated that its products posed "no greater cybersecurity risk" than those of any other vendor, and that there was no evidence of the U.S. espionage claims. The company had also partnered with British officials to establish a laboratory to audit its products.[1][2]

These concerns intensified with Huawei's involvement in the development of 5G wireless networks, and have led to some countries implementing or contemplating restrictions on the use of Chinese-made hardware in these networks. In March 2019, Huawei sued the U.S. government over a military spending bill that restricted the purchase of equipment from Huawei or ZTE by the government, citing that it had been refused due process. Huawei exited the U.S. market due to these concerns, which had also made U.S. wireless carriers reluctant to sell its products.

Huawei has also faced allegations that it has engaged in corporate espionage to steal competitors' intellectual property, and in 2019, was restricted from performing commerce with U.S. companies, over allegations that it willfully exported technology of U.S. origin to Iran in violation of U.S. sanctions. The company has also been accused of assisting in the mass-detention of Uyghurs in Xinjiang re-education camps.[3][4] and employing forced Uyghur labour in its supply chain.[5]

Intellectual property and theft[edit]

Cisco patent lawsuit[edit]

Huawei Dual Band LTE Wi-Fi modem

In 2003 Cisco General Counsel Mark Chandler traveled to Shenzhen to confront Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei with evidence of Huawei's theft of Cisco IP. The evidence included typos from Cisco's technical manuals that also appeared in Huawei's, after being presented with the evidence Ren replied "coincidence".[6]

In February 2003, Cisco Systems sued Huawei Technologies for allegedly infringing on its patents and illegally copying source code used in its routers and switches.[7] According to a statement by Cisco, by July 2004 Huawei removed the contested code, manuals and command-line interfaces and the case was subsequently settled out of court.[8] As part of the settlement Huawei admitted that it had copied some of Cisco's router software.[6] Both sides claimed success – with Cisco asserting that "completion of lawsuit marks a victory for the protection of intellectual property rights", and Huawei's partner 3Com (which was not a part of lawsuit) noting that court order prevented Cisco from bringing another case against Huawei asserting the same or substantially similar claims.[9] Although Cisco employees allegedly witnessed counterfeited technology as late as September 2005,[10] in a retrospective Cisco's Corporate Counsel noted, "Cisco was portrayed by the Chinese media as a bullying multi-national corporation" and "the damage to Cisco's reputation in China outweighed any benefit achieved through the lawsuit".[11]

Huawei's chief representative in the U.S. subsequently claimed that Huawei had been vindicated in the case, breaking a confidentiality clause of Huawei's settlement with Cisco. In response, Cisco revealed parts of the independent expert's report produced for the case which proved that Huawei had stolen Cisco code and directly copied it into their products.[12] In a company blog post Cisco's Mark Chandler stated that the settled case had included allegations of "direct, verbatim copying of our source code, to say nothing of our command line interface, our help screens, our copyrighted manuals and other elements of our products" by Huawei and provided additional information to support those allegations.[13] Prior to Cisco providing conclusive proof in 2012 the story of Huawei's blatant plagiarism had obtained the status of folklore within the routing and switching community.[14]

T-Mobile smartphone testing robot[edit]

In September 2014, Huawei faced a lawsuit from T-Mobile US, which alleged that Huawei stole technology from its Bellevue, Washington, headquarters. T-Mobile claimed in its filed suit that Huawei's employees snuck into a T-Mobile lab during the period of 2012–2013 and stole parts of its smartphone testing robot Tappy. The Huawei employees then copied the operating software and design details, violating confidentiality agreements that both companies signed. Furthermore, Huawei is now using the stolen parts and data to build its own testing robot. A Huawei spokesman stated to The New York Times that there is some truth to the complaint, but that the two employees involved have been fired. T-Mobile has since stopped using Huawei as a supplier, which T-Mobile says could cost it tens of millions of dollars as it moves away from its handsets.[15]

In May 2017, a jury agreed with T-Mobile that Huawei committed industrial espionage in United States, and Huawei was ordered to pay $4.8m in damages. Huawei responded to the lawsuit by arguing that Tappy was not a trade secret, and that it was made by Epson, not T-Mobile. According to Huawei, "T-Mobile's statement of the alleged trade secret is an insufficient, generic statement that captures virtually every component of its robot", and it had failed to point out any trade secret stolen with sufficient specificity. T-Mobile dismissed Huawei's arguments, and contended that Epson had provided only a component of the robot.[16][17]

Motorola patent lawsuit[edit]

In July 2010, Motorola filed an amended complaint that named Huawei as a co-defendant in its case against Lemko for alleged theft of trade secrets.[18][19]

Motorola–Nokia Siemens Networks sales dispute[edit]

In January 2011, Huawei filed a lawsuit against Motorola to prevent its intellectual property from being illegally transferred to Nokia Siemens Networks ("NSN") as part of NSN's US$1.2 billion acquisition of Motorola's wireless network business.[20][21][22][23] In April 2011, Motorola and Huawei entered into an agreement to settle all pending litigation,[24][25][26]‹See TfM›[failed verification] with Motorola paying an undisclosed sum to Huawei for the intellectual property that would be part of the sale to NSN.[27][28][29][30][24]

ZTE patent lawsuit[edit]

In a further move to protect its intellectual property, Huawei filed lawsuits in Germany, France and Hungary in April 2011 against ZTE for patent and trademark infringement.[31][32][33] The following day, ZTE countersued Huawei for patent infringement in China.[34][35]

Nortel[edit]

In 2012, Brian Shields, who was the senior cybersecurity analyst of the Canadian telecommunications company Nortel, alleged that state-directed Chinese networks had comprehensively penetrated the company's networks from at least 2000 until the company's bankruptcy in 2009. He alleged that Huawei (who had been a contract manufacturer for Nortel) was the primary beneficiary of the hack.[36][37] As early as 2004, it was suspected that Huawei was copying Nortel's hardware and instruction manuals.[38][39] The case against Huawei is largely circumstantial.[36]

Circuit boards[edit]

In June 2004, a Huawei employee was caught diagramming and photographing circuit boards after-hours from a competitor booth at the SuperComm trade show.[40] The employee denied the accusation, but was later dismissed.[41][42]

Ahkan Semiconductor diamond glass[edit]

Huawei was under investigation by FBI in the United States for sending some diamond glass samples developed by the company Ahkan Semiconductor to China without authorization to test and destroy the product in order to steal intellectual property.[43]

CNEX Labs[edit]

CNEX Labs claims that a Huawei executive, with the help of a Chinese university, attempted to steal CNEX's solid-state drive computer storage technology.[44][45]

Espionage and security concerns[edit]

Ren Zhengfei, founder of Huawei

2000s[edit]

In the U.S., officials and politicians within the federal government have raised concerns that Huawei-made telecommunications equipment may be designed to allow unauthorised access by the Chinese government and the Chinese People's Liberation Army,[46][47][48][49] given that Ren Zhengfei, the founder of the company, served as an engineer in the army in the early 1980s.[50] The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States scrutinized a deal by Bain Capital to acquire 3Com with Huawei as a minority investor, and an attempt to acquire the virtualization firm 3Leaf Systems, both due to security concerns (with concerns that China could gain access to U.S. military-grade technology in the case of the former). Both deals fell through.[47][51][52] In 2010, Sprint Nextel blocked bids by Huawei on a supply contract, after the company was contacted by the Secretary of Commerce.[53][54][55][50][47]

In the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party raised concerns about security over Huawei's bid for Marconi in 2005,[48] and the company's equipment was mentioned as an alleged potential threat in a 2009 government briefing by Alex Allan, chairman of the Joint Intelligence Committee.[56] In November 2010, Huawei agreed to proactively allow local officials to perform cybersecurity examinations of its products, resulting in the opening of the Huawei Cyber Security Evaluation Centre (HCSEC). Its oversight board includes members of the National Cyber Security Centre and GCHQ.[57][58]

In October 2009, the Indian Department of Telecommunications reportedly requested national telecom operators to "self-regulate" the use of all equipment from European, U.S. and Chinese telecoms manufacturers following security concerns.[59] Earlier, in 2005, Huawei was blocked from supplying equipment to India's Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) cellular phone service provider.[60] In 2010, the Indian Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) insisted on cancelling the rest of the Huawei contract with BSNL and pressed charges against several top BSNL officers regarding their "doubtful integrity and dubious links with Chinese firms".[61][62] In June 2010, an interim solution was introduced that would allow the import of Chinese-made telecoms equipment to India if pre-certified by international security agencies such as Canada's Electronic Warfare Associates, US-based Infoguard, and Israel's ALTAL Security Consulting.[63]

Early 2010s[edit]

In a 2011 open letter, Huawei stated that the security concerns are "unfounded and unproven" and called on the U.S. government to investigate any aspect of its business.[64][65] The US-based non-profit organisation Asia Society carried out a review of Chinese companies trying to invest in the U.S., including Huawei. The organisation found that only a few investment deals were blocked following unfavorable findings by the CFIUS or had been given a recommendation not to apply. However, all large transactions had been politicised by groups including the U.S. media, members of Congress and the security community.[66] However, another article unrelated to the report published by the Asia Society reported that, "fear that the P.R.C. government could strongarm private or unaffiliated Chinese groups into giving up cyber-secrets is reflected in the U.S. government's treatment of Chinese telecom company Huawei."[67]

In December 2011, Bloomberg reported that the U.S. is invoking Cold War-era national security powers to force telecommunication companies including AT&T Inc. and Verizon Communications Inc. to divulge confidential information about their networks in a hunt for Chinese cyber-spying. The US House Intelligence Committee had said on 18 November that it would investigate foreign companies, and a spokesman for Huawei said that the company conducts its businesses according to normal business practices and actually welcomed the investigation.[68] On 8 October 2012, the Committee issued a report concluding Huawei and ZTE were a "national security threat".[69] However, a subsequent White House-ordered review found no concrete evidence to support the House report's espionage allegations.[70]

In March 2012, Australian media sources reported that the Australian government had excluded Huawei from tendering for contracts with NBN Co, a government-owned corporation that is managing the construction of the National Broadband Network,[71] following advice from the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation regarding security concerns.[72] The Attorney-General's Department stated in response to these reports that the National Broadband Network is "a strategic and significant government investment, [and] we have a responsibility to do our utmost to protect its integrity and that of the information carried on it."[73]

On 9 October 2012, a spokesperson for prime minister Stephen Harper indicated that the Canadian government invoked a national security exception to exclude Huawei from its plans to build a secure government communications network.[74]

On 19 July 2013, Michael Hayden, former head of the U.S. National Security Agency and director of Motorola Solutions, claimed that he has seen hard evidence of backdoors in Huawei's networking equipment and that the company engaged in espionage and shared intimate knowledge of the foreign telecommunications systems with the Chinese government.[75] Huawei and Motorola Solutions had previously been engaged in intellectual property disputes for a number of years. Huawei's global cybersecurity officer, John Suffolk, described the comments made by Hayden as "tired, unsubstantiated, defamatory remarks" and challenged him and other critics to present any evidence publicly.[76][75]

In 2014, The New York Times reported, based upon documents leaked by Edward Snowden, that the U.S. National Security Agency has since 2007 been operating a covert program against Huawei. This involved breaking into Huawei's internal networks, including headquarter networks and founder Ren Zhengfei's communications.[77] In 2014, Huawei reached a sponsorship deal with the NFL's Washington Redskins to install free public Wi-Fi at FedExField, but the agreement was abruptly shelved weeks after it was announced due to unofficial action by a U.S. government advisor.[78][79]

In 2016, Canada's immigration department said it planned to deny permanent resident visas to three Chinese citizens who worked for Huawei over concerns the applicants are involved in espionage, terrorism, and government subversion.[80]

Late 2010s[edit]

In 2018, an investigation by French newspaper Le Monde alleged that China had engaged in hacking the African Union headquarters in Ethiopia from 2012 to 2017.[81] The building was built by Chinese contractors, including Huawei, and Huawei equipment has been linked to these hacks.[82] The Chinese government denied that they bugged the building, stating that the accusations were "utterly groundless and ridiculous."[83] Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn rejected the French media report.[84] Moussa Faki Mahamat, head of the African Union Commission, said the allegations in the Le Monde report were false. "These are totally false allegations and I believe that we are completely disregarding them."[85]

On 17 April 2018, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) held a preliminary, 5–0 vote on rules forbidding the use of government subsidies to purchase telecom equipment from companies deemed to be a risk to national security. A draft of the policy specifically named Huawei and ZTE as examples.[86][87] The same day, the company revealed plans to downplay the U.S. market as part of its future business plans, citing the government scrutiny as having impeded its business there.[88]

In August 2018, U.S. president Donald Trump signed the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, which contains a provision barring the U.S. government from purchasing hardware from Huawei or ZTE, under cybersecurity ground.[89] In retaliation for the aforementioned campaigns and legislation targeting the company, Huawei sued the U.S. government in March 2019, alleging that it has "repeatedly failed to produce any evidence to support its restrictions", and that Congress failed to provide it due process.[90]

In March 2019, the HCSEC Oversight Board published a report stating that it had "continued to identify concerning issues in Huawei’s approach to software development bringing significantly increased risk to UK operators", and that it had "not yet seen anything to give it confidence in Huawei’s capacity to successfully complete the elements of its transformation programme that it has proposed as a means of addressing these underlying defects". The report cited, in particular, use of outdated versions of VxWorks in its networking equipment and inconsistent checksums between OS images, and during a visit to a Huawei development centre in Shanghai, it was found that Huawei had been using an "unmanageable number" of OpenSSL revisions between individual products.[58]

On 30 April 2019, Bloomberg News published a report alleging that between 2009 and 2011, Vodafone Italy had discovered several security vulnerabilities in its Huawei fixed-line network equipment, including unspecified backdoors in optical nodes and broadband gateways, and unsecured telnet on its home routers that could give Huawei access to Vodafone's network. The report claimed that despite having claimed to have patched them, some of them had persisted through 2012, and that the same vulnerabilities could be found in Huawei equipment used by other regional Vodafone subsidiaries. Both Huawei and Vodafone disputed Bloomberg's allegations: Huawei stated that the alleged security vulnerabilities had been patched after they were discovered and reported, and described the alleged "backdoors" as "technical mistakes" that had been "put right". Vodafone stated that telnet was commonly used by the industry for performing diagnostics and "would not have been accessible from the internet", that it was "nothing more than a failure to remove a diagnostic function after development", and there was no evidence of any actual breaches.[91][92][93][94][91]

On 15 May 2019, Trump issued the Executive Order on Securing the Information and Communications Technology and Services Supply Chain, which gives the government power to restrict any transactions with "foreign adversaries" that involve information and communications technology. The same day, also citing violations of economic sanctions against Iran, the U.S. Department of Commerce added Huawei and its affiliates to its entity list under the Export Administration Regulations. This restricts U.S. companies from doing business with Huawei without government permission.[95][96] On 19 May 2019, Reuters reported that Google had suspended Huawei's ability to use the Android operating system on its devices with licensed Google Mobile Services, due to these restrictions.[97][98] The next day, it was reported that Intel, Qualcomm, and Xilinx had stopped supplying components to Huawei.[99]

On 16 May 2019, Dutch newspaper De Volkskrant said Dutch intelligence agency AIVD was made aware of reports of backdoors on Huawei equipment belonging to a Dutch carrier. And that the reports came from unidentified intelligence sources. A spokesman for the AIVD said the agency would not comment on the Volkskrant report. The Dutch paper claimed AIVD was determining whether or not the situation were used for spying by the Chinese government[100]

Chinese law requirement[edit]

In December 2018, Arne Schönbohm, head of Germany's Federal Office for Information Security (BSI), stated that the country had not yet seen evidence that Huawei had used its equipment to conduct espionage on behalf of China.[101] That month, it was also reported that the Japanese government had ceased future procurement of Huawei and ZTE products.[102]

The Czech Republic's cybersecurity agency issued a warning against Huawei and ZTE products, arguing that Chinese law required companies to "cooperate with intelligence services, therefore introducing them into the key state systems might present a threat". Huawei refuted the arguments, stating that it is not required to include backdoors in its products, nor has the company ever received any requests to do so. Shortly afterward, prime minister Andrej Babiš ordered that government offices cease using Huawei and ZTE products. However, the ban was reversed after the agency's claims were found to be without basis.[103][104][105]

Huawei commissioned[106] attorneys of the London-based law firm Clifford Chance and Beijing-based law firm Zhong Lun to review two Chinese bills commonly cited in these allegations (the 2017 National Intelligence Law, and the 2014 Counter-Espionage Law). They concluded that there was no such requirement in Chinese law for backdoors to be included in telecom equipment, and that the laws were directed more towards the actual operators of telecom services, and not extraterritorial. These findings were published in a Wired (magazine) opinion piece by Zhou Hanhua.[107] Follow up reporting from Wired cast doubt on these findings, particularly because the Chinese "government doesn’t limit itself to what the law explicitly allows” when it comes to national security.[106]

5G networks[edit]

Four members of the Five Eyes international intelligence alliance—Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the US—have declared the use of Huawei telecommunications equipment, particularly in 5G networks, poses "significant security risks", while Canada is carrying out its own security review; only Britain is permitting the company to participate in the rollout of the new technology.[108] In late November 2018, the New Zealand signals intelligence agency Government Communications Security Bureau blocked telecommunications company Spark from using Huawei equipment in its planned 5G upgrade, claiming that it posed a "significant network security risk." The NZ ban followed a similar ban in Australia in August 2018.[109][110]

In October 2018, BT Group announced that it had been phasing out Huawei equipment from "core" components of its wireless infrastructure (excluding parts such as phone mast antennas), including its 5G services,[111] and the Emergency Services Network project.[112]

In December 2018, Gavin Williamson, the UK's Defence Secretary, expressed "grave" and "very deep concerns" about the company providing technology to upgrade Britain's services to 5G. He accused Beijing of acting "sometimes in a malign way". Alex Younger, the head of MI6, also raised questions about Huawei's role.[113]

On 11 January 2019, Poland announced that two people working on a 5G Huawei network had been arrested: Wang Weijing (a Huawei executive), and Piotr Durbaglo, a consultant having worked for Polish domestic security, but currently working for Orange on 5G network testing.[114]

In November 2019, the Chinese ambassador to Denmark, in meetings with high-ranking Faroese politicians, directly linked Huawei's 5G expansion with Chinese trade, according to a sound recording obtained by Kringvarp Føroya. According to Berlingske, the ambassador threatened with dropping a planned trade deal with the Faroe Islands, if the Faroese telecom company Føroya Tele did not let Huawei build the national 5G network. Huawei said they did not knоw about the meetings.[115]

Consumer electronics[edit]

In 2015, German cybersecurity company G Data alleged that phones from Huawei and several other Chinese manufacturers had been shipped with malware via infected versions of legitimate apps, that could record phone calls, access user data, and send premium SMS messages. A Huawei spokesperson told G Data these breaches were likely to have taken place further down the supply chain, outside the manufacturing process.[116][117]

In January 2018, with the proposal of the Defending US Government Communications Act (which would ban the use of Huawei and ZTE products and equipment by U.S. government entities), calls for the FCC to investigate the company, as well as government pressure, it was reported that U.S. carrier AT&T had abruptly pulled out of an agreement to offer its Mate 10 Pro smartphone, while Verizon Communications had declined to carry any future Huawei products.[118][119]

On 14 February 2018, heads of six U.S. intelligence agencies testified to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence against the use of Chinese telecom products by U.S. citizens, such as those of Huawei and ZTE. Christopher A. Wray, director of the FBI, stated that they were "deeply concerned about the risks of allowing any company or entity that is beholden to foreign governments that don't share our values to gain positions of power inside our telecommunications networks". Huawei responded to the allegations, arguing that its products "[pose] no greater cybersecurity risk than any ICT vendor, sharing as we do common global supply chains and production capabilities," and that it was "aware of a range of U.S. government activities seemingly aimed at inhibiting Huawei's business in the U.S. market".[120] In March 2018, it was reported that Best Buy, the country's largest electronics store chain, would no longer sell Huawei products.[121]

In May 2019 a Huawei Mediapad M5 belonging to a Canadian IT engineer living in Taiwan was found to be sending data to servers in China despite never being authorized to do so. The apps could not be disabled and continued to send sensitive data even after appearing to be deleted.[122]

Security exploits[edit]

In July 2012, Felix Lindner and Gregor Kopf gave a conference at Defcon to announce that they uncovered several critical vulnerabilities in Huawei routers (models AR18 and AR29)[123] which could be used to get remote access to the device. The researchers said that Huawei "doesn't have a security contact for reporting vulnerabilities, doesn't put out security advisories and doesn't say what bugs have been fixed in its firmware updates", and as a result, the vulnerabilities have not been publicly disclosed. Huawei replied that they were investigating the claims.[124]

In January 2019, Huawei patched a security flaw that was discovered by Microsoft in the "PCManager" software bundled on its laptops, after detecting that the software used a driver with behavior similar to the DoublePulsar exploit.[125]

In March 2019, the Oversight Board of United Kingdom government organization Huawei Cyber Security Evaluation Centre found “serious and systematic defects” in Huawei software engineering and their cyber security competence, and cast doubt on Huawei's ability and competence to fix security problems that have been found, although they do not believe these flaws are caused by Chinese government interference.[126]

In October 2019 a person named John Wu presented details regarding Huawei's Undocumented APIs[127] which can poses security risk for Huawei clients (for example it let apps with Admin privileges install new system apps on the Mate 30). Those permissions are used by the "LZPlay" app to install the Google framework and services. Huawei has denied any involvement with the app or the "LZPlay" site.[128]

In February 2020, The Wall Street Journal reported that Huawei has had the ability to covertly exploit backdoors intended for law enforcement officials since 2009. These backdoors are found on carrier equipment like antennas and routers. Huawei's equipment is widely used around the world due to its low cost.[129][130]

U.S. business restrictions[edit]

In August 2018, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (NDAA 2019) was signed into law, containing a provision that banned Huawei and ZTE equipment from being used by the U.S. federal government, citing security concerns.[131] Huawei filed a lawsuit over the act in March 2019,[132] alleging it to be unconstitutional because it specifically targeted Huawei without granting it a chance to provide a rebuttal or due process.[133]

On 15 May 2019, the Department of Commerce added Huawei and 70 foreign subsidiaries and "affiliates" to its entity list under the Export Administration Regulations, citing the company having been indicted for "knowingly and willfully causing the export, re-export, sale and supply, directly and indirectly, of goods, technology and services (banking and other financial services) from the United States to Iran and the government of Iran without obtaining a license from the Department of Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)".[134] This restricts U.S. companies from doing business with Huawei without a government license.[135][136][137][138]

Various U.S.-based companies immediately froze their business with Huawei to comply with the regulation,[139] including Google—which removes its ability to certify future devices and updates for the Android operating system with licensed Google Mobile Services (GMS) such as Google Play Store,[140][141] as well as Broadcom, Intel, Qualcomm, Microsoft, Xilinx[142] and Western Digital. The German chipmaker Infineon Technologies also voluntarily suspended its business with Huawei, pending "assessments".[141][143][144] It was reported that Huawei did have a limited "stockpile" of U.S.-sourced parts, obtained prior to the sanctions.[145]

On 17 May 2019, Huawei voluntarily suspended its membership to JEDEC, as a temporary measure, "until the restrictions imposed by the U.S. government are removed".[146] Speaking to Chinese media, Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei accused U.S. politicians of underestimating the company's strength, and explained that "in terms of 5G technologies, others won't be able to catch up with Huawei in two or three years. We have sacrificed ourselves and our families for our ideal, to stand on top of the world. To reach this ideal, sooner or later there will be conflict with the US."[147][148][149]

Kevin Wolf, an international trade lawyer and former assistant secretary of commerce for export administration during the Obama administration, argued that Huawei could not even use the open source Android Open Source Project (AOSP) code, as it could fall under U.S. trade regulations as technology of U.S. origin because Google is the majority developer.[150] In China, it is normal for Android phones (including those of Huawei) to not include Google Play Store or GMS, as Google does not do business in the region. Phones are typically bundled with an AOSP-based distribution built around an OEM's own software suite, including either a first-party app store run by the OEM (such as Huawei's own AppGallery) or a third-party service.[151][152][153]

Google issued a statement assuring that user access to Google Play on existing Huawei devices would not be disrupted. Huawei made a similar pledge of continued support for existing devices, including security patches, but did not make any statements regarding the availability of future Android versions (such as Android 10).[154][155] On 19 May 2019, the Department of Commerce granted Huawei a temporary, three-month license to continue doing business with U.S. companies for the purposes of maintaining its existing smartphone and telecom products without interruption, whilst long-term solutions are determined.[156][157][158][159]

On 22 May 2019, Arm Holdings also suspended its business with Huawei, including all "active contracts, support entitlements, and any pending engagements". Although it is a Japanese-owned company based in the UK, Arm cited that its intellectual property contained technologies of U.S. origin that it believed were covered under the Department of Commerce order. This prevents Huawei from manufacturing chips that use the ARM architecture.[160] It was also reported that several Asian wireless carriers, including Japan's SoftBank and KDDI, and Taiwan's Chunghwa Telecom and Taiwan Mobile, had suspended the sale of upcoming Huawei devices such as the P30 Lite, citing uncertainties over the effects of the U.S. sanctions on the availability of the Android platform. NTT docomo similarly suspended pre-orders of new Huawei phones, without citing any reasoning.[161]

On 23 May 2019, it was reported that the SD Association had removed Huawei from its list of members—implicating a revocation of its membership to the association.[162] The same day, Toshiba briefly suspended all shipments to Huawei, as a temporary measure while determining whether or not they were selling U.S. made components or technologies to Huawei.[163] Panasonic also stated that it had determined its business relationship to be in compliance with U.S. law, and would not suspend it.[164] The next day, the Wi-Fi Alliance also "temporarily restricted" Huawei's membership.[146][165]

On 24 May 2019, Huawei told Reuters that FedEx attempted to divert two packages sent from Japan and addressed to Huawei in China to the United States, and tried to divert two more packages sent from Vietnam to Huawei offices elsewhere in Asia, all without their authorization. At first, FedEx China claimed that "media reports are not true". On May 28, however, they apologized on their Chinese social media account for the fact that "a small number of Huawei shipments were misrouted", and claimed that "there are no external parties that require FedEx to ship these shipments".[166][167][168]

On 29 May 2019, it was reported that Huawei was once again listed as member of JEDEC, the SD Association, and Wi-Fi Alliance.[169] In addition, while the science organization IEEE had initially banned Huawei employees from peer-reviewing papers or handling papers as editors on May 30, 2019, citing legal concerns, that ban was also revoked on June 3, 2019.[170]

On 31 May 2019, it was reported that Huawei had temporarily stopped its smartphone production lines.[171] On 17 June 2019, it was reported that Huawei was preparing for a sales drop of US$30 Billion, selling 40 million to 60 million smartphones less than last year in overseas markets.[172][173]

On 29 June 2019 at the G20 summit, Trump and Chinese president and general secretary Xi Jinping agreed to resume trade negotiations. Trump made statements implicating plans to ease the restrictions on U.S. companies doing business with Huawei, explaining that they had sold a "tremendous amount of products" to the company, that they "were not exactly happy that they couldn't sell", and that he was referring to "equipment where there's no great national security problem with it." BBC News considered this move to be a "significant concession".[174][175][176]

On 25 October 2019, Arm Holdings stated that it would continue to allow Huawei to license its technology, as it determined that its recent architectures were sufficiently considered to be of British origin and not subject to the sanctions.[177]

On 15 May 2020, the U.S. Department of Commerce extended its export restrictions to bar Huawei from producing semiconductors derived from technology or software of U.S. origin, even if the manufacturing is performed overseas.[178][179][180]

Replacement operating systems[edit]

During the sanctions, it was noted that Huawei had been working on its own in-house operating system codenamed "HongMeng OS": in an interview with Die Welt, executive Richard Yu stated that an in-house OS could be used as a "plan B" if it were prevented from using Android or Windows as the result of U.S. action, but that he would "prefer to work with the ecosystems of Google and Microsoft". Efforts to develop an in-house OS at Huawei date back as far as 2012.[181][182][183] Huawei filed trademarks for the names "Ark", "Ark OS", and "Harmony" in Europe, which were speculated to be connected to this OS.[184][185]

In June 2019, Huawei communications VP Andrew Williamson told Reuters that the company was testing HongMeng in China, and that it could be ready "in months". However, in July 2019, chairman Liang Hua and senior vice president Catherine Chen stated that Hongmeng OS was not actually intended as a mobile operating system for smartphones, and was actually an embedded operating system designed for Internet of things (IoT) hardware.[186][187][188]

On 19 August 2019, the BIS added 46 "non-U.S. affiliates of Huawei to the Entity List because they also pose a significant risk of involvement in activities contrary to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States."[189]

In September 2019, Huawei began offering the Chinese Linux distribution Deepin as an optional pre-loaded operating system on selected Matebook models in China, as an alternative to Windows.[190]

Support for Huawei from business partners[edit]

In September 2019, Microsoft's top lawyer and president Brad Smith expressed concern about the continued US ban of Huawei products and services. In an interview with Bloomberg Businessweek, he remarked that the ban shouldn't be imposed without a "sound basis in fact, logic, and the rule of law". Microsoft Corporation, which supplies Windows 10 for Huawei PCs, says the allegations by the Trump administration that Huawei is a genuine national security threat to the US are not supported by any evidence.[191]

Human rights abuses[edit]

Huawei has played a critical role in the Chinese government's suppression of the Uyghur minotiry in Xinjiang[192] and other ethnic minority and religious groups.[4][193] It is also alleged to have forced labour by Uyghurs in its supply chain.[194][5]

On 15 June, 2020, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that the country will impose VISA restrictions on Huawei employees as the Chinese company Huawei, provides material support to the Chinese government in carrying human rights abuses.[195]

Opaque ownership[edit]

Huawei claims to be a privately held, employee-owned company: founder Ren Zhengfei retains approximately 1 percent of the shares of Huawei's holding company, Huawei Investment & Holding, with the remainder of the shares held by a trade union committee that also provides services for its staff. This is also due to a limitation in Chinese law preventing limited liability companies from having more than 50 shareholders (the employees' interest is treated as a single share via the union).[141][196] Although employee shareholders receive dividends, their shares do not entitle them to any direct influence in management decisions. Ren has the power to veto any decision made by the board of directors.[197]

A 2019 research paper published by Donald Clarke of George Washington University and Christopher Balding of Fulbright University Vietnam accused Huawei of being "effectively state-owned" due to this structure "if the trade union and its committee function as trade unions generally function in China" (being required to be associated with a labor federation tied to the Communist Party). They also claimed that the arrangement was only a profit-sharing arrangement and not actual ownership. Chief secretary of the board Jiang Xisheng disputed the paper, stating that its authors had "an incomplete understanding of Huawei's corporate policies and a limited knowledge of its ownership structure". Spalding defended the research, telling The Nikkei that "believing Huawei would defy Beijing defies credibility. With the Communist Party actively overseeing and enforcing regulations and state interests abroad, it simply does not match the facts of Chinese interest in promoting companies and interests abroad that Huawei could refuse to assist if asked."[196][198][197]

Some Huawei employees initiated legal challenges against the company regarding the employee stock for the year 2003 on a Chinese court, however both the Shenzhen city Intermediate people's court and the Guangdong province High people's court ruled that their stock ownership are for reference only and there are no legal basis to employees' claims on their ownership of Huawei's stock.[199]

Treatment of workforce and customers[edit]

A U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute report on Argentina published in September 2007 describes Huawei as "known to bribe and trap clients". The report details unfair business practices, such as customers framed by "full-paid trips" to China and monetary "presents" offered and later used by Huawei as "a form of extortion".[200]

According to a WikiLeaks cable, in 2006, Michael Joseph, then-CEO of Safaricom Ltd, allegedly struggled to cancel a contract with Huawei due to poor after-sales experience, after which the Kenyan government pressured him to reinstate the contract.[201] When questioned regarding this incident, Joseph replied, "It [the cable] is not a reflection of the truth as evidenced by Safaricom being a major purchaser of Huawei products including all 3G, switching and the recent OCS billing system upgraded over the weekend."[202]

In May 2010, it was reported in The Times of India, that security agencies in India became suspicious of Chinese Huawei employees after learning that Indian employees allegedly did not have access to part of Huawei's Bangalore research and development (R&D) office building.[203] Huawei responded that the company employs over 2,000 Indian engineers and just 30 Chinese engineers in the R&D center in Bangalore, and "both Indian and Chinese staff have equal access rights to all our information assets and facilities".[204] According to The Times of India, the intelligence agencies also noted that Chinese employees of Huawei had extended their stay in Bangalore for many months.[203] Huawei stated that many of these employees were on one-and-a-half-year international assignments to serve as a technical bridge between in-market teams and China, and that "all the Chinese employees had valid visas and did not overstay".[205]

In October 2007, 7,000 Huawei employees resigned and were then rehired on short-term contracts, thereby apparently avoiding the unlimited contract provisions of the Labour Contract Law of the People's Republic of China. The company denied it was exploiting loopholes in the law, while the move was condemned by local government and trade unions.[206][207]

Huawei's treatment of its workforce in Guangdong, Southern China also triggered a media outcry after a 25-year-old software engineer, Hu Xinyu, died in May 2006 from bacterial encephalitis, as a result of what is believed[by whom?] to have been work-related fatigue.[208][209]

In its 2010 Corporate Social Responsibility report, Huawei highlighted the importance of employee health and safety. In 2010, Huawei provided annual health checks to all full-time employees and performed 3,200 checks to employees exposed to occupational health risks.[210][211]

In early 2018, Li Hongyuan was urged to resign by Huawei's HR in Shenzhen. Li asked for compensation based on the Labor Law of China. In late 2018, Huawei's HR transferred 300,000 yuan to Li via a personal account. Then Huawei reported to the police for racketeering and blackmailing because Huawei asserted that Li threatened to "report business fraud" as a condition of resignation. The police then detained Li on 16 December 2018 and arrested him on 22 January 2019. According to a secret recording tape provided by Li's wife, the two-hour negotiation between Li and Huawei's HR did not mention any Huawei's allegations. Li was released after 251 days in prison.[212] In December 2019, The Guardian reported that police are commonly deployed against former employees, thereby raising questions on Huawei's links to the state. Reports and trending hashtags about the detentions have been censored in China, and the Communist Youth League of China posted an article online claiming that protesters in Hong Kong had passed information about Li's case to destabilise China after The Guardian reported the case.[213]

State subsidy and dumping[edit]

According to a report, Huawei have been working closely with the China Development Bank in foreign markets since 2004.[214][215][216]

Huawei has been reported to be a key recipient of Chinese state subsidies, having acquired land at below-market prices.[217] The Central Intelligence Agency has claimed that it is in possession of unreleased evidence that confirms that Huawei has been funded by China's military and intelligence agencies.[218][219]

In year 2011, the U.S. Export-Import Bank President Fred Hochberg alleged the China Development Bank credit as one of the main reason behind Huawei's rapid growth, however Huawei rejected the claim as "fundamentally incorrect" despite admitting the existence of those credits.[220]

In 2012, Huawei president Ren Zhengfei have stated that, "without government protection, Huawei would no longer be alive."[221]

In 2013, European Union found that Huawei and ZTE have violated EU's anti-dumping and anti-subsidy guidelines, however Huawei denied the finding and claim they are always playing fairly.[222]

In 2016, The Indian government found that Chinese telecommunication equipment makers including Huawei have been continually dumping equipment into the Indian market and causing injury to local companies. As a result, the Indian government applied an anti-dumping duty to equipment imported from Chinese equipment makers, including Huawei. The duties applied to Huawei were levied at a rate of 37.73%.[223]

Alleged violation of economic sanctions and technology theft[edit]

Iran[edit]

On 25 October 2012, the Reuters news agency published a report, based on documents and interviews, alleging an Iranian-based seller of Huawei (Soda Gostar Persian Vista) tried to sell embargoed American antenna equipment (made by American company Andrew LLC) to an Iranian firm (MTN Irancell). Specifically, the Andrew antennas were part of a large order for Huawei telecommunications gear that MTN Irancell had placed through Soda Gostar, but the MTN Irancell says it cancelled the deal with Huawei when it learned the items were subject to sanctions and before any equipment was delivered.[224] Vic Guyang, a Huawei spokesman, acknowledged that MTN Irancell had cancelled the order; Rick Aspan, a spokesman for CommScope, said the company was not aware of the aborted transaction.[224]

In December 2012, Reuters reported the "deep links" existed as early as 2010 between Huawei through Meng Wanzhou (who was then CFO of the firm) and an Iranian telecom importer named Skycom. At least 1.3 million Euros worth of embargoed Hewlett-Packard computer equipment was sold to "Iran's largest mobile-phone operator in late 2010". The next month, Reuters detailed more Huawei behaviour, including direct governance by Meng of Skycom.[225] Meanwhile, the US had long-standing sanctions on Iran, including against the importation of US technology goods into Iran. At some point in 2018, the US Attorney-General filed charges in court against Huawei and, in particular, Meng.

In April 2018, it was reported that the U.S. Justice Department had joined the U.S. Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, and the Department of Commerce, to investigate possible violations of economic sanctions by Huawei for its provision of equipment in Iran, North Korea, Syria, and Venezuela. The U.S. inquiry stems from an earlier sanctions-violation probe that ultimately led to penalties against ZTE.[226]

On 1 December 2018, Huawei vice-chairwoman and CFO Meng Wanzhou,[227] daughter of company founder Ren Zhengfei, was arrested in Canada at the request of U.S. authorities. She faces extradition to the United States on charges of violating sanctions against Iran.[228] 22 August 2018 arrest warrant was issued by the US District Court for the Eastern District of New York.[229] Meng is "charged with conspiracy to defraud multiple international institutions", according to the prosecutor.[230] The warrant was based on allegations of a conspiracy to defraud banks which were clearing money that was claimed to be for Huawei, but was actually for Skycom, an entity claimed to be entirely controlled by Huawei, which was said to be dealing in Iran, contrary to sanctions. None of the allegations have been proven in court.[231] On 11 December 2018, Meng Wanzhou was released on bail.[232]

On 28 January 2019, U.S. federal prosecutors formally indicted Meng Wanzhou and Huawei with thirteen counts of bank and wire fraud, obstruction of justice, and misappropriating trade secrets.[233][234] The Department also filed a formal extradition request for Meng with Canadian authorities that same day. Huawei responded to the charges and that it "denies that it or its subsidiary or affiliate have committed any of the asserted violations", as well as asserted Meng was similarly innocent. The China Ministry of Industry and Information Technology believed the charges brought on by the United States were "unfair".[235]

In May 2019, Chinese authorities arrested Canadian former diplomat Michael Kovrig and consultant Michael Spavor on charges of espionage.[236][237] This was widely seen as a retaliatory move from the Chinese authorities, and other subsequent arrests were also questioned.[238] These arrests have been viewed as hostage diplomacy,[239] as has the subsequent arrest of Australian Yang Hengjun.[240][241][242]

In November 2019, Huawei announced that it will pay RMB2 billion (US$286 million) in bonuses to its staff, and double their October salaries, as a reward for their efforts to counter the effect of recent U.S. trade sanctions on their supply chain.[243]

"Canada is not the only one grappling with the Gordian knot of national security, global alliance and competitive market issues that Huawei represents," wrote the Financial Post in December 2019, noting that Australia and New Zealand have banned Huawei equipment, Britain is weighing its options, and the situation in the United States is "complicated".[244]

On 27 May 2020, Meng lost her bid for freedom in the B.C. Supreme Court of Heather Holmes. She remained held in Vancouver on the extradition matter while her file was processed. The B.C. Supreme Court judge ruling that extradition proceedings against the Huawei executive should proceed, denying the claim of double criminality brought by Meng's defense team.[245] It was noted that Meng could appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada and then finally to the Minister of Justice.[246][247]

In June 2020, it came to light that more paper trail existed between Meng and Skycom, the Iranian importer of sanctioned US technology. The paper trail purported to show how Meng attempted to insulate Huawei and herself by fig-leaf from clearly violating the sanctions regime. The charges against Meng include that she met the deputy head at HSBC of global banking for the Asia-Pacific region and that she made "numerous misrepresentations regarding Huawei's ownership and control of Skycom."[225]

Iraq[edit]

According to a report by Iraqi official, Huawei supplied "optic fibre and switching equipment" to Iraqi military in year 2001–2002 when the country was ruled by Saddam Hussein's government during the Ba'athist Iraq period, violating 1991 United Nation sanctions.[248]

Syria[edit]

In 2019, Reuters reported that Huawei was linked to a suspicious front company in Mauritius which has conducted operations in Syria - despite Huawei's claim that they are unrelated.[249]

Taliban[edit]

See #Taliban_2 section.

North Korea[edit]

In 2019, Washington Post reported that Huawei was linked to a suspicious Chinese state-owned firm which has conducted operations in North Korea.[250]

Link to surveillance program[edit]

China[edit]

Huawei have been reported as one of the key suppliers for China's Great Firewall of China internet censorship program.[251][252] Huawei is also reported to have worked closely with the Communist Party of China to enable surveillance of Uyghurs in Xinjiang.[253] In 2018, Huawei signed an agreement with the Xinjiang public security bureau for the creation of an "intelligent security industry" hub.[254]

Iran[edit]

In October 2011, The Wall Street Journal reported that Huawei had become Iran's leading provider of telecommunications equipment, including monitoring technologies that could be used for surveillance.[255] Huawei responded with a statement claiming the story misrepresented the company's involvement: "We have never been involved and do not provide any services relating to monitoring or filtering technologies and equipment anywhere in the world".[256]

Russia[edit]

According to report, Russian telecom equipment manufacturer Bulat was in talk with Huawei to acquire technology to store user data when they are using the network.[257]

Taliban[edit]

In 2001, it was alleged that Huawei Technologies India had developed telecommunications surveillance equipment for the Taliban in Afghanistan, and newspapers reported that the Indian government had launched a probe into the firm's operations.[258][259] Huawei responded, stating that the company did not have "any link with the Taliban", as its only customers are telecommunications carriers[260] and its facilities "always operate according to U.N. rules and the local laws of each country".[261] On 15 December 2001, the Indian authorities announced that they had not found any evidence that Huawei India had any connection to the Taliban,[262] although the U.S. remains suspicious.[263]

Misleading marketing[edit]

Benchmark cheating[edit]

In September 2018, AnandTech reported that recent Huawei and Honor phones, including the Huawei P20 and Honor Play, had been configured to activate a high-performance mode when certain benchmarking software was detected, causing increased frame rates at the expense of efficiency and battery life. A Huawei executive admitted that the company was attempting to compete with domestic vendors, including one it accused of providing "unrealistic" scores. However, he also expressed an opinion that manufacturers should evaluate their phones on benchmarks that more accurately reflect real-world use, and that the company would vet its benchmark scores via third-parties before publishing them as promotional material.[264]

After confirming the behavior with a version of its software that could not be easily detected, 3DMark delisted scores for several Huawei and Honor devices from its database.[265] Huawei subsequently announced that it would add a "Performance Mode" feature to its EMUI 9 software, allowing users to enable this state on-demand to improve performance of apps such as games.[266][267]

Cameras[edit]

On several occasions, Huawei has issued promotional materials promoting the camera capabilities on its smartphones, that were later found to have actually used professional DSLR cameras instead. In 2015, Huawei posted a promotional photo on Google+ featuring Ella Woodward bathed in a sunrise, asking readers to share their own photos of the sunrise taken with the Huawei P9—as aided by its low-light capabilities. It was pointed out that Exif metadata on the photo identified it as having been taken with a Canon EOS 5D Mark III, and the wording and intent of the post could potentially mislead readers into believing that the photo itself was also taken with a P9. Huawei pulled the post and apologized, stating that it was meant to "inspire our community", and that the caption should have been more clear.[268][269]

In 2018, behind-the-scenes photos from the filming of a Nova 3 commercial by Huawei's Egyptian branch revealed that a DSLR had been used for certain scenes, implied to have been taken with the phone itself during the commercial. An actor was seen miming the taking of a selfie, without actually having a phone in his hand. It is not explicitly disclaimed in the ad.[270][271][272][273]

In its promotion of the Huawei P30, the company was caught using stock photos on promotional posts for the device on Sina Weibo. The posts were later amended with fine print stating that they were for "reference" purposes only.[274][275]

A new AI mode on the P30 is designed for taking photos of the Moon, and states that it can "adequately capture the beauty of the moon along with fine details like moonbeams and shadows". However, it was later discovered that this mode merely composes existing imagery of the moon into the photo.[276][277]

National politics[edit]

China[edit]

Huawei Mate 10 Islamic feature dispute[edit]

In November 2017, Chinese users discovered the Salah (Islamic prayer) notification feature in Huawei Mate 10 phone, on the company's website for Mainland China. It was viewed as an unjustified promotion of Islam given that Muslims are a minority religious group in Mainland China that make up only about 1–2% of the population. Significant backlash has formed on the Chinese internet and some have even tried to boycott Huawei phones for including such feature, and make fun of the phone by calling it "the first phone with a Halal prayer feature" and describe the event as the "Islamic conversion of Huawei".[278][279][280][281]

Later, Huawei published an official statement via Sina Weibo,[282] stating that the feature was only a personalized notification service designed for "certain overseas regions" that was not available in China. Netizens questioned why promotion of that feature was available on the company's Chinese website in the first place if that was not the intended area but those comments were deleted before getting any response. A Taoist priest commented that the mosque-finding service on the device was also available in mainland China, inconsistent with the official explanation about these religious features.[283] After Huawei published the official statement, many news reports and discussions made on Chinese online media or Chinese discussion platforms were made inaccessible or removed from the internet.[284][285][286]

Chou Tzu-yu Republic of China flag incident[edit]

In January 2016, people found out that Chou Tzu-yu, a Taiwanese artist performing at South Korea and endorsed the Huawei Y6 in advertisement beforehand, was displaying the flag of Republic of China in a Korean entertainment show and accused the artist's behavior as supporting Taiwanese independence. As a response to the discovery, Huawei announced on the official forum that the arrangement was decided by their South Korean carrier partner LG U+ and they have already told LG U+ to terminate their cooperation with Chou Tzu-yu and her agency company.[287][288] However LG U+ rejected the statement and claim their contract with the artist are still valid despite disputes.[289][290] Chinese netizens have called for boycotting Huawei phones as a form of protest.[291]

P-series phones listing Taiwan as a separate country[edit]

In August 2019 Chinese netizens criticized Huawei because their P-series phones listed Taiwan as a separate country when set to use traditional Chinese characters.[292] Chinese netizens called for a boycott of Huawei using the Weibo hashtag #HuaweiGetoutofChina (华为滚出中国) and accused the company of supporting separatism.[293]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McCaskill, Steve. "Huawei: US has no evidence for security claims". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 2019-03-01. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  2. ^ Magee, Tamlin (10 Sep 2019). "Huawei controversies timeline: Everything you need to know". Computerworld. Retrieved 11 Jun 2020.
  3. ^ "Huawei's Human Rights Record Has Been Shamefully Ignored". thediplomat.com.
  4. ^ a b Wheeler, Caroline. "Chinese tech giant Huawei 'helps to persecute Uighurs'" – via www.thetimes.co.uk.
  5. ^ a b Sabbagh, Dan (March 3, 2020). "Tory MP asks BT if using Huawei complies with anti-slavery policy" – via www.theguardian.com.
  6. ^ a b Dan Strumpf; Dustin Volz; Kate O'Keeffe; Aruna Viswanatha; Chuin-Wei Yap (2019-05-25). "Huawei's Yearslong Rise Is Littered With Accusations of Theft and Dubious Ethics". Wall Street Journal. The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 14 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  7. ^ "Cisco's motion for preliminary injunction" (PDF). Cisco.com. 5 February 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  8. ^ Flynn, Laurie J. (29 July 2004). "Technology briefing: Cisco drops Huawei suit". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  9. ^ Harvey, Phil (28 July 2004). "Cisco drops Huawei suit". Light Reading. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  10. ^ "US Embassy Cable 05HARARE1331". wikileaks. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ "US embassy Cable 10SHANGHAI53". wikileaks. 19 February 2010. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  12. ^ Worth, Dan (12 October 2012). "Cisco upbraids Huawei over source code copying claims". V3.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  13. ^ Chandler, Mark (2012-10-11). "Huawei and Cisco's Source Code: Correcting the Record". cisco.com. Cisco. Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  14. ^ Chaffin, Larry (2012-10-08). "60 Minutes torpedoes Huawei in less than 15 minutes". networkworld.com. Network World. Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  15. ^ Thomas, Sarah (9 September 2014). "T-Mobile Accuses Huawei of Espionage". Archived from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  16. ^ Orlowski, Andrew (19 May 2017). "Huawei spied, US federal jury finds". The Register. Archived from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  17. ^ Lerman, Rachel (18 May 2017). "Jury awards T-Mobile $4.8M in trade-secrets case against Huawei". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 25 July 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  18. ^ Wahba, Phil; Lee, Melanie (22 July 2010). "Motorola sues Huawei for trade secret theft". Reuters. Retrieved 15 July 2011.[permanent dead link]
  19. ^ Rhoads, Christopher (2010-07-22). "Motorola Claims Huawei Plot". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  20. ^ Raice, Shayndi (2011-01-25). "Huawei Sues Motorola to Block Asset Sale". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  21. ^ Rao, Leena (24 January 2011). "Huawei Sues Motorola Over Patents Disclosed To Nokia Siemens-Acquired Wireless Network". Tech Crunch. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  22. ^ "Huawei Files Lawsuit Against Motorola for IP Infringement". Huawei.com. Huawei. 24 January 2011. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  23. ^ Carew, Sinead (24 January 2011). "Huawei sues to alter Motorola-Nokia Siemens deal". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  24. ^ a b Rao, Leena (13 April 2011). "Motorola and Huawei settle patent lawsuit". Tech Crunch. Archived from the original on 18 June 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  25. ^ "Motorola Solutions and Huawei Issue Joint Statement". Huawei.com. Huawei. 13 April 2011. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  26. ^ Hille, Kathrin; Taylor, Paul (13 April 2011). "Relief for Huawei as it settles with Motorola". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 29 August 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  27. ^ Barboza, David (2011-04-13). "Motorola Solutions and Huawei Settle Claims". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2016-01-05. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  28. ^ Thomasch, Paul (13 April 2011). "Motorola and Huawei settle trade secret dispute". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 August 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  29. ^ "Huawei settles Motorola Solutions trade secrets dispute". BBC News. 13 April 2011. Archived from the original on 17 April 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  30. ^ Tsukayama, Hayley (13 April 2011). "Motorola, Huawei settle their dispute". Post Tech. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  31. ^ "Huawei sues ZTE in Germany, France, Hungary". Reuters. 28 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  32. ^ Hille, Kathrin (28 April 2011). "Huawei sues ZTE over patents". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  33. ^ Clarke, Gavin (11 May 2011). "Huawei draws blood in ZTE patent tussle". The Register. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  34. ^ "ZTE sues Huawei in China for patent infringement over 4G tech". Reuters. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 2 June 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  35. ^ "ZTE counter-sues Huawei over LTE technology in China". The Wall Street Journal. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  36. ^ a b Berkow, Jameson (2012-02-25). "Nortel hacked to pieces". financialpost.com. Financial Post. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  37. ^ Smith, Jim. "Did Outsourcing and Corporate Espionage Kill Nortel?". assemblymag.com. BNP Media. Archived from the original on 2019-06-07. Retrieved 2019-06-14.
  38. ^ Marlow, Iain. "Nortel turned to RCMP about cyber hacking in 2004, ex-employee says". theglobeandmail.com. The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 4 August 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  39. ^ Waddell, Nick (2012-10-15). "Will allegations against Huawei forever change Nortel's legacy?". cantechletter.com. CANTECH LETTER. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  40. ^ Burrows, Peter (30 July 2004). "Huawei isn't in the clear yet". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 15 September 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  41. ^ Harvey, Phil (17 August 2004). "Huawei fires SuperComm snooper". Light Reading. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  42. ^ "Statement from Huawei Technologies in response to questions regarding events at the SuperComm trade show". Huawei. 5 August 2004. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  43. ^ "FBI 'ran sting against Huawei in new technology theft case'". South China Morning Post. February 5, 2019. Archived from the original on May 14, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  44. ^ O’Keeffe, Kate (May 23, 2019). "Huawei Executive Accused by U.S. Startup of Involvement in Trade-Secrets Theft". Archived from the original on May 27, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019 – via www.wsj.com.
  45. ^ "Huawei executive accused of helping steal trade secrets". www.theverge.com. 2019-05-22. Archived from the original on 2019-05-27. Retrieved 2019-05-27.
  46. ^ "Annual Report to Congress Military Power of the People's Republic of China" (PDF). Defense link. U.S. Department of Defense. 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  47. ^ a b c "Chinese telecom company Huawei open to US investigation". BBC News. 25 February 2011. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  48. ^ a b "The Huawei Way". Newsweek. 15 January 2006. Archived from the original on 9 March 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  49. ^ "Chinese spy fears on broadband frontrunner". The Australian. 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  50. ^ a b Markoff, John; Barboza, David (2010-10-25). "Huawei Technologies of China's Bold Push Into U.S." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2017-02-19. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  51. ^ Weisman, Steven R. (2008-02-21). "Sale of 3Com to Huawei is derailed by U.S. security concerns". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-05-26. Retrieved 2019-05-30.
  52. ^ Naraine, Ryan. "3Com-Huawei deal 'in trouble' over China connection". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 2019-06-11. Retrieved 2019-05-30.
  53. ^ "What makes China telecom Huawei so scary?". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2019-05-31. Retrieved 2019-05-31.
  54. ^ Barboza, David (2010-08-22). "Huawei Bid for Sprint Contract Hits a Hurdle". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-05-31. Retrieved 2019-05-31.
  55. ^ "Congress to probe 3Com-Huawei deal". The Washington Times. 2 February 2008. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  56. ^ Smith, Michael (29 March 2009). "Spy chiefs fear Chinese cyber attack". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  57. ^ Kirk, Jeremy (6 December 2010). "Huawei open security test center in the UK". PC World. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  58. ^ a b Gallagher, Sean (2019-03-28). "UK cyber security officials report Huawei's security practices are a mess". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2020-03-10. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  59. ^ Basu, Indrajit (8 October 2009). "India's telecom agency raises China spy scare". UPI Asia. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  60. ^ BSNL Cancels Huawei GSM Tender Covering Southern India Archived 2010-02-01 at the Wayback Machine Cellular News.
  61. ^ CBI to probe link between BSNL officers, Chinese firm Archived 5 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine Hindustan Times.
  62. ^ PMO forced BSNL to remove top officials Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Hindustan Times.
  63. ^ Putcha, Shiv; Grivolas, Julien (4 June 2010). "India lifts ban on Chinese telecoms vendors". Ovum. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  64. ^ Hu, Ken. "Huawei Open Letter". Huawei. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  65. ^ Chao, Loretta (25 February 2011). "Huawei Executive's Open Letter to the U.S." China Real Time Report. Archived from the original on 29 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  66. ^ Rosen, Daniel H.; Hanemann, Thilo (May 2011). "An American Open Door?" (PDF). The Asia Society. p. 62. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  67. ^ Le, Bryan (4 August 2011). "The Chinese Cyber-Threat". Asia Society. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  68. ^ Riley, Michael (1 December 2011). "U.S. Hunting for Chinese Telecom Spyware". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  69. ^ Schmidt, Michael S.; Bradsher, Keith; Hauser, Christine (2012-10-08). "U.S. Panel Calls Huawei and ZTE 'National Security Threat'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2017-03-09. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  70. ^ Menn, Joseph (18 October 2012). "White House-ordered review found no evidence of Huawei spying: sources". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  71. ^ Australian Financial Review (2012). China’s Huawei banned from NBN Archived 2012-11-05 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  72. ^ Australian Financial Review (2012). ASIO forced NBN to dump Huawei Archived 2012-07-28 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  73. ^ Winning, David (2012-03-25). "Canberra Talks Integrity After Reportedly Banning Huawei From NBN". WSJ. Archived from the original on 2017-02-18. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  74. ^ Palmer, Randall (9 October 2012). "Huawei faces exclusion from planned Canada government network". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  75. ^ a b Curtis, Sophie (19 July 2013). "Ex-CIA chief accuses Huawei of industrial espionage". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  76. ^ Huawei has spied for Chinese government, ex-CIA boss says | World news Archived 2017-02-02 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian. (19 July 2013). Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  77. ^ Sanger, David E.; Perlroth, Nicole (2014-03-22). "N.S.A. Breached Chinese Servers Seen as Security Threat". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2017-02-18. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  78. ^ Woo, Stu; Beaton, Andrew (2018-12-24). "Huawei Had a Deal to Give Washington Redskins Fans Free Wi-Fi, Until the Government Stepped In". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2018-12-24. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  79. ^ "Inside the Ring: Redskins drop plans to use Chinese-built Wi-Fi at stadium". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  80. ^ Browne, Rachel (25 May 2016). "Canada Plans to Reject Chinese Telecom Workers on Suspicion They Could Be Spies". Archived from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  81. ^ Aglionby, John (30 January 2018). "African Union accuses China of hacking headquarters". Archived from the original on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  82. ^ Grigg, Angus (12 July 2018). "Huawei linked to major data breach". Archived from the original on 16 July 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  83. ^ Tiezzi, Shannon. "If China Bugged the AU Headquarters, What African Countries Should Be Worried?". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  84. ^ "AU spying report absurd: China". Enca. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  85. ^ "African Union says has no secret dossiers after China spying report". Reuters. 2018-02-08. Archived from the original on 10 September 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  86. ^ "Huawei and ZTE Targeted While Security Ban Advances at U.S. FCC". Bloomberg. 17 April 2018. Archived from the original on 19 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  87. ^ Zhong, Raymond; Mozur, Paul (17 April 2018). "Huawei, Failing to Crack U.S. Market, Signals a Change in Tactics". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  88. ^ Zhong, Raymond; Mozur, Paul (17 April 2018). "Chinese electronics giant Huawei signals a change in tactics after failing to crack US market". CNBC. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  89. ^ "New law bans US gov't from buying tech from Chinese giants ZTE and Huawei". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2019-05-29. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  90. ^ Mozur, Paul; Ramzy, Austin (2019-03-06). "Huawei Sues U.S. Government Over What It Calls an Unfair Ban". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-05-30. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  91. ^ a b Neate, Rupert (2019-04-30). "Huawei says alleged router 'backdoor' is standard network tool". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 2019-12-31. Retrieved 2019-12-02.
  92. ^ Bright, Peter (2019-04-30). "Bloomberg alleges Huawei routers and network gear are backdoored". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2020-01-01. Retrieved 2019-12-02.
  93. ^ Osborne, Charlie. "Huawei denies existence of 'backdoors' in Vodafone networking equipment". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 2020-03-07. Retrieved 2019-12-02.
  94. ^ "Vodafone denies Huawei Italy security risk". BBC News. 2019-04-30. Archived from the original on 2019-12-16. Retrieved 2019-12-02.
  95. ^ Webster, Graham (May 18, 2019). "It's not just Huawei. Trump's new tech sector order could ripple through global supply chains". Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  96. ^ "Tech stocks slide on US decision to blacklist Huawei and 70 affiliates". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2019-05-18.
  97. ^ Sottek, T. C. (2019-05-19). "Google pulls Huawei's Android license, forcing it to use open source version". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2019-05-20. Retrieved 2019-05-19.
  98. ^ "Exclusive: Google suspends some business with Huawei after Trump..." Reuters. 2019-05-19. Archived from the original on 2019-05-20. Retrieved 2019-05-19.
  99. ^ Simons, Hadlee (2019-05-20). "Intel, Qualcomm join Google in cutting off business with Huawei". Android Authority. Archived from the original on 2019-05-20. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
  100. ^ "Dutch spy agency investigating alleged Huawei 'backdoor': Volkskrant". Reuters. May 16, 2019. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
  101. ^ Varghese, Sam. "iTWire – German IT watchdog says no evidence to back Huawei spying claims". IT Wire. Archived from the original on 27 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  102. ^ hermes (8 December 2018). "Japan to ban govt use of Huawei, ZTE telecoms products, say reports". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 27 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  103. ^ Tung, Liam. "Czech cybersecurity agency warns Huawei and ZTE products pose security threat". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 19 December 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  104. ^ "Czech prime minister hits back at Chinese Huawei claims". South China Morning Post. 28 December 2018. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  105. ^ "Czech government reverses ban on Huawei". Telecompaper. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  106. ^ a b Simonite, Tom. "US LAWYERS DON'T BUY HUAWEI'S ARGUMENT ON CHINESE HACKING". Wired. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  107. ^ Hanhua, Zhou (2019-03-04). "Law Expert: Chinese Government Can't Force Huawei to Make Backdoors". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Archived from the original on 2019-07-18. Retrieved 2019-05-19.
  108. ^ "Why has the UK not blocked Huawei?". BBC News. 28 November 2018. Archived from the original on 28 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  109. ^ "New Zealand halts Huawei from 5G upgrade over security fears". The New Zealand Herald. Associated Press. 29 November 2018. Archived from the original on 29 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  110. ^ "Huawei: NZ bars Chinese firm on national security fears". BBC News. 28 November 2018. Archived from the original on 29 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  111. ^ "BT bars Huawei kit from core of 5G network". BBC News. 5 December 2018. Archived from the original on 27 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  112. ^ "Huawei's kit removed from police network". BBC News. 24 December 2018. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  113. ^ "BBC News: Huawei: 'Deep concerns' over firm's role in UK 5G upgrade". BBC News. 2018-12-27. Archived from the original on 27 December 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  114. ^ Zhong, Raymond (2019-01-12). "Huawei Fires Employee Arrested in Poland on Spying Charges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-07-06.
  115. ^ Kruse, Simon; Winther, Lene (10 December 2019). "Afsløring: Kinas ambassadør truede færøsk leder på mørklagt møde". Berlingske (in Danish). Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  116. ^ "Your brand new phone could still have malware". PCWorld. 2015-09-01. Archived from the original on 2019-04-25. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  117. ^ Philipp, Joshua (9 September 2015). "Spy Software Found Preinstalled on Lenovo, Huawei, and Xiaomi Smartphones". Epoch Times. Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  118. ^ "Verizon won't sell Huawei phones due to US government pressure, report says". The Verge. Archived from the original on 19 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  119. ^ "AT&T pulls out of deal to sell Huawei phones in the US". The Verge. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  120. ^ Salinas, Sara (13 February 2018). "Six top US intelligence chiefs caution against buying Huawei phones". CNBC. Archived from the original on 14 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  121. ^ "Best Buy won't sell Huawei phones, laptops, or smartwatches anymore". The Verge. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  122. ^ Everington, Keoni. "Huawei Mediapad M5 found to be snooping on engineer in Taiwan from China". www.taiwannews.com.tw. Taiwan News. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  123. ^ "Hackers reveal critical vulnerabilities in Huawei routers at Defcon". Computerworld. 2012-07-30. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  124. ^ "Expert: Huawei routers are riddled with vulnerabilities". CNET. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  125. ^ Bright, Peter (2019-03-26). "How Microsoft found a Huawei driver that opened systems to attack". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  126. ^ Lomas, Natasha (2019-03-28). "UK report blasts Huawei for network security incompetence". Tech Crunch. Archived from the original on 2019-05-14. Retrieved 2019-05-14.
  127. ^ Wu, John (2019-10-01). "Huawei's Undocumented APIs — A Backdoor to Reinstall Google Services". Medium. Archived from the original on 2019-10-01. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  128. ^ "Powerful hidden APIs in Huawei Mate 30 allow Google app installation". Android Central. 2019-10-01. Archived from the original on 2019-10-02. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  129. ^ Reichert, Corinne. "US finds Huawei has backdoor access to mobile networks globally, report says". CNET. Archived from the original on 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2020-02-12.
  130. ^ Pancevski, Bojan (February 12, 2020). "WSJ News Exclusive | U.S. Officials Say Huawei Can Covertly Access Telecom Networks". Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020 – via www.wsj.com.
  131. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (2018-08-13). "Trump signs bill banning government use of Huawei and ZTE tech". The Verge. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-29.
  132. ^ Mozur, Paul; Ramzy, Austin (2019-03-06). "Huawei Sues U.S. Government Over What It Calls an Unfair Ban". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  133. ^ Lecher, Colin (2019-05-29). "Huawei is challenging its US contracting ban as unconstitutional". The Verge. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-29.
  134. ^ "Addition of Entities to the Entity List". Federal Register. 2019-05-21. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-08.
  135. ^ Webster, Graham (May 18, 2019). "It's not just Huawei. Trump's new tech sector order could ripple through global supply chains". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  136. ^ "Tech stocks slide on US decision to blacklist Huawei and 70 affiliates". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2019-05-18.
  137. ^ Kuo, Lily; Siddiqui, Sabrina (2019-05-16). "Huawei hits back over Trump's national emergency on telecoms 'threat'". The Guardian. Washington. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-18.
  138. ^ "US places China's Huawei and 70 affiliates on trade blacklist". South China Morning Post. 16 May 2019. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  139. ^ Satariano, Adam; Zhong, Raymond; Wakabayashi, Daisuke (2019-05-20). "U.S. Tech Suppliers, Including Google, Restrict Dealings With Huawei After Trump Order". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-28.
  140. ^ Amadeo, Ron (2019-05-20). "Google reportedly ends business with Huawei, will cut it off from Play Store [Updated]". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  141. ^ a b c Sottek, T. C. (2019-05-19). "Google pulls Huawei's Android license, forcing it to use open source version". The Verge. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-19.
  142. ^ "Top U.S. Tech Companies Begin to Cut Off Vital Huawei Supplies". Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 8 June 2019 – via www.bloomberg.com.
  143. ^ "Exclusive: Google suspends some business with Huawei after Trump..." Reuters. 2019-05-19. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-19.
  144. ^ Savov, Vlad (2019-05-19). "Intel, Qualcomm, and other chipmakers reportedly join Google in Huawei ban". The Verge. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
  145. ^ "Huawei's day of reckoning arrives – will its preparations pay off?". South China Morning Post. 2019-05-16. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-22.
  146. ^ a b "Huawei's voice in future tech standards restricted". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-28.
  147. ^ "'There will be conflict': Huawei founder says US underestimates company's strength". The Guardian. 2019-05-21. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  148. ^ "US 'underestimates' Huawei, founder says". BBC News. 21 May 2019. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  149. ^ Warren, Tom (21 May 2019). "Microsoft removes Huawei laptop from store, remains silent on potential Windows ban". The Verge. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  150. ^ Amadeo, Ron (June 10, 2019). "Huawei's export ban is wider in scope than most people imagine". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 12 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  151. ^ Byford, Sam (2018-10-17). "How China rips off the iPhone and reinvents Android". The Verge. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  152. ^ "Huawei makes its own app store global". GSMArena.com. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  153. ^ Savov, Vlad (2019-05-20). "Huawei's phone business would be decimated without Google's Android". The Verge. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  154. ^ Badshah, Nadeem; Kuo, Lily (2019-05-20). "Google blocks Huawei access to Android updates after blacklisting". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
  155. ^ "Huawei responds to Android ban with service and security guarantees, but its future is unclear". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
  156. ^ "U.S. eases curbs on Huawei; founder says clampdown underestimates Chinese firm". Reuters. 2019-05-22. Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-28.
  157. ^ Nieva, Richard. "Google revives Huawei work temporarily after US eases restrictions". CNET. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-23.
  158. ^ Finley, Klint (21 May 2019). "How Huawei Might Handle the Latest US Sanctions". Wired. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  159. ^ Amadeo, Ron (21 May 2019). "The US DOC gives Huawei a 90-day window to support existing devices". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  160. ^ Warren, Tom (2019-05-22). "ARM cuts ties with Huawei, threatening future chip designs". The Verge. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-22.
  161. ^ Yu, Eileen. "Japan telcos pull back sale of new Huawei smartphones". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-28.
  162. ^ Gartenberg, Chaim (2019-05-24). "Huawei can't officially use microSD cards in its phones going forward". The Verge. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  163. ^ "Toshiba resumes shipments to Huawei after brief suspension". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  164. ^ "Panasonic examines Huawei relationship". BBC News. 2019-05-23. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-28.
  165. ^ Gonzalez, Oscar. "Huawei gets double bad news from SD Association and Wi-Fi Alliance". CNET. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-28.
  166. ^ "Exclusive: Huawei reviewing FedEx relationship, says packages..." Reuters. 2019-05-28. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-30.
  167. ^ "FedEx apologises to Huawei for re-routing packages to the US". South China Morning Post. 2019-05-28. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-30.
  168. ^ 央视 (2019-05-28). "华为:已向中国邮政监管部门正式投诉". tech.sina.com.cn. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-30.
  169. ^ "[Update: Huawei's back in] Huawei ejected from Wi-Fi Alliance, SD Association, and other standards groups". Android Police. 2019-05-29. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-29.
  170. ^ Keane, Sean. "Huawei ban revoked by science publisher IEEE". CNET. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-14.
  171. ^ Doffman, Zak. "Huawei Stops Smartphone Production Lines After Blacklisting, Report Claims". Forbes. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  172. ^ Doffman, Zak. "Huawei Confirms $30 Billion Revenue Hit As Smartphone Sales Drop 40-60% (Updated)". Forbes. Archived from the original on 26 September 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  173. ^ "Huawei Braces for Phone Sales Drop of Up to 60 Million Overseas". Bloomberg News. June 16, 2019. Archived from the original on 10 March 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  174. ^ Miller, Matthew. "President Trump lifts US ban on Huawei at G20 summit". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-29.
  175. ^ "US and China agree to restart trade talks". 2019-06-29. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-29.
  176. ^ "Trump appears to soften his tone on Huawei". CNN Politics. 2019-06-29. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-29.
  177. ^ Gartenberg, Chaim (2019-10-25). "ARM will continue to license chip architecture to Huawei after all". The Verge. Archived from the original on 26 November 2019. Retrieved 2020-05-15.
  178. ^ Lyons, Kim (2020-05-15). "US moves to cut off Huawei from overseas chip manufacturers". The Verge. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 2020-05-15.
  179. ^ "U.S.-China tensions rise as Trump administration moves to cut Huawei off from global chip suppliers". CNBC. 2020-05-15. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 2020-05-15.
  180. ^ "Commerce Addresses Huawei's Efforts to Undermine Entity List, Restricts Products Designed and Produced with U.S. Technologies". U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 2020-05-15.
  181. ^ "Huawei confirms it has its own OS on back shelf as a plan B". South China Morning Post. 14 March 2019. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  182. ^ Faulkner, Cameron (14 March 2019). "Huawei developed its own operating systems in case it's banned from using Android and Windows". The Verge. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  183. ^ Kharpal, Arjun (15 March 2019). "Huawei built software for smartphones and laptops in case it can't use Microsoft or Google". CNBC. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  184. ^ phones, John McCann 2019-05-28T09:07:56Z Mobile. "Huawei may be building an Ark (OS) as it prepares for life after Android". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-29.
  185. ^ Lakshmanan, Ravie (2019-07-15). "Huawei wants to name its Android OS replacement 'Harmony' in Europe". The Next Web. Archived from the original on 16 July 2019. Retrieved 2019-07-16.
  186. ^ "Android remains our 'first choice': Huawei chairman". TechNode. 2019-07-12. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
  187. ^ Keane, Sean. "Huawei says Hongmeng OS isn't designed as an Android replacement". CNET. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
  188. ^ Byford, Sam (2019-07-19). "Huawei says its Hongmeng OS isn't an Android replacement after all". The Verge. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
  189. ^ "Addition of Certain Entities to the Entity List and Revision of Entries on the Entity List". Federal Register - Industry and Security Bureau. 21 July 2019.
  190. ^ "Huawei selling MateBook laptops with Linux preinstalled to consumers in China". TechRepublic. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 2019-09-13.
  191. ^ Tung, L. (Sept. 2019). "Microsoft's top lawyer: Trump's Huawei ban makes no sense" Archived 3 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine. ZDNet. Retrieved January 1st, 2020.
  192. ^ Buckley, Chris; Mozur, Paul (May 22, 2019). "How China Uses High-Tech Surveillance to Subdue Minorities" – via NYTimes.com.
  193. ^ Pulford, Luke de (February 20, 2020). "Huawei is a key player in Beijing's anti-Muslim, Big Brother horrors".
  194. ^ "Subscribe to read | Financial Times". www.ft.com.Template:Subsvription required
  195. ^ "US announces sanctions on Huawei, citing human rights abuses". The Hill. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  196. ^ a b Zhong, Raymond (2019-04-25). "Who Owns Huawei? The Company Tried to Explain. It Got Complicated". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-05-23. Retrieved 2019-05-19.
  197. ^ a b Clarke, Donald C.; Balding, Christopher (2019-04-17). "Who Owns Huawei?". Rochester, NY. SSRN 3372669. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  198. ^ "Huawei hits out at claims of state control through 'employee' stake". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 2019-05-19. Retrieved 2019-05-19.
  199. ^ "华为虚拟股权激励法律解析-云法务". www.yunfawu.cn.
  200. ^ Hulse, Janie (September 2007). "China's expansion into and U.S. withdrawal from Argentina's telecommunications and space industries and the implications for U.S. national security" (PDF). strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil. U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  201. ^ Le Maistre, Ray (3 March 2011). "WikiLeaks Cable Casts Dim Light on Huawei". lightreading.com. Light Reading Asia. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  202. ^ "Wikileaks exposes US jitters over tender awards to China". Business Daily Africa. March 2011. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  203. ^ a b "Huawei Technologies bans Indians in India". The Times of India. 6 May 2010. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  204. ^ "Huawei invites Govt to inspect India offices". The Hindu. 13 May 2010. Archived from the original on 4 February 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  205. ^ "No secret tests at Huawei facility, says company". The Economic Times. 12 May 2010. Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  206. ^ Crothall, Geoffrey; Snowdon, Karon (12 November 2007). "ABC Radio Australia: CHINA: Companies seeking loopholes in new labour laws". China Labour Bulletin. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2010.
  207. ^ "Is corporate "wolf-culture" devouring China's over-worked employees?". China Labour Bulletin. 27 May 2008. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2010.
  208. ^ Metz, Trevor (12 November 2007). "CBC News: Stemming the brain drain". CBC News. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  209. ^ Xu, Zhiqiang (7 June 2006). "Worked to Death in China". Korea: OhmyNews International. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  210. ^ "CSR Report 2010". Huawei.com. Huawei. 2010. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  211. ^ "Death from Overwork in China". China Labour Bulletin. 11 August 2006. Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  212. ^ Xue, Yujie (3 November 2019). "Huawei Breaks Silence After Sending Former Employee to Jail". Sixth Tone. Archived from the original on 3 December 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  213. ^ Kuo, Lily (2019-12-23). "'This is not rule of law': detention of Huawei workers sparks backlash". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 2019-12-23. Retrieved 2019-12-23.
  214. ^ "Huawei gets $30b credit line from CDB". www.telecomasia.net. Archived from the original on 2019-06-02. Retrieved 2019-05-15.
  215. ^ Montlake, Simon. "Chinese Policy Bank Helps ZTE, Huawei To Fly The Flag". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2019-06-04. Retrieved 2019-05-15.
  216. ^ "Huawei Funded for Overseas Expansion". french.china.org.cn. Archived from the original on 2019-06-03. Retrieved 2019-05-15.
  217. ^ "Huawei a key beneficiary of China subsidies that US wants ended". phys.org. Archived from the original on 2019-12-26. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
  218. ^ Doffman, Zak. "CIA Claims It Has Proof Huawei Has Been Funded By China's Military And Intelligence". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2019-12-26. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
  219. ^ "U.S. intelligence says Huawei funded by Chinese state security: report". Reuters. 2019-04-20. Archived from the original on 2020-03-08. Retrieved 2019-12-26 – via mobile.reuters.com.
  220. ^ "Huawei rejects Eximbank chief's China aid claim". Reuters. June 16, 2011. Archived from the original on June 3, 2019. Retrieved May 15, 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
  221. ^ "Non, Huawei n'est pas une entreprise comme les autres". Le Monde.fr. April 22, 2019. Archived from the original on May 15, 2019. Retrieved May 15, 2019 – via Le Monde.
  222. ^ Osborne, Charlie. "EU: Huawei, ZTE 'dump' products in European markets". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 2015-08-15. Retrieved 2019-05-15.
  223. ^ Lead, Telecom (April 27, 2016). "Huawei, ZTE telecom equipment face anti-dumping duty in India". Archived from the original on May 29, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2019.
  224. ^ a b Reisinger, Don. "Huawei caught up in legal mess over cell equipment sales to Iran". CNET. Archived from the original on 2019-04-07. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
  225. ^ a b Stecklow, Steve; Dehghanpisheh, Babak (3 June 2020). "Huawei hid business operation in Iran after reported links to CFO, documents show". The Globe and Mail Inc. Reuters.
  226. ^ Sheridan Prasso (25 April 2018). "Huawei Said to Be Probed by FBI for Possible Iran Violations" Archived 2018-08-10 at the Wayback Machine. Bloomberg Technology. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  227. ^ Zhong, Raymond (7 December 2018). "Meng Wanzhou Was Huawei's Professional Face, Until Her Arrest". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  228. ^ Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Rappeport, Alan (5 December 2018). "A Top Huawei Executive Is Arrested in Canada for Extradition to the U.S." The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  229. ^ "US case against Huawei CFO revealed in Canadian court". CNN. 7 December 2018. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  230. ^ "US case against Huawei CFO revealed in Canadian court". CBC News. 7 December 2018. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  231. ^ "Chinese state media says U.S. trying to 'stifle' Huawei with arrest". Bloomberg. Bloomberg Technology. 7 December 2018. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  232. ^ Horowitz, Julia; Moya, Alberto; McLean, Scott (12 December 2018). "Facing extradition to the US, Huawei's CFO is released on bail in Canada". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  233. ^ "US files charges against China's Huawei and CFO Meng Wanzhou". BBC. 28 January 2019. Archived from the original on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  234. ^ Lee, Timothy B. (29 January 2019). "US indicts Huawei for stealing T-Mobile robot arm, selling US tech to Iran". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  235. ^ Maresca, Thomas (29 January 2019). "China calls on US to end 'unreasonable crackdown' on Huawei, other Chinese firms". USA Today. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  236. ^ Liu Zhen (May 16, 2019). "China charges Canadians Michael Kovrig and Michael Spavor with spying: Pair accused of gathering state secrets and providing them to foreign forces, foreign ministry says: Ottawa says it 'strongly condemns' the move". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 14 December 2019. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  237. ^ "邦人80人が長期拘束される中国 定義なきのスパイ罪とはどんな扱いを受けるのか(3/3)". KoreaWorldTimes (in Japanese). 2019-11-28. Archived from the original on 18 May 2020. Retrieved 2020-05-21.
  238. ^ "Canadian citizen detained in China as row continues over Huawei chief: Beijing arrests Canadian citizen on drug-related charges amid diplomatic crisis, following detention of Meng Wanzhou". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. July 15, 2019. Archived from the original on 14 December 2019. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  239. ^ Kuo, Lily. "'Hostage' diplomacy: Canadian's death sentence in China sets worrying tone, experts say". www.theguardian.com. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  240. ^ Medcalf, Rory. "Arrest of Yang Hengjun drags Australia into China's hostage diplomacy". nsc.crawford.anu.edu.au. Australian National University. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  241. ^ Dixon, Robyn. "China's arrest of Australian writer is called 'hostage diplomacy'". www.latimes.com. The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  242. ^ Panda, Ankit. "China's 'Hostage Diplomacy' Cannot Be Allowed to Stand". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  243. ^ Liu, Qianer; Wong, Sue-Lin (12 November 2019). "Huawei to pay staff $286m bonus for helping counter sanctions". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 17 November 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  244. ^ James McLeod (December 10, 2019). "Canada not alone in Huawei dilemma". Financial Post. p. FP1.
  245. ^ "Huawei CFO Meng Wanzhou loses key court battle as B.C. judge rules extradition bid should proceed - CBC News". CBC. 27 May 2020. Retrieved 15 Jun 2020.
  246. ^ Proctor, Jason (27 May 2020). "Huawei CFO Meng Wanzhou loses key court battle as B.C. judge rules extradition bid should proceed". CBC.
  247. ^ Proctor, Jason (30 May 2020). "How a man with two wives helped deliver one big loss to Meng Wanzhou". CBC.
  248. ^ "Huawei 'broke Iraq embargo' | South China Morning Post". Scmp.com. 2003-03-23. Archived from the original on 2019-05-15. Retrieved 2019-05-15.
  249. ^ "Exclusive: New documents link Huawei to suspected front companies..." Reuters. January 9, 2019. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 15, 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
  250. ^ "Leaked documents reveal Huawei's secret operations to build North Korea's wireless network". Washington Post. 2019-07-22. Archived from the original on 2019-12-10. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
  251. ^ Herman, Arthur. "Huawei's (And China's) Dangerous High-Tech Game". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2019-05-15. Retrieved 2019-05-15.
  252. ^ "Cisco, Huawei and Semptian: A Look Behind the Great Firewall of China". December 15, 2014. Archived from the original on July 14, 2019. Retrieved May 15, 2019.(subscription required)
  253. ^ Fifield, Anna (November 28, 2019). "TikTok's owner is helping China's campaign of repression in Xinjiang, report finds". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 28, 2019. Retrieved November 28, 2019.
  254. ^ "Mapping more of China's tech giants: AI and surveillance". Australian Strategic Policy Institute. 28 November 2019. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  255. ^ Stecklow, Steve (19 October 2011). "Chinese Tech Giant Aids Iran". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  256. ^ "Statement Regarding Inaccurate and Misleading Claims about Huawei's Commercial Operations in Iran". huawei.com. Huawei. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  257. ^ Soldatov, Andrei; Borogan, Irina (November 29, 2016). "Putin brings China's Great Firewall to Russia in cybersecurity pact". The Guardian. Archived from the original on April 28, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
  258. ^ Satyamurty, K (12 December 2001). "Chinese firm's dealings: police kept in the dark about probe". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  259. ^ Shankar, Jay (10 December 2001). "Indian state government puts Chinese firm under microscope". Agence France-Presse.
  260. ^ Rajesh, Y.P (11 December 2001). "India probes unit of Chinese firm for Taliban link". Reuters News.
  261. ^ Kurtenback, Elaine (12 December 2001). "Chinese firm denies reports that software center in India helped Taliban". Associated Press Newswires.
  262. ^ Srinivasan, S. (15 December 2001). "No evidence of Taliban links to Chinese firm, Indian authorities say". Associated Press Newswires.
  263. ^ "Huawei asks US govt to clear its name". Telecompaper. 25 February 2011. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2011.
  264. ^ Cutress, Ian; Frumusanu, Andrei. "Huawei & Honor's Recent Benchmarking Behaviour: A Cheating Headache". Anandtech.com. Archived from the original on 2018-09-07. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  265. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (2018-09-06). "Huawei caught cheating benchmark test for P20". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2019-07-03. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  266. ^ "Huawei's benchmark-cheating Performance Mode could be the Mate 20's hottest feature". PCWorld. 2018-09-10. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  267. ^ Carman, Ashley (2018-09-07). "Huawei will let all phone users access 'performance mode' after benchmark controversy". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2019-04-07. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  268. ^ "[Update: Huawei removes photo, responds] Huawei publishes implied P9 camera sample, but EXIF data reveals $4500 camera took it". Android Police. 2016-07-04. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
  269. ^ "Huawei sorry for 'misleading' photo". BBC. 2016-07-06. Archived from the original on 2019-03-12. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  270. ^ Gartenberg, Chaim (2018-08-20). "Huawei gets caught faking DSLR shots as smartphone pictures in a commercial". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2019-04-07. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
  271. ^ Axon, Samuel (2018-08-20). "Huawei was caught using a pro camera to fake smartphone photos (again)". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2019-04-09. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
  272. ^ "Huawei caught faking photos again, this time for the upcoming P30 Pro". www.theverge.com. 2019-03-11. Archived from the original on 2019-03-12. Retrieved 2019-05-15.
  273. ^ "Huawei Busted for Faking Smartphone Photos Yet Again". petapixel.com. Archived from the original on 2019-12-19. Retrieved 2019-12-19.
  274. ^ Etienne, Stefan (2019-03-11). "Huawei caught faking photos again, this time for the upcoming P30 Pro". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2019-03-12. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  275. ^ "No, these photos weren't taken with the Huawei P30". GSMArena.com. Archived from the original on 2020-04-22. Retrieved 2019-12-19.
  276. ^ Friedman, Alan. "Researcher finds Huawei P30 Pro's Moon Mode is not what it seems". Phone Arena. Archived from the original on 2019-04-27. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
  277. ^ Jhaveri, Aakash (2019-04-25). "Are The Moon Shots From The Huawei P30 Pro Fake?". Mashable India. Archived from the original on 2019-09-30. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
  278. ^ "華為新手機設清真禮拜功能觸及敏感民族問題 網民抨「泛清真化」". hk01. 2017-11-16. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  279. ^ "手机内置清真模式遭反感 华为强硬回应". 多维新闻. 2017-11-16. Archived from the original on 2017-11-17. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  280. ^ "如何看待华为mate10是中国第一款内置清真礼拜功能的手机?". 知乎. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  281. ^ "世界上第一款深度内置清真功能的手机?华为陷清真门遭网友抵制". 墙外楼. Archived from the original on 2017-11-17. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  282. ^ "《关于有组织的水军再次恶意攻击华为手机"闹铃提醒功能"的说明》". Sina Weibo. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  283. ^ "网友爆料:华为天猫旗舰店客服确认国产行货mate10已内置查找附近清真寺功能,而非华为官方所说的仅限特定中文地区。". Sina Weibo. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  284. ^ "华为回应"华为手机内置清真模式":未对中国开放". 新浪科技. Archived from the original on 2017-11-17. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  285. ^ "华为回应"华为手机内置清真模式":未对中国开放". 36氪. Archived from the original on 2017-11-17. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  286. ^ "如何看待华为mate10清晨闹钟事件?". Zhihu. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  287. ^ "周子瑜被黄安举报台独华为取消代言 安徽北京春晚除名韩女团twice". 搜狐-前瞻网. 2016-01-12. Archived from the original on 2016-01-26.
  288. ^ "周子瑜代言的华为Y6手机韩国广告". Archived from the original on January 27, 2016.
  289. ^ "LG U+ removes all adverts featuring TWICE's Tzuyu following controversy". January 16, 2016. Archived from the original on March 31, 2016.
  290. ^ "LG Electronics denies involvement in Tzuyu's case". sg.news.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on January 12, 2017.
  291. ^ "LG U+否認終止代言 子瑜現身粉絲歡呼". 台灣《蘋果日報》. 2016-01-19. Archived from the original on 2016-01-21. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
  292. ^ "China's online users lambast Huawei for Taiwan listing". news.yahoo.com. AFP. Archived from the original on 15 August 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  293. ^ Everington, Keoni. "Chinese netizens furious at Huawei for listing Taiwan as separate country". www.taiwannews.com.tw. Taiwan News. Archived from the original on 15 August 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.