Criticism of Twelver Shia Islam
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|This article is of a series on|
|Criticism of religion|
|The Fourteen Infallibles|
|Other related groups|
Criticism of Twelver Shia Islam dates from the initial rift between the two primary denominations of Islam, the Sunni and the Shia. The question of succession to Muhammad, the nature of the Imamate, the status of the twelfth Shia Imam, and other areas in which Shia Islam differ from Sunni Islam have been criticized by Sunni scholars, even though there is no disagreement between the two regarding the centrality of the Quran, Muhammad, and many other doctrinal, theological and ritual matters. Shia commentators such as Musa al-Musawi and Ali Shariati have themselves, in their attempts to reform the faith, criticized practices and beliefs which have become prevalent in the Shia community.
Sunnis are particularly critical of the "love of visual imagery evident in Shia popular devotionalism" and regularly cite this characteristic (often referred to as 'Shia iconography') as proof of Shia deviance or heresy.
In the tradition of Twelver Shia Islam, the twelfth and final Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, who is also considered by Twelver Shia to be the prophesied redeemer of Islam known as the Mahdi, went into ghaybah ("occultation") in 873. However, this belief has long been criticized by Sunni scholars who "often speculate that the twelfth Imam never existed, but was a myth designed to keep the Shia cause alive." Meanwhile, western scholars have also cast doubt upon the existence of an occulted Imam. According to Robert Gleave, the occultation of the 12th Imam "became subsequent orthodox doctrine" after none of the competing theories that sought to explain the succession to a childless 11th Imam "seemed satisfactory". According to Bernard Lewis, the occultation and subsequent return of the Imam became a characteristic Shi'ite doctrine following the "suppression of many risings and the disappearance of their leaders"; where the leader disappears and "his followers say that he is not dead; he has gone into concealment". With each new leader "who disappeared and did not return", this belief was "enriched" and became more detailed and "essential" as a "feature of Shia Islam."
However, according to Wilferd Madelung in Encyclopedia of Islam, the doctrine of the Occultation was well-documented by traditions of the Imams before the occultation of the Twelfth Imam whom the majority of the Imamiyya came to consider as the Mahdi after the death of the eleventh. As an example he mentions that "the pattern was already set in regard to Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya, whose death was denied by the Kaysāniyya [q.v.]. They believed that he was hidden in the mountains of Raḍwā and would return to rule the world. Similar beliefs arose around Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya’s son Abū Hashim" Moreover, Madelung names several Sunni scholars who have similar beliefs. In a Hadith upon whose authenticity Shias and Sunnis agree, Muhammad had said, "If there were to remain in the life of the world but one day, God would prolong that day until He sends in it a man from my community and my household. His name will be the same as my name. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it was filled with oppression and tyranny." [a] However, the majority of Sunnis do not consider the son of eleventh Imam as the promised Mahdi. Shias claim the only possible occasion that the son of eleventh Imam is said to have made a public appearance was at the time of his death, then as a child the boy was seen no more. His birth, Shia says, like the case of the prophet Moses, was concealed due to the difficulties of the time, and because of the belief that he was the promised Mahdi, the caliphs of the time had decided definitely to put an end to the Imamate in Shi'ism once and for all.
Nikah mut‘ah (lit. "pleasure marriage"), is a fixed-term marriage practiced in Twelver Shia Islam. The duration of this type of marriage is fixed at its inception and is then automatically dissolved upon completion of its term. For this reason, nikah mut‘ah has been widely criticised as the religious cover and legalization of prostitution. The Christian missionary Thomas Patrick Hughes criticized Mut'ah as allowing the continuation of "one of the abominable practices of ancient Arabia."  The majority of Sunni scholars and Western writers have called it prostitution. Julie Parshall, Zeyno Baran, and Elena Andreeva have written that this kind of marriage is prostitution. According to Shahla Haeri, in Iran the middle class itself considers it to be prostitution which has been given a religious cover by the fundamentalist authorities.
Even though nikah mutʿah is rejected by Sunni schools of law, there are several types of similar marriages including misyar, ʿurfi, halala marriages and in fundamentalist circles, jihad al nikah which are practiced in the Sunni world. None of which are accepted by the Shia Muslims because they are bid‘ah (innovation in religion), not found in the sunnah or the Quran as opposed to mut‘ah which was initially practiced and is found in both. Nikah mut‘ah was practiced at the time of Muhammad and Abu Bakr, but was outlawed by the second Caliph, Umar ibn Khattab. Therefore, it is forbidden among Sunnis, but Shia consider Umar's account as legally and religiously invalid, as they argue it's legitimated by Quran 4:24. Shia have systematically contested the criticism that it is a cover for prostitution, and argue their rationales regarding the legal uniqueness of temporary marriage, which distinguishes Mut'ah ideologically from prostitution. Children born of temporary marriages are considered legitimate, and have equal status in law with their siblings born of permanent marriages, and do inherit from both parents. The bride must not be married, she must attain the permission of her wali if she has never been married before, she must be Muslim or belong to Ahl al-Kitab (People of the Book), she should be chaste, must not be a known adulterer, and she can only independently do this if she is Islamically a non-virgin or she has no wali (Islamic legal guardian). At the end of the contract, the marriage ends and the wife must undergo iddah, a period of abstinence from marriage (and thus, sexual intercourse). The iddah is intended to give paternal certainty to any children should the wife become pregnant during the temporary marriage contract. Some Shia scholars also view Mut'ah as a means of eradicating prostitution from society.
Taqiyyah is a Shi'ite practice under which it is permissible to hide one's faith in order to preserve life. The Shia have been criticised for this practice, an act deemed against the virtues of bravery and courage. Critics argue that the Twelvers have taken dissimulation far beyond life-threatening situations and have allowed its use in any scenario that is judged to benefit the continuation or propagation of the Twelver creed, as is emphasized by the "celebrated" reputed saying of the 6th Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, "[t]aqiyyah is my religion and the religion of my forefathers"; along with his other often quoted saying from Kitab al-Kafi: "Nine tenths of faith is taqiyya." The practice is widely criticized by Sunni Muslims as indicative of the problems that they face when interacting with Shi'ites. According to Patricia Crone, Twelvers even extended the use of taqiyya "to protect their secret wisdom from exposure to the uncomprehending masses (including their own co-religionists), who might pervert it or denounce it as heretical." This view has been supported by Faysal Noor in his book Taqiyyah: The Other Face. 
Living as a minority among the Sunni majority, however, made such a doctrine important to Shia. Besides, the practice of concealing one's beliefs in dangerous circumstances originates in the Qur'an, which deems blameless those who disguise their beliefs in such cases. The practice of taqiyya in difficult circumstances is considered legitimate by Muslims of various sects. Sunni and Shia commentators alike observe that verse [Quran 16:106] refers to the case of 'Ammar b. Yasir, who was forced to renounce his beliefs under physical duress and torture. This practice was emphasized in Shia Islam whereby adherents may conceal their religion when they are under threat, persecution, or compulsion. Taqiyya was developed to protect Shia who were usually in minority and under pressure. In the Shia view, taqiyya is lawful in situations where there is overwhelming danger of loss of life or property and where no danger to religion would occur thereby. Shia commentators have argued that taqiyya has precedents from the time of Muhammad, including the story of Ammar ibn Yasir, Such commentators argue that to not avoid certain death is illogical, and that dissimulation is permissible under various circumstances, such as to preserve life, to protect the chastity of women, or avoid destitution.
Disrespect to Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman
One allegation commonly leveled against the Twelvers is that they disrespect the Sunni Caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman who supported Mohammad, as per Sunni belief, during the early days of the Islamic Ummah but later turned enemies of his household (Ahl al Bayt), as per Shi'ite belief. Such Shi'ite practices include the recited Dua Sanamain Quraish, which calls God's curse on the first two Sunni caliphs following Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr and Umar. Following the Safavid empire's conversion to the Shia sect of Islam, the first three caliphs, whom the Shia felt usurped Ali's right to be caliph, were cursed during Friday sermons.
- The Raafidis are the opposite: they love the Prophet's family (ahl al-bayt) - or so they claim, but they hate the Saahaaba, whom they curse, denounce as kaafirs, and criticize.
During the 1960s, when an incipient ecumenical movement called for the unification of Shia and Sunni Islam, religious writers cited this "disrespect" for the Sahabah as a barrier to unification. In the 1980s and 1990s, three major religious writers in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan again cited this argument, noting that until all "profanity" against the Sahabah was abandoned, dialogue with Shia scholars could not begin.
In 2010, Ali Khamenei issued a fatwa which bans any insult to the companions of Muhammad, as well as his wives. The fatwa was issued in an effort to reconcile legal, social, and political disagreements between Sunni and Shia. The same fatwas were issued from Ali al-Sistani and other[who?] Shiite Marja'.
However, some Shi'ite scholars in the past, such as Shaykh Tusi, Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, Sadiq Hussaini Shirazi, Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei, Hossein Vahid Khorasani, Ruhollah Khomeini, Mohammad Jamil Hammoud al-Amili, Yasser Al-Habib, cursed and/or allowed for disrespecting of the figures revered by the Sunnis, on the grounds that religious truth cannot be compromised in the name of a false unity.
Mourning Husayn and self-flagellation during Ashura
Twelvers have been criticised for the practice of Tatbir (a form of self-flagellation) during Ashura, the observation of the martyrdom of Husayn, traditionally accompanied by acts of ritual self-harm, which is often described as barbaric. The practice is contested among Shi'ite clerics: while traditionalist clerics allow believers to indulge in Tatbir, modernist clerics deem it not to be permissible because it is considered as self-damage and haram in Islam. Suffering and cutting the body with knives or chains was banned by the Shi'ite marja Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran and by Hezbollah in Lebanon. Khamenei issued a fatwa on 14 June 1994 banning this practice. He considered it irreligious and not suitable for good Muslims.
According to Salafi Sunni scholars such as Ibn Taymiyyah and Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz, the celebration of Ashura is itself a blatant and primary example of the propensity of the Shia to indulge in Bid‘ah (religious innovation). They argue that the annual mourning occasion for Husayn (or any other individual) was never instituted or practiced by Muhammad — not even for his closest family members — and hence has no validity in Islam. Likewise, Ibn Rajab in his Kitab al-Iata'if argued against Ashura: "Neither God ..., nor His Messenger ... have ordered that days on which prophets met with calamities and the day of their death be instituted as a day of mourning. How much more is this true for a person lesser than they?"
Three of the Twelve Imams, held by the Twelver Shia to be God's representatives on Earth, were less than ten years old when they assumed the undisputed and exclusive leadership of the Twelver Shi'ite community. The 9th Imam, Muhammad al-Taqi, was 7 and a half years old at the time he assumed the Imamate; the 10th Imam, Ali al-Hadi, was between 6.5 and 8.5 years, and the 12th and final Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, was 4 and a half years old. Pakistani Islamic scholar and polemicist Ehsan Elahi Zaheer argues against the possibility of these personalities assuming the leadership of the Imamate at such young ages. Wilferd Madelung notes, however, that in Shi'ite belief, the knowledge of an Imam comes from "inspiration, not acquisition", and thus that even a young Imam is not considered unprepared, receiving revelation upon the death of his predecessor.
As for the ninth Imam, the Shia could not help asking from his father, the eighth Imam whether a child at that age could take on such a responsibility if something happened to Imam Ali al-Ridha; and al-Ridha used to illustrate the story of Jesus who was even younger when he had become the prophet of his time[b] John the Baptist was also a child when he was given wisdom. His reading and understanding of the scriptures, surpassed even that of the greatest scholars of the time.[c]
Shia'ites claim that their account of Al-Ma'mun's first meeting with Muhammad al-Jawad shows that wisdom is given to the Twelve Imams.[d] After which the Caliph called together a great gathering in which all kinds of questions were asked from the young Imam, who astonished them all with his judgment and learning. Then al-Ma'mun declared formally that he gave him his daughter in marriage thereby.
However, Sunnis themselves believe that numerous lay people could assume a role of scholarly leadership at the very young age. Sunni Al-Tabari is said to have memorized the Qur'an at seven, was a qualified prayer leader at eight, began to study the prophetic traditions at nine, and left home to study when he was twelve.
Other criticisms include the Sunni belief that Imamah is allegedly not mentioned in the Quran and the absence of such a crucial pillar in Shia Islam brings into question the validity of such claims. The Twelver Imamah doctrine is not shared by the majority of Sunni Muslims. The Syrian Salafi mufti Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 AH/1328 AD) composed a long refutation of it in his Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah. Numerous Shia scholars proved the concept of Imamah as being in the Qur’an; Usama al-Altar, Moustafa al-Qazwini.
Infallibility of Imams
Twelver Shi'ism has been criticized for exaggerating the holiness and infallibility of its Imams. Al-Kulayni in al-Kafi claims that the Imams know when they die and they do not die unless by their own choice, they know everything in the past and in the future and every time when God informs Muhammad, He orders him to inform Ali too. In Islamic Government Khomeini writes: "Amongst the necessities in our doctrine is that our Imams have a dignity which no favored angel nor sent prophet could ever reach. As it has been narrated, the Imams were lights under the shadow of the throne before creating this world." According to critics this purity is close to that of the prophet Muhammad, if not quite on the same level, and reflects excessiveness of view. Shia Islam has been criticised for magnifying the role of the Imams alongside, or even above, that of Muhammad.
Both Shia and Sunni are in agreement over the two functions of prophet-hood: to reveal God's law to men, and to guide men toward God. However, while Sunnis believe that both have come to an end with the death of Muhammad, Shi'ites believe that whereas legislation ended, the function of guiding and "explaining divine law continued through the line of Imams." In Shi'ite theology, thus, God does not guide via authoritative texts (i.e. the Qur'an and Hadith) only but also guides through some specially equipped individuals known as Imams. This constitution, Shi'ites say, is not limited to Islam, but each great messenger of God had two covenants, one concerning the next prophet who would eventually come, and one regarding the immediate successor, the Imam. For example, Sam was an Imam after Noah, Ishmael was an Imam after Abraham, Aaron or Joshua after Moses, Simon, John and all the disciples after Jesus, and Ali and his descendants after Muhammad. It is narrated from the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, "where there to remain on the earth but two men, one of them would be the proof of God". The difference between apostles (Rasuls), the prophets (Nabi) and the Imams, thus, is described as follows: "Rasul sees and hears the angel in awakeness and sleep. Nabi hears the angel and sees him while asleep, but does not see him while awake though hears the speech. Imam (muhaddith) is the one who hears the angel in awakeness while does not see him in awakeness or sleep." According to Shia, the status and authority attributed to Imams will be senseless if they are prone to the same weakness found in general people. God must assign someone similar to prophet in his attributes and Ismah as his successor to guide the people and to interpret the Quran.
Shi'ites claim their sources state that the Ahl al-Bayt, which are described purified of sin in the Verse of Purification, are Ahl al-Kisa, involving only specific members of the Prophet's family,[e] and Shias claim this as an argument for their infallibility.
Fatimah's divine revelations
According to some Twelver Shia scholars, Muhammad's daughter Fatimah received divine revelations after her father's death. During the 75 days that Fatimah had contact and communication with Gabriel, her husband Ali wrote down and recorded the revelations that were made to Fatimah which she dictated to him, to form the Book of Fatimah.
Sunnis argue that Fatimah never received divine revelations from Allah. According to the Twelver Shi'ite fifth Imam, however, this kind of revelation is not the revelation of prophethood but rather like the inspiration (ilham) which came to Mary (mother of Jesus),[f] the mother of Moses[g] and to the bee.[h]
Khums is a tax to pay one-fifth of Muslims' acquired wealth from certain sources toward specified causes. It is treated differently in Shi'ite and Sunni Islam. In Sunni Islam tradition, the scope of khums tax has been the spoils of war, while according to Twelver religious practice, Khums is an annual taxation on 20% of all profits. This wealth is collected and managed by Shi'ite religious leaders. However, according to scholars such as Musa al-Musawi, the modern development of the practice of collecting khums exclusively by Shia religious leaders, especially the Sayyid clerical elite, is simply a case of the usurpation of the place of the hidden Imam Mahdi, and as a way of enriching the clerical class.
Khums, according to Shiah, is divided into two portions. One portion went to the descendants of Muhammad, the other portion was divided equally and one part given to Imam and clergy, while the other part went to the orphaned and poor Muslims. Khums became a major source of income and financial independence of the clergy in Shi'ite regions. Shi'ites justify the practice of khums by the fact that unlike Sunni religious leaders, non-Iranian Shi'ite ones, are not state sponsored and supported in their mission. For example, Turkish "Presidency of Religious Affairs" only trains and employs all of Turkey's Sunni imams, as well as administers only Sunni worshiping places, despite the fact that Shias make up 25-30% of Turkish citizens, and on non-voluntary basis, participate in the financing of the Sunni mosques and the salaries of Sunni imams, while their places of worship, which are not officially recognized by the State, do not receive any funding.
Three prayer times per day
While Sunnis have 5 salat (prayer) sessions per day, Twelvers can opt to pray only 3 times per day by doubling their prayers on 2 occasions—combining the 2nd prayer with the 3rd and the 4th prayer with the 5th. However, Sunnis argue this very practice defeats the purpose of having 5 distinct prayers, since God ordered 5 prayers for 5 separate times of the day rather than 3 prayers for 3 separate times of the day and that Shia have misrepresented the ambiguity of the issue in the Quran for their own convenience. Twelvers extract this ruling from the two most important sources of jurisprudence which are the Quran and the Sunnah of the Messenger Muhammad who was praying this way, as it is also reported by Sunni sources, thus they believe this backs their claims accepted within a Sunni point of view. It is even reported from the hadith that the Messenger did this so that no one among his Ummah should be put to [unnecessary] hardship however this can also be interpreted for people in long journey or ill health, Shias believe this is enough to reject any accusation of not basing their actions from Quran and Traditions.
Rejection of predestination
Twelvers reject predestination. This has led to Sunni criticism of Twelvers, along with their associated belief in Bada' (change in God's will), as being deniers of God's complete sovereignty, and as being imitators of the Mu'tazila school of Islamic theology.
Shia states that matters relating to the human destiny is of two kinds: definite and indefinite; to explain the definitive one, Shia argues that God has definite power over the whole of existence, however, whenever He wills, He can replace a given destiny with another one; and that is what is called indefinite destiny. Some of these changes of destiny, thus, are brought about by man himself, who can through his free will, his decisions, and his way of life—lay the groundwork for a change in his destiny as pointed out in the verses: Truly, God will not change the condition of a people as long as they do not change Their state themselves.[i] Both types of destinies, however, are contained within God's foreknowledge, Shia argues, so that there could be no sort of change (Bada)concerning His knowledge. So the first type of destiny does not mean a limitation of God's power; since God, in contrast to the belief of Jews who says the hand of God is tied’ asserts: Nay, His hands are spread out wide ....[j] So God has the power to change everything he wills and God's creativity is continuous. Accordingly, as Sobhani puts it, "all groups in Islam regard "bada" as a tenet of the faith, even if not all actually use the term."
Corruption of the Quran
Twelvers are often criticised by Sunnis for believing that the Quran was altered by the Sahaba (companions of Muhammad). Groups such as the Deobandis accuse Twelvers of believing that the complete version of the original Quran is in the possession of their 12th Imam. Twelvers are also accused of believing that the present Quran is omitted of the verses which support the Imamate of Ali because Caliph Uthman removed them during his compilation of the book — noting the incompatibility of the belief that the codification and propagation of the Quran was truthfully undertaken by the Sahaba, who, in Shi'ite tradition, represent the earliest people to take the Caliphate from its rightful claimants and to have corrupted the religion of Islam. As a result, such Sunni groups reject the Shi'ite defense that they believe in the same Quran as Sunnis, accusing Shi'ites of lying in line with their practice of taqiyyah so as not to expose themselves to the certain Sunni backlash.
Most of Shi'ites nowadays believe that nothing have been omitted or added to the Quran, however, traces of earlier views can be found in some books of Shi'ite ahadith like Bihar al-Anwar. The contemporary Shi'ite scholar Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei states that even if the Book of Ali (a copy of Quran written by Ali containing Ali's commentary, which sometimes is called the Book of Ali) incorporated additions that are not part of the existing Quran, this does not mean that these additions comprised parts of the Quran, and have been dropped from it due to alteration. Rather, these additions were interpretations or explanations of what God was saying, or were in the form of revelations from God, explaining the intention of the verses in the Quran. These additions were not part of the Quran and not part of what the Messenger of God was commanded to convey to the Muslim community.
Twelvers have been accused of raising Karbala in Iraq to holiness and prominence — which in itself is "frowned upon by Sunnis" — above even Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem. This belief is exemplified by the attribution of the title Karbala-i for one who has performed pilgrimage there (just as one who makes the Hajj is titled Hajji), its annual attraction of more pilgrims for Ashura and Arba'een than the Hajj (seen as "a counterweight and a challenge to the annual haj taking place in Mecca"), prostrating during salat on turbah, commonly made from the clay of Karbala, and to numerous ahadith attributed to the Imams which are interpreted by critics as placing the land of Karbala above the Kaaba.
Violence and persecution
Iran, the Twelver Shi'ite bastion, is accused of the persecution of its Sunni minority and the historical persecution of Sunnis since at least Safavid times, e.g. there are no Sunni mosques in any of Iran's large cities. It is also accused of supporting the suppression of Sunnis in such countries as Lebanon, Syria and Iraq, both directly and through the militias it funds, such as Hezbollah and the private militias in Iraq. Another common target of persecution by the Iranian Twelver religious establishment is the Bahá'í community, which itself is a religion that branched off from Shi'a Islam. However, Twelvers have themselves often been victims of Anti-Shi'ite violence.
Responses to criticism
Shi'a religious scholars and converts to Shia Islam gave responses and refutation to the suspicions raised about Shi'a Islam, published it in books and lectures, These are the most prominent books :
- Criticism of Islam
- Criticism of religion
- Islamic schools and branches
- Akhbari-Usuli Controversies
- Shia–Sunni relations
- Sunni fatwas on Shias
- For more hadiths see Sahih of Tirmidhi. Cairo, 1350-52. vol. IX, chapter "Ma ja a fi’l-huda": Sahih of Abu Da’ud, vol.ll, Kitab al-Mahdi: Sahih oflbn Majah, vol.ll. chapter khurui’ al-Mahdi": Yanabi’ al-mawaddah: Kitab al-bayan fi akhbar Sahib al zaman of Kanji Shaafi’i, Najaf, 1380; Nur al-absar: Mishkat almasabih of Muham. mad ibn ’Abdallan al-Khatib. Damascus, 1380; al- Sawa’iq al-muhriqah, Is’af al raghibin of Muhammad al-Sabban, Cairo. 1281: al-Fusul al-muhimmmah; Sahih of Muslim: Kitab al-ghaybah by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Nu’mani, Tehran, 1318; Kamal al-din by Shaykh Saduq. Tehran, 1301; lthbat al-hudat; Bihar al-anwar, vol. LI and LII.
- Quran, 5:110
- Quran, 19:12
- Once when al-Ma'mun was out hunting with his hunting birds he passed through a road where boys were playing. Among them was Muhammad al-Jawad. When al-Ma'mun's horsemen approached the boys ran away except al-Jawad who remained there. Noting this al-Ma'mun stopped his carriage and asked, "Boy, what kept you from running away with the others?" Al-Jawad replied, "The road was not so narrow that I should fear there would not be room for you to pass, and I have not been guilty of any offence that I should be afraid, and I considered that you were the sort of man who would not injure one who had done no wrong." The Caliph was very delighted, after he had gone on a short distance one of his hunting birds brought him a small fish, which he hid in his fist and returned and asked the boy, who was still standing there "What have I in my hand?" The young Imam answered that the "creator of living things has created in the sea a small fish that is fished by the falcons of the kings and caliphs to try with it the progeny of al-Mustafa. Al-Ma'mun was much pleased and asked the child about his lineage, to which Imam al-Jawad responded accordingly.
- According to Madelung the majority of the Sunnite reports quoted by al-Tabari do not identify the ahl al-Kisa. Other Sunnite reports mention Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn, and some agree with the Shia tradition that the ahl al-kisa including Ali, were assembled for the Event of Mubahala.
- Quran, 3:45
- Quran, 28:7
- Quran, 16:68
- Quran, 13:11
- Quran, 5:64
- Momen 1985, p. xiii harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMomen1985 (help)
- Brunner, Rainer; Ende, Werner, eds. (2001). The Twelver Shia in Modern Times: Religious Culture and Political History. BRILL. p. 178. ISBN 9789004118034.
The intellectual history of Twelver Shia Islam in the 20th century has witnessed quite a few attempts by religious scholars and lay intellectuals at religious reform, which nearly inevitably meant criticism of existing practices. The reformers have concentrated on various aspects of Shia popular religion with a high symbolic value which determine the outward appearance of Shia Islam and its relation to mainstream Sunni Islam. Not least because of that strong symbolism they have deemed these practices to be against the true spirit of Shia Islam, even against the spirit of Islam itself.
- David Gardner (18 December 2011). Last Chance: The Middle East in the Balance (revised ed.). I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9780857730336.
...is profoundly repellent to the orthodox Sunni. So too are the rituals associated with the Imam Hussein - comparable to the central event of the crucifixion in Christianity - and indeed the whole Shia iconography, which for the Sunni strays into idol-worship.
- Ingvild Flaskerud (2 December 2010). Visualizing Belief and Piety in Iranian Shiism (illustrated ed.). A&C Black. p. 234. ISBN 9781441149077.
- Vali Nasr (17 April 2007). The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 44. ISBN 9780393066401.
- The Routledge Handbook of Religion and Security, by Chris Seiple, Dennis R. Hoover, Pauletta Otis, 2012, page 60
- A Companion To The History Of The Middle East, edited by Youssef M. Choueiri, page 93
- Islam and the West, by Bernard Lewis, 1993, page 163
- al-Mahdī. Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online, 2012. Reference. University of Southern California. 18 June 2012
Testimony in support of the Mahdīship of the Twelfth Imām by these Sunnī authors, as also of later ones like the Mālikī scholar Ibn al-Ṣabbāg̲h̲ al-Isfāḳusī al-Makkī (d. 855/1451), a Mag̲h̲ribī resident in Mecca, and, more recently, the Ḥanafī Naḳs̲h̲bandī S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Sulaymān b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḳundūzī al-Balk̲h̲ī (d. 1294/1877 in Istanbul), was regularly noted by Imāmī apologists. The works of al-Gand̲j̲i and Kamāl al-Dīn Ibn Ṭalḥa were extensively quoted already by ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā al-Irbilī (d. 692/1293) in his Kas̲h̲f al-g̲h̲umma fī maʿrifat al-aʾimmah, which in turn won positive comment from Sunnī authors because of its extensive reliance on Sunnī sources. Further support for the Mahdīship of the Twelfth Imām came from Ṣūfī circles. Already Abū Bakr al-Bayhaḳī (d. 458/1066) had noted that some Ṣūfī gnostics (d̲j̲amāʿa min ahl al-kas̲h̲f) agreed with the Imāmī doctrine about the identity of the Mahdī and his g̲h̲ayba. The Persian Ṣūfī Ṣadr al-Dīn Ibrāhīm al-Ḥammūyī (late 7th/13th century) supported Imāmī doctrine on the Mahdī in his Farāʾid al-simṭayn. The Egyptian Ṣūfī al-S̲h̲aʿrānī, while generally showing no sympathy for S̲h̲īʿism, affirmed in his al-Yawāḳīt wa ’l-d̲j̲awāhir (written in 958/1551) that the Mahdī was a son of Imām al-Ḥasan al-ʿAskarī born in the year 255/869 and would remain alive until his meeting with Jesus. His advent could be expected after the year 1030/1621. He based his assertion on the testimony of the Ṣūfī S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ḥasan al-ʿIrāḳī, who claimed to have met the Mahdī, and on a spurious quotation from Ibn al-ʿArabī’s al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya identifying the Expected Mahdī with the Twelfth Imām. This quotation of Ibn al-ʿArabī was noted and accepted by both Imāmī and Sunnī scholars. The Egyptian S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Ṣabbān (d. 1206/1792), in his Isʿāf al-rāg̲h̲ibīn fī sīrat al-Muṣṭafā wa-faḍāʾil ahl baytih al-ṭāhirīn, censured Ibn al-ʿArabī for supporting such a view against the clear evidence of the traditions accepted by Sunnī scholars.Missing or empty
- Tabatabai, Sayyid Muhammad Hossein (1975). Shi'ite Islam (PDF) (First ed.). State University of New York Press. pp. 210–211 (185–186 in the ebook). ISBN 0-87395-272-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- Ibn Masud, Abdallah. al Fusul al Muhimmah. p. 271.
- Donaldson, Dwight M. (1933). The Shi'ite Religion: A History of Islam in Persia and Irak. BURLEIGH PRESS. pp. 190–197, 217–222.
- Iran talks up temporary marriages, by Frances Harrison, BBC News, Last Updated: 2 June 2007.
- Temporary 'Enjoyment Marriages' In Vogue Again With Some Iraqis, by Nancy Trejos, The Washington Post, 20 January 2007.
- Law of desire: temporary marriage in Shi'i Iran, by Shahla Haeri, pg.6.
- Islam For Dummies, by Malcolm Clark.
- Islam: a very short introduction, by Malise Ruthven.
- "In permitting these usufructuary marriages Muḥammad appears but to have given Divine (?) sanction to one of the abominable practices of ancient Arabia, for Burckhardt (vol. ii. p. 378) says, it was a custom of their forefathers to assign to a traveller who became their guest for the night, some female of the family, most commonly the host’s own wife!" Hughes, T. P. (1885). In A Dictionary of Islam: Being a Cyclopædia of the Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs, together with the Technical and Theological Terms, of the Muhammadan Religion. London: W. H. Allen & Co.
- Parshall, Philip L.; Parshall, Julie (1 April 2003). Lifting the Veil: The World of Muslim Women. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830856961.
- Baran, Zeyno (21 July 2011). Citizen Islam: The Future of Muslim Integration in the West. A&C Black. ISBN 9781441112484.
- Andreeva, Elena (2007). Russia and Iran in the great game: travelogues and Orientalism. Routledge studies in Middle Eastern history. 8. Psychology Press. pp. 162–163. ISBN 0415771536. "Most of the travelers describe the Shi'i institution of temporary marriage (sigheh) as 'legalized profligacy' and hardly distinguish between temporary marriage and prostitution."
- Haeri, Shahla (1989). Law of desire: temporary marriage in Shi'i Iran. Contemporary issues in the Middle East. Syracuse University Press. p. x. ISBN 0815624832. "Outside of the religious establishment and the ongoing disputes between Shi'i and Sunni scholars, the attitude toward temporary marriage has been primarily one of ambivalence and disdain. Before the revolution of 1979, the secular Iranian middle classes dismissed temporary marriage as a form of prostitution that had been legitimized by the religious establishment, who, to use a popular Persian expression, 'put a religious hat on it.'"
- "Mutʿa - Islamic Studies - Oxford Bibliographies". oxfordbibliographies.com.
- "The Islamic Shield". google.com.
- Temporary marriage, Encyclopedia Iranica
- Michel Foucault, Discipline and punish: The birth of Prison, Trans Alan Sheridan (New York: Vantage, 1979)
- Mahnaz Afkhami, Erika Friedl - 1994 In the eye of the storm: women in post-revolutionary Iran - Page 105
- Sachiko Murata, Temporary Marriage in Islamic Law
- Said Amir Arjomand (1984), From nationalism to revolutionary Islam, page 171
- Muḥammad Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabāʼī, Muhammad H. Al-Tabataba'i. Shiʻite Islam. Issue 5 of The Persian studies series. SUNY Press, 1977. ISBN 0-87395-390-8, ISBN 978-0-87395-390-0. Pg 227
- Ruhollah Khomeini. "Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist". Program for the Establishment of an Islamic Government. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Ahmad al-Afghaanee (1985). Bilal Philips (ed.). The Mirage in Iran (PDF). Shi'ism:The Present: Tawheed Publications. p. 35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Crone, Patricia (2005). Medieval Islamic Political Thought. The Imamis: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 123–124. ISBN 9780748621941.
- Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi (1994). The Divine Guide in Early Shi'ism: The Sources of Esotericism in Islam. SUNY Press. p. 129. ISBN 9780791421222.
- Ahmad Abdullah Salamah (4 May 2007). Shia & Sunni perspective on Islam: an objective comparison of the Shia and Sunni doctrines based on the Holy Quran and Hadith. The University of California. p. 90.
- Hans Gerhard Kippenberg, Guy G. Stroumsa, ed. (1995). Secrecy and Concealment: Studies in the History of Mediterranean and Near Eastern Religions. Taqiyya in Shia Theology and Religion: BRILL. p. 373. ISBN 9789004102354.
- A. Christian Van Gorder (2010). Christianity in Persia and the Status of Non-muslims in Iran (illustrated ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 102. ISBN 9780739136096.
- Crone, Patricia (2005). Medieval Islamic Political Thought. The Imamis: Edinburgh University Press. p. 124. ISBN 9780748621941.
- Faysal Noor (2013). Hani al-Tarabulsi (ed.). Taqiyyah: The Other Face. Al-Munasaha.
- Quran 16:106
- Momen 1985, p. 183 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMomen1985 (help)
- Virani, Shafique N. (2007). The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, a Search for Salvation. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-19-531173-0.
- "Taqiyah". Oxford Dictionary of Islam. John L. Esposito, Ed. Oxford University Press. 2003. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
- Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam. Yale University Press. pp. 39, 150–183. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5.
- Nicholas Schmidle. To Live Or to Perish Forever: Two Tumultuous Years in Pakistan. Macmillan, 2010. ISBN 0-8050-9149-1, ISBN 978-0-8050-9149-6. Pg 23
- The History of al-Tabari, Volume IX, The Last Years of the Prophet, p186-187, SUNY Press
- Patrick Cockburn. Muqtada: Muqtada al-Sadr, the Shia revival, and the struggle for Iraq. Simon and Schuster, 2008. ISBN 1-4165-5147-6, ISBN 978-1-4165-5147-8. Pg 25
- Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman. Islam: Questions and Answers - Schools of Thought, Religions and Sects, Volume 8. MSA Publication Limited, 2003. ISBN 1-86179-291-3, ISBN 978-1-86179-291-4. Pg 102
- Jamal S. Suwaidi. Iran and the Gulf: a search for stability. I.B.Tauris, 1996. ISBN 1-86064-144-X, 9781860641442. Pg 165
- "World Shia Leader Ali Khamenei Fatwa on Insulting Sahaba [R.A]". Dailymotion.
- "Imam Khamenei: Insulting Symbols of Sunni Brothers Forbidden". Rohama. 2 October 2010. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
- "Al-Azhar Chancellor, Religious Leaders Hail Ayatollah Khamenei's Fatwa | AhlulBayt Islamic Mission (AIM)". Aimislam.com. 4 October 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- "Shiite leaders forbid insults against Sunnis". Almonitor.
- "Grand Ayatullah Sistani Issues Fatwa condemning Abuse Against Sunni Sanctities in the Light of teaching of 12 Imams". Jafria News.
- "Insulting the Sahaba Runs against Teachings of Ahl-ul-Bayt (AS)". Ijtehad.ir. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "Sayyid Sistani's Fatwa about the Prophet (S.A.W.A.)'s Companions". Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- Abu Ja'far al Tusi wrote in his book "al Iqtisad", page 36: "Ayesha was adamant upon waging war against Ali (as), and she did not repent. This proves her kufr and her remaining on it."
- Allamah Baqir Majlisi wrote in Bihar al-Anwar, volume 22, page 233: ( "Allah (swt) says in Qur'an [Allah has cited for the kuffar the example of the wife of Nuh and the wife of Lut.] (66:10), I (i.e. Allamah Baqir Majlisi) declare: It is not a secret for the discerning critic (reader/observer) and the one who is clever and knowledgeable that what is mentioned in these verses is an exposure, in fact an explicit declaration of the hypocrisy of Aisha and Hafsah as well as their kufr (disbelief)."
- On 24th Jumada Al-Awwal 1438 AH (which coincided with 22 February 2016), Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Wahid Al-Khorasani said that Abu Bakr and Umar took the land of Fadak from Fatima unjustly, and so they have no right being buried in the house of the Holy Prophet, as "it is usurped land". In the presence of hundreds of scholars, students of knowledge, and believers, then went on to say: "It is therefore the duty of every single Muslim now to dig up the graves of these two men (i.e. Abu Bakr and Umar), and to exhume what remains of their corpses. In fact, the ruling of burial in usurped property is the obligation of exhumation according to legal consensus. This is the principle and this is the conclusion." See: .
- Kitab al-Taharah Volume 3 Page 457: As for the other groups of the Nawasib, actually the Khawarij, even though they'll get more punished than the Kuffar, yet this is not proving them to be Najis (impure). Hence, if a ruler makes Khurooj (opposes/fights) Amir Al-Mu'mineen (as) not for religious reason, rather for worldly reason (seeking power) or other motives like A'isha, Zubair, Talha, Mu'aawiya and their likes, or if someone holds Nasb/enmity towards him or one of the [twelve] Imams (as), not due to religious reason rather because of his enmity towards the Quraish, or Bani Hashim or the Arabs or because [Ali] killed one of his children or his father etc. Apparently none of those are necessarily considered Najis (impure) from an apparent point of view, in fact they are more impure than dogs and pigs. See: 
- On his official website, the Grand Ayatollah "reaffirmed" the Shia belief that "Aisha committed zina". See: 
- A.C. Grayling (1 March 2010). "Drugs and Laws". Thinking of Answers: Questions in the Philosophy of Everyday Life. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781408810538.
Sunni Muslims and even some Shias are opposed to the Ashura ritual, condemning it as barbaric.
- Dr Farideh Heyat Nfa (5 March 2014). Azeri Women in Transition: Women in Soviet and Post-Soviet Azerbaijan. Routledge. p. 195. ISBN 9781136871702.
Later, during the 1920s, there were intense public campaigns by the Soviet government against the rituals of Ashura, denounced as barbaric practices, and a vestige of feudalism.
- Monsutti, Alessandro; Naef, Silvia; Sabahi, Farian (2007). The Other Shiites: From the Mediterranean to Central Asia. Peter Lang. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-3-03911-289-0.
- Edith Szanto, "Sayyida Zaynab in the State of Exception: Shi‘i Sainthood as ‘Qualified Life’ in Contemporary Syria," International Journal of Middle East Studies 44 no. 2 (2012): 285-299.
- Raihan Ismail (Autumn 2012). "The Saudi Ulema and the Shi'a of Saudi Arabia". Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies. 5 (4): 418.
- Iqtida' as-Sirat al-Mustaqim (Following The Straight Path), by Ibn Taymiyyah, p. 300-301.
- Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah, by Ibn Taymiyyah, vol. 4, p. 554-556.
- Fataawa al-Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (8/320).
- N. J. G. Kaptein (1993). Muḥammad's Birthday Festival: Early History in the Central Muslim Lands and Development in the Muslim West Until the 10th/16th Century. BRILL. pp. 57–8. ISBN 9789004094529.
- Shia's and Shiaism, there Genesis and Evolution: Shia Sects Archived 2013-12-28 at the Wayback Machine, by Allama Ehsan Elahi Zaheer. Text quotation: "If God had commanded us to obey an adolescent, He would have also ordered the adolescent to obey His injunctions. Just as it is unlawful to declare a non-adult as "Mukallaf", similarly he is not legally empowered to arbitrate among people. He can not grasp the subtleties and intricacies involved in the solution of problems; he is not fully conversant with religious injunctions and the rules and regulations of Sharia. The Sharia introduced by the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) which is the basic need of the Ummah till the arrival of the doomsday is obviously beyond the range of an adolescent's comprehension. If a non-adolescent can handle these complicated and sensitive issues, then we can also expect a child who is in his cradle and swings to the rhythms and melodies of nursery rhymes, to show an awareness of these issues and to suggest solutions to dis-entangle their knots. But it all sounds absurd because adolescence is not the same things as non-adolescence and a child can not rationally be expected to behave like a grown-up person. The perceptions and reflections of the former do not operate at the same wave lengths as those of the latter."
- An Ismaili heresiography, by Wilferd Madelung, Paul Ernest Walker, pg.114-115
- Sharif al-Qarashi, Bāqir (2005). The Life of Imam Muhammad Al-Jawad. Translated by Abdullah al-Shahin. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. pp. 53, 205–206.
- A–Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, John the Baptist
- See "Ibn Taymiyya’s Critique of Shia Imamology. Translation of Three Sections of his "Minhāj al-Sunna", by Yahya Michot, The Muslim World, 104/1-2 (2014), pp. 109-149.
- YouTube; Is Imamah mentioned in the Holy Quran?
- YouTube; Imamah in the Quran
- I. M. N. Al-Jubouri. Islamic Thought. page 314
- I. M. N. Al-Jubouri. Islamic Thought.page 107
- SHMUEL BAR. "Sunnis and Shiites—Between Rapprochement and Conflict" (PDF). p. 91. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- M. F.Sayeed. Fundamental doctrine of Islam and its pragmatism.page 298
- Momen 1985, p. 147 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMomen1985 (help)
- Brown, Daniel (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-521-65394-7.
- Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali. "SHIʿITE DOCTRINE". Encyclopedia Iranica.
- Momen 1985, p. 148 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMomen1985 (help)
- Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project Team. "A Shi'ite Encyclopedia".
- Dabashi, Hamid (2006). Theology of Discontent: The Ideological Foundation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. Transaction Publishers. pp. 103–104. ISBN 1-4128-0516-3.
- Tabatabaei, Muhammad Husayn (2008). Islamic Teachings in Brief. Ansariyan Publications.
- Madelung, Wilferd (15 October 1998). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-64696-3.
- Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tafsir al-Tabari vol. XXII. pp. 5–7.
- Rizvi, Sayyid Muhammad (2001). The Infallibility of the Prophets in the Qur'an. Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania. pp. 15–16.[permanent dead link]
- Kitab Al-Kafi, Chapter 40 (Statements about al-Jafr, al-Jami‘ and the Book of Fatima (a.s.)) Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, H 639, Ch. 40, h 5, translated by Muhammad Sarwar. A sound tradition according to Grand Ayatollah Khomeini in: "THE POSITION OF WOMEN FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF IMAM KHOMEINI", pg. 10-11. This tradition quotes Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, as saying: "After the death of her father, Fatima, upon whom be peace, lived for 75 days. She was in this world and she was overcome with grief. Gabriel, the Trusted Spirit, came to her regularly to console her and tell her of future events."
- Thomas Patrick Hughes (1885). Dictionary of Islam: being a cyclopædia of the doctrines, rites, ceremonies, and customs, together with the technical and theological terms, of the Muhammadan religion. W. H. Allen & Co. p. 573.
sunnis deny revelation fatimah.
- Momen 1985, p. 149 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMomen1985 (help)
- Abdulaziz Sachedina (1980), Al-Khums: The Fifth in the Imāmī Shīʿī Legal System, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Oct., 1980), pp. 276-277, 275-289, note 10
- al-Shra wa-l-taskih, Musa al-Musawi, pp. 65-76
- The Just Ruler in Shi'ite Islam, Abdulaziz Sachedina, pp. 237-45
- Shi'a Islam: From Religion to Revolution, Heinz Halm, pp. 93-94
- John L. Esposito (2004), The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195125597, pp. 174
- Momen 1985, p. 179 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMomen1985 (help)
- Cornell, Svante (9 October 2015). "The Rise of Diyanet: the Politicization of Turkey's Directorate of Religious Affairs". turkeyanalyst.org. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- 2017? How to Survive: Road-Testing the Options, Looking for Loopholes, by Kevin Staffa, p. 66.
- Islamic Customs and Culture, by Jason Porterfield, p. 10.
- Textbook on Muslim Law, by Rakesh Kumar Singh, p. 26.
- Muslim Cultures Today: A Reference Guide, edited by Kathryn M. Coughlin, p. 91.
- Islam: A Concise Introduction, by Neal Robinson, p. 98.
- Muslims: Bio-cultural Perspective, by S. H. M. Rizvi, Shibani Roy, p. 5.
- World Criminal Justice Systems: A Comparative Survey, by Richard J. Terrill, p. 605.
- Quran 17:78
- Sahih Muslim, 4:1515
- Sahih Muslim, 4:1516
- Sahih Muslim, 4:1520
- Sahih Muslim, 4:1522
- Sahih Muslim, 4:1523
- Sahih Muslim, 4:1524
- "Joining Prayers and Other related Issues". Al-Islam.org.
- Need of Religion, by Sayyid Sa'id Akhtar Rizvi, p. 14.
- Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures, by Marshall Cavendish Corporation, p. 137.
- Religions of Man, by Charles Douglas Greer, p. 239.
- Muslims, by S. H. M. Rizvi, Shibani Roy, B. B. Dutta, p. 20.
- Ethnic Composition and Crisis in South Asia: Pakistan, by Haraprasad Chattopadhyaya, Sanat K. Sarkar, pp. 766-7.
- The Sunni-Shia Conflict in Pakistan, by Mūsá Ḵẖān Jalālzaʼī, pp. 279-80.
- Sobhani, Ja'far. Doctrines of Shi'i Islam. Translated and Edited by Reza Shah-Kazemi. London - New York: I.B.Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies. pp. 159–163.
- Muhammad Moj (1 March 2015). The Deoband Madrassah Movement: Countercultural Trends and Tendencies. Appendix I: The Deobandi Stance vis-a-vis Muslim Groups Other Than The Barelwis: B. The DMM on Shia Muslims: iii. Changes in the Quran: Anthem Press. ISBN 9781783084463.
- Aaron Hughes (23 April 2013). Muslim Identities: An Introduction to Islam (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 131. ISBN 9780231161473.
- Momen 1985, p. 172 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMomen1985 (help)
- Momen 1985, p. 150 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMomen1985 (help)
- Al-Khu'i, Al-Sayyid (1998). The Prolegomena to the Qur'an. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 154–155. ISBN 0-19-511675-5.
- Barry Rubin (17 March 2015). The Middle East: A Guide to Politics, Economics, Society and Culture. Routledge. p. 329. ISBN 9781317455783.
- Ingvar Svanberg; David Westerlund (6 December 2012). Svanberg, Ingvar; Westerlund, David (eds.). Islam Outside the Arab World. Routledge. p. 9. ISBN 9781136113222.
- Gilles Kepel (2004). The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 225. ISBN 9780674015753.
- Mahmoud M. Ayoub (1 January 1978). Redemptive Suffering in Islam: A Study of the Devotional Aspects of Ashura in Twelver Shi'ism (reprint ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 181–3. ISBN 9783110803310.
- Wayne Rollen Husted (1992). Shahīd-i S̲ālis̲ Qāz̤ī Nārullāh Shūstarī: An Historical Figure in Shīite Piety. University of Wisconsin--Madison. pp. 158–9.
- El-Sayed el-Aswad (13 July 2012). Muslim Worldviews and Everyday Lives (illustrated ed.). Rowman Altamira. p. 65. ISBN 9780759121218.
- de Jong, F., ed. (1992). Shīʻa Islam, Sects, and Sufism: Historical Dimensions, Religious Practice and Methodological Considerations. M.Th. Houtsma Stichting. p. 134. ISBN 9789080104013.
- DAVID A. GRAHAM (6 January 2016). "Iran's Beleaguered Sunnis". The Atlantic. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Iran: RELIGIOUS MINORITIES: Sunni Muslims". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- Raihan Ismail (2016). Saudi Clerics and Shi'a Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780190233327.
- Global Issues: Selections from CQ Researcher. CQ Press. 2013. p. 34. ISBN 9781483300887.
- Ershad Alijani (8 June 2015). "Tehran's authorities destroy Sunni worship space". France 24. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- Bernard Rougier (2015). The Sunni Tragedy in the Middle East: Northern Lebanon from al-Qaeda to ISIS. Princeton University Press. p. 73. ISBN 9781400873579.
- Sophie McNeill (4 January 2016). "Saudi Arabia cutting diplomatic ties with Iran - fears of new sectarian clash". AM. ABC. Retrieved 4 February 2016.