Cro-Magnon (// ( listen) or US: //; French: [kʁomaɲɔ̃]) is a common name that has been used to describe the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) that lived in the European Upper Paleolithic. Current scientific literature prefers the term European early modern humans (EEMH), to the term Cro-Magnon, which has no formal taxonomic status, as it refers neither to a species or subspecies nor to an archaeological phase or culture. The earliest known remains of Cro-Magnon-like humans are radiocarbon dated to 43,000–45,000 years before present that have been discovered in Italy and Britain, with the remains found of those that reached the European Russian Arctic 40,000 years ago.
Cro-Magnons were robustly built and powerful. The body was generally heavy and solid with a strong musculature. The forehead was fairly straight rather than sloping like in Neanderthals, and with only slight browridges. The face was short and wide. The chin was prominent. The brain capacity was about 1,600 cc (98 cu in), larger than the average for modern humans.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Assemblages and specimens
- 3 Origin
- 4 Cro-Magnon life
- 5 Genetics
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
The name comes from the location of Abri de Cro-Magnon (abri is French for rock shelter, cro is Occitan for "hole" or "cavity", and Magnon is the name of the owner of the land) in the hamlet of Les Eyzies in the commune of Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil in southwestern France, where the first specimen was found. Being the oldest known modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) in Europe, the Cro-Magnons were from the outset linked to the well-known Lascaux cave paintings and the Aurignacian culture, the remains of which were well known from southern France and Germany. As additional remains of early modern humans were discovered in archaeological sites from Western Europe and elsewhere, and dating techniques improved in the early 20th century, new finds were added to the taxonomic classification.
The term "Cro-Magnon" soon came to be used in a general sense to describe the oldest modern people in Europe. By the 1970s, the term was used for any early modern human wherever found, as was the case with the far-flung Jebel Qafzeh remains in Israel and various Paleo-Indians in the Americas. However, analyses based on more current data concerning the migrations of early humans have contributed to a refined definition of this expression. Today, the term Cro-Magnon falls outside the usual naming conventions for early humans, though it remains an important term within the archaeological community as an identifier for the commensurate fossil remains in Europe and adjacent areas. Current scientific literature uses the term "European early modern humans" (or EEMH), instead of "Cro-Magnon". The oldest definitely dated EEMH specimen is the Grotta del Cavallo tooth dated in 2011 to at least 43,000 years old.
Assemblages and specimens
The French geologist Louis Lartet discovered the first five skeletons of this type in March 1868 in a rock shelter named Abri de Crô-Magnon. Similar specimens were subsequently discovered in other parts of Europe and neighboring areas.
Grotta del Cavallo
In November 2011, tests were conducted at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit in England on what were previously thought to be Neanderthal baby teeth, which had been unearthed in 1964 from the Grotta del Cavallo in Italy. These were identified as the oldest Cro-Magnon (or EEMH) remains ever discovered, dating from 43,000 to 45,000 years ago.
A prehistoric maxilla (upper jawbone) fragment was uncovered in the Kents Cavern locate in Torquay, Devon, England during a 1927 excavation by the Torquay Natural History Society, and named Kents Cavern 4. In 2011, the fossil was tested and redated to at least 41,500 years old and confirmed to be Cro-Magnon, making it the earliest anatomically modern human (AMH) fossil yet discovered in northwestern Europe.
Peștera cu Oase
The oldest Cro-Magnon remains from southeastern Europe are the finds from Peștera cu Oase (the bones cave) near the Iron Gates in Romania. The site is situated in the Danubian corridor, which may have been the Cro-Magnon entry point into Central Europe. The cave appears to be a cave bear den; the human remains may have been prey or carrion. No tools are associated with the finds.
Oase 1 holotype is a robust mandible similar to those of archaic humans, with a derived modern pointed chin, and large neanderthal-like teeth. The modern attributes place it close to European early modern humans among Late Pleistocene samples. The fossil is one of the few finds in Europe that could be directly dated, and is at least 37,800 years old. The Oase 1 mandible was discovered on February 16, 2002. A nearly complete skull of a young male Oase 2 and fragments of another cranium (Oase 3) were found in 2005, again with mosaic features; some of these are paralleled in the Oase 1 mandible. Later, during 2005, the Oase 3 fragments were assigned as being part of the same individual as Oase 2. In concurrence with the mixed physical traits, DNA sequences from the mandible shows 6-9 % Neanderthal ancestry in fairly long continuous portions, indicating Oase 1 had a Neanderthal ancestor as recent as 4-6 generations back.
Red Lady of Paviland
A complete anatomically modern human (AMH) male skeleton was discovered in 1823 in a cave burial in Gower, South Wales, United Kingdom. It was the first human fossil to have been found anywhere in the world. At 33,000 years old, it is the oldest ceremonial burial in Western Europe. Associated finds were red ochre anointing, a mammoth skull, and personal decorations suggesting shamanism or other religious practice. Numerous tools were with the skeleton as grave goods. Genetic analysis of mtDNA yielded the haplogroup H, the most common group in Europe.
The Peștera Muierilor (Women's Cave) find is a single, fairly complete cranium of a woman with rugged facial traits and otherwise modern skull features, found in a lower gallery of "The Women's Cave" in Romania, among numerous cave bear remains. Radiocarbon dating yielded an age of 30,150 ± 800 years, making it one of the oldest Cro-Magnon finds.
The original Cro-Magnon find was discovered in a rock shelter at Les Eyzies, Dordogne, France. The type specimen from the site is Cro-Magnon 1, carbon dated to about 28,000 14C years old. (27,680 ± 270 BP). Compared to Neanderthals, the skeletons showed the same high forehead, upright posture and slender (gracile) skeleton as modern humans. The other specimens from the site are a female, Cro-Magnon 2, and male remains, Cro-Magnon 3.
The condition and placement of the remains of the Cro-Magnon 1 specimen, along with pieces of shell and animal teeth in what appear to have been pendants or necklaces, raises the question of whether it was buried intentionally. If Cro-Magnons buried their dead intentionally, it suggests they had a knowledge of ritual, by burying their dead with necklaces and tools, or an idea of disease and that the bodies needed to be contained.
Analysis of the pathology of the skeletons shows that the humans of this period led a physically difficult life. In addition to infection, several of the individuals found at the shelter had fused vertebrae in their necks, indicating traumatic injury; the adult female found at the shelter had survived for some time with a skull fracture. As these injuries would be life-threatening even today, this suggests that Cro-Magnons relied on community support and took care of each other's injuries.
UNESCO World Heritage
The Abri of Cro-Magnon is part of the UNESCO World Heritage of the Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley.
A fossil site at Předmostí is located near Přerov in the Moravian region of what is today the Czech Republic. The site was discovered in the late 19th century. Excavations were conducted between 1884 and 1930. As the original material was lost during World War II, in the 1990s, new excavations were conducted.
The Předmostí site appear to have been a living area with associated burial ground with some 20 burials, including 15 complete human interments, and portions of five others, representing either disturbed or secondary burials. Cannibalism has been suggested to explain the apparent subsequent disturbance, though it is not widely accepted. The non-human fossils are mostly mammoth. Many of the bones are heavily charred, indicating they were cooked. Other remains include fox, reindeer, ice-age horse, wolf, bear, wolverine, and hare. Remains of three dogs were also found, one of which had a mammoth bone in its mouth.
The Předmostí site is dated to 24,000 to 27,000 years old. The people were essentially similar to the French Cro-Magnon finds. Though undoubtedly modern, they had robust features indicative of a big-game hunter lifestyle. They also share square eye-socket openings found in the French material.
Though younger than the Oase skull and mandible, the finds from the Mladeč caves in Moravia are some of the oldest Cro-Magnon sites. The caves have yielded the remains of several individuals, but few artifacts. The artifacts found have tentatively been classified as Aurignacian. The finds have been radiocarbon dated to around 31,000 radiocarbon years (somewhat older in calendar years), Mladeč 2 is dated to 31,320 +410, -390, Mladeč 9a to 31,500 +420, -400 and Mladeč 8 to 30,680 +380, -360 14C years.
All EEMH dates are direct fossil dates provided in 14C years BP.
- Kostenki 1 = 32,600 ± 1,100, tibia and fibula
- Cioclovina 1 = 29,000 ± 700, complete neurocranium from a robust individual, Cioclovina Cave, Romania
- Les Roisà Mouthiers << 32,000
- La Quina Aval maximum 33,000 – 32,000 (juvenile partial mandible)
- The Lapedo child from Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, is about 24,000 years old, a fairly complete and quite robust skeleton, possibly showing some Neanderthal traits.
Anatomically modern humans (AMHs) are believed to have first emerged in East Africa some 100,000 to 200,000 years ago. According to this theory, an exodus from Africa over the Arabian Peninsula around 60,000 years ago brought modern humans to Eurasia, with one group rapidly settling coastal areas around the Indian Ocean and one group migrating north to steppes of Central Asia. A mitochondrial DNA sequence of two Cro-Magnons from the Paglicci Cave, Italy, dated to 23,000 and 24,000 years old (Paglicci 52 and 12), identified the mtDNA as haplogroup N, typical of the descendants in Central Asia. The inland group is the founder of North and East Asians, Europeans, large sections of the Middle East, and North African populations. Migration from the Black Sea area into Europe started some 45,000 years ago, probably along the Danubian corridor. By 20,000 years ago, modern humans had reached the western margin of the continent.
Cro-Magnons were anatomically modern, straight limbed and tall compared to the contemporaneous Neanderthals. They are thought to have stood on average 176.2 cm (5 feet 9 1⁄3 inches) tall. They differ from modern-day humans in having a more robust physique and a slightly larger cranial capacity. The Cro-Magnons had fairly low skulls, with wide faces, robust mandibles, blunted chins, narrow noses, and moderate to no prognathism.
Mitochondrial DNA analysis places the early European population as sister group to the Asian groups, dating the divergence to some 50,000 years ago. The very light skin tone found in modern Northern Europeans is a relatively recent phenomenon, and may have appeared in the European line as recently as 12 to 6 thousand years ago (10,000 - 4,000 BCE), indicating Cro-Magnons had dark skin. DNA sequencing of finds of the late post-ice-age hunter-gatherer populations in Europe indicate that some Cro-Magnons likely had blue eyes and dark hair, and a brown complexion. A small ivory bust of a man found at Dolní Věstonice and dated to 26,000 years indicates the Cro-Magnons had straight hair, though the somewhat later Venus of Brassempouy may show wavy or curly hair, possibly braided.
The flint tools found in association with the remains at Cro-Magnon have associations with the Aurignacian culture that Lartet had identified a few years before he found the first skeletons. The Aurignacian differ from the earlier cultures by their finely worked bone or antler points and flint points made for hafting, the production of Venus figurines and cave painting. They pierced bones, shells and teeth to make body ornaments. The figurines, cave-paintings, ornaments and the mysterious Venus figurines are a hallmark of Cro-Magnon culture, contrasting with the utilitarian culture of the Neanderthals. Unlike earlier cultures, the Aurignacian appear to have been developed in Europe, and to have spread in the wake of the Phlegraean eruption 37 000 years ago.
Like most early humans, the Cro-Magnons were primarily big-game hunters, killing mammoth, cave bears, horses, and reindeer. They hunted with spears, javelins, and spear-throwers. Archery had not yet been invented. They would have been nomadic or semi-nomadic, following the annual migration of their prey, and also have eaten plant materials. In Mezhirich village in Ukraine, several huts built from mammoth bones possibly representing semi-permanent hunting camps have been unearthed.
Finds of spun, dyed, and knotted flax fibers among Cro-Magnon artifacts in Dzudzuana shows they made cords for hafting stone tools, weaving baskets, or sewing garments. Apart from the mammoth bone huts mentioned, they constructed shelter of rocks, clay, branches, and animal hide/fur. These early humans used manganese and iron oxides to paint pictures and may have created one early lunar calendar around 15,000 years ago.
Other contemporary humans in Europe
The Cro-Magnons shared the European landscape with Neanderthals for some 10,000 years or more, before the latter disappeared from the fossil record. The nature of their co-existence and the extinction of Neanderthals has been debated. Suggestions include peaceful co-existence, competition, interbreeding, assimilation, and genocide. Other modern people, like the Qafzeh humans, seem to have co-existed with Neanderthals for up to 60,000 years in the Levant.
Earlier studies argue for more than 15,000 years of Neanderthal and modern human co-existence in France. A simulation based on a slight difference in carrying capacity in the two groups indicates that the two groups would be found together only in a narrow zone, at the front of the Cro-Magnon immigration wave.
The Neanderthal Châtelperronian culture appears to have been influenced by the Cro-Magnons, indicating some sort of cultural exchange between the two groups. At the original Châtelperronian site layers of Châtelperronian artifacts alternate with Aurignacian, though this may be a result of interstratified ("chronologically mixed") layers, or disturbances from earlier excavations. The "Lapedo child" found at Abrigo do Lagar Velho in Portugal has been quoted as being a possible Neanderthal/Cro-Magnon hybrid, though this interpretation is disputed. Recent genetic studies of a wide selection of modern humans do however indicate some form of hybridization with archaic humans took place after modern humans emerged from Africa. According to one study, about 1 to 4 percent of the DNA in Europeans and Asians may be derived from Neanderthals.
Grimaldi man was a name given in the early 20th century to an Italian find of two paleolithic skeletons of short, but finely built people. When found, the skeletons were the subject of dubious scientific theories on human evolution, partly fueled by biased reconstruction of the skulls by the scientists involved. In the 1960s, the Grimaldi find, together with various other European finds of early modern humans, was classified as Cro-Magnon (in the wider sense), though the term "European Early Modern Humans" is today preferred for this assemblage.
A fairly complete skeleton from the Magdalenian found in 1888 in Chancelade, France, was originally thought to have been an Eskimo. Though this interpretation is now abandoned, the short and stocky, but otherwise modern skeleton differs markedly from the Cro-Magnon finds. Similar, but more fragmentary finds are known from Laugerie-Basse and the Duruthy cave near Sorde-l'Abbaye.
- Archaic human admixture with modern humans
- Denisova hominin
- Life timeline
- List of fossil sites (with link directory)
- List of human evolution fossils
- Neanderthal interaction with Cro-Magnons
- Dance of the Tiger, short 1980 novel by palaeontologist Björn Kurtén regarding the interaction between Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons.
- Earth's Children, novels by Jean M. Auel explore the interactions of Cro-Magnon people with Neanderthals
- The Inheritors, 1955 novel by William Golding about the extinction of Homo Neanderthalensis through conflict with Cro-Magnon civilisation
- Fagan, B.M. (1996). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 864. ISBN 978-0-19-507618-9.
The Cro-Magnons are identified with Homo sapiens sapiens of modern form, in the time range ca. 35,000–10,000 b.p. […] The term "Cro-Magnon" has no formal taxonomic status, since it refers neither to a species or subspecies nor to an archaeological phase or culture. The name is not commonly encountered in modern professional literature in English, since authors prefer to talk more generally of anatomically modern humans (AMH). They thus avoid a certain ambiguity in the label "Cro-Magnon", which is sometimes used to refer to all early moderns in Europe (as opposed to the preceding Neanderthals), and sometimes to refer to a specific human group that can be distinguished from other Upper Paleolithic humans in the region. Nevertheless, the term "Cro-Magnon" is still very commonly used in popular texts because it makes an obvious distinction with the Neanderthals, and also refers directly to people rather than to the complicated succession of archaeological phases that make up the Upper Paleolithic. This evident practical value has prevented archaeologists and human paleontologists from dispensing entirely with the idea of Cro-Magnons.
- Fagan, B.M. (1996). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 864. ISBN 978-0-19-507618-9.
- Benazzi, S.; Douka, K.; Fornai, C.; Bauer, C. C.; Kullmer, O.; Svoboda, J. Í.; Pap, I.; Mallegni, F.; Bayle, P.; Coquerelle, M.; Condemi, S.; Ronchitelli, A.; Harvati, K.; Weber, G. W. (2011). "Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour". Nature. 479 (7374): 525–8. Bibcode:2011Natur.479..525B. PMID 22048311. doi:10.1038/nature10617.
- Higham, T.; Compton, T.; Stringer, C.; Jacobi, R.; Shapiro, B.; Trinkaus, E.; Chandler, B.; Gröning, F.; Collins, C.; Hillson, S.; o’Higgins, P.; Fitzgerald, C.; Fagan, M. (2011). "The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe". Nature. 479 (7374): 521–4. Bibcode:2011Natur.479..521H. PMID 22048314. doi:10.1038/nature10484.
- Pavlov, Pavel; Svendsen, John Inge; Indrelid, Svein (2001). "Human presence in the European Arctic nearly 40,000 years ago". Nature. 413 (6851): 64–7. Bibcode:2001Natur.413...64P. PMID 11544525. doi:10.1038/35092552.
- Mamontovaya Kurya: an enigmatic, nearly 40 000 years old Paleolithic site in the Russian Arctic, John Inge Svendsen, Pavel Pavlov, 2003
- "Cro-Magnon (anthropology) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- "Cros". Retrieved 2014-08-15.
- "The Cro-Magnon Shelter". Retrieved 2014-08-15.
- (in French) Prehisto-France[permanent dead link]
- Brace, C. Loring (1996). Haeussler, Alice M.; Bailey, Shara E., eds. "Cro-Magnon and Qafzeh — vive la Difference" (PDF). Dental anthropology newsletter: a publication of the Dental Anthropology Association. Tempe, AZ: Laboratory of Dental Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University. 10 (3): 2–9. ISSN 1096-9411. OCLC 34148636. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 June 2010. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
- Trinkaus, Erik (April 2004). Schekman, Randy, ed. "European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (18): 7367–72. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.7367T. PMC . PMID 17452632. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702214104.
- Wilford, John Noble (November 2, 2011). "Fossil Teeth Put Humans in Europe Earlier Than Thought". The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- Tom Higham, et. al (24 Nov 2011). "The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 479 (7374): 521–524. Bibcode:2011Natur.479..521H. PMID 22048314. doi:10.1038/nature10484. Retrieved 2011-11-03. Lay summary – BBC News (2011-11-02).
- Rougier H; Milota S; Rodrigo R; et al. (January 2007). "Peştera cu Oase 2 and the cranial morphology of early modern Europeans". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (4): 1165–70. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.1165R. PMC . PMID 17227863. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610538104.
- "Scientists discover an early modern human with a recent neanderthal ancestor". Phys.org. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- Richards, M. P.; Trinkaus, E. (2009). "Out of Africa: Modern Human Origins Special Feature: Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (38): 16034–16039. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10616034R. PMC . PMID 19706482. doi:10.1073/pnas.0903821106.
- Aldhouse, S. (October 2001). "Great Sites: Paviland Cave". British Archaeology (61).
- Higham, T.; Ramsey, B.; Karavanić, I.; Smith, H.; Trinkaus, E. (Jan 2006). "Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103 (3): 553–557. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103..553H. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC . PMID 16407102. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510005103.
- "Evolution: Humans: Origins of Humankind". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- "Human Evolution by The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program". Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original on July 7, 2006.
- "Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley". Retrieved 2014-08-15.
- A Svoboda J (January 2008). "The upper paleolithic burial area at Predmostí: ritual and taphonomy". J. Hum. Evol. 54 (1): 15–33. PMID 17931689. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.05.016.
- Svoboda J.A. (2004). "The Gravettian on the Middle Danube". Paléo – Revue d'archéologie préhistorique. 19: 203–220.
- Viegas, Jennifer (October 7, 2011). "Prehistoric dog found with mammoth bone in mouth". Discovery News. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
- Velemínskáa, J.; Brůžekb, J.; Velemínskýd, P.; Bigonia, L.; Šefčákováe, A.; Katinaf, F. (2008). "Variability of the Upper Palaeolithic skulls from Předmostí near Přerov (Czech Republic): Craniometric comparison with recent human standards". Homo. 59 (1): 1–26. PMID 18242606. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2007.12.003.
- Wild, Em; Teschler-Nicola, M; Kutschera, W; Steier, P; Trinkaus, E; Wanek, W (May 2005). "Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec" (PDF). Nature. 435 (7040): 332–5. Bibcode:2005Natur.435..332W. PMID 15902255. doi:10.1038/nature03585.
- Anikovich, Mv; Sinitsyn, Aa; Hoffecker, Jf; Holliday, Vt; Popov, Vv; Lisitsyn, Sn; Forman, Sl; Levkovskaya, Gm; Pospelova, Ga; Kuz'Mina, Ie; Burova, Nd; Goldberg, P; Macphail, Ri; Giaccio, B; Praslov, Nd (January 2007). "Early Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and implications for the dispersal of modern humans" (PDF). Science. 315 (5809): 223–6. Bibcode:2007Sci...315..223A. PMID 17218523. doi:10.1126/science.1133376. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03.
- Harvati, K.; Gunz, P.; Grigorescu, D. (27–28 March 2007). "The partial cranium from Cioclovina, Romania: morphological affinities of an early modern European". Meeting abstracts. Philadelphia PA: Paleoanthropology Society.
- Cidalia Duarte, Joao Mauricio, Paul B. Pettitt, Pedro Souto, Erik Trinkaus, Hans van der Plicht and Joao Zilhao (June 22, 1999). "The Early Upper Paleolithic Human Skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and Modern Human Emergence in Iberia" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (13): 7604–9. Bibcode:1999PNAS...96.7604D. PMC . PMID 10377462. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.13.7604. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 25, 2012.
- Currat, M.; Excoffier, L. (2004). "Modern Humans Did Not Admix with Neanderthals during Their Range Expansion into Europe". PLoS Biol. 2 (12): e421. PMC . PMID 15562317. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020421.
- "Atlas of human journey: 45,000–40,000 – Major upper paleolithic sites in Europe". The genographic project. National Geographic Society. 1996–2010. Archived from the original on February 5, 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
- Caramelli, D; Lalueza-Fox, C; Vernesi, C; Lari, M; Casoli, A; Mallegni, F; Chiarelli, B; Dupanloup, I; Bertranpetit, J; Barbujani, G; Bertorelle, G (May 2003). "Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (11): 6593–7. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.6593C. PMC . PMID 12743370. doi:10.1073/pnas.1130343100.
- "Cro-Magnon". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the original on October 20, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Men of the old stone age, their environment, life and art".
- Maca-Meyer N, González AM, Larruga JM, Flores C, Cabrera VM. "Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions". BMC Genet. 2: 13. PMC . PMID 11553319. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-2-13.
- Norton HL; Kittles RA; Parra E; et al. (March 2007). "Genetic evidence for the convergent evolution of the very light skin found in Northern Europeans and some East Asians". Mol. Biol. Evol. 24 (3): 710–22. PMID 17182896. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl203.
- Gibbons A (April 2007). "American Association of Physical Anthropologists meeting. European skin turned pale only recently, gene suggests". Science. 316 (5823): 364. PMID 17446367. doi:10.1126/science.316.5823.364a.
- Callaway, Ewen (2 January 2014). "Ancient European genomes reveal jumbled ancestry". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.14456. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Lazaridis; et al. (2014). "Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans". Nature. 513 (7518): 409–13. Bibcode:2014Natur.513..409L. PMC . PMID 25230663. bioRxiv . doi:10.1038/nature13673.
- Bar-Yosef, O & Zilhão, J (eds) 2002: Towards a definition of the Aurignacian. Proceedings of the Symposium held in Lisbon, Portugal, June 25–30. Trabalhos de Arqueologia no 45. 381 pages. PDF
- Rice, Stanly A. (2007). Encyclopedia of Evolution (1st ed.). Checkmark Books. pp. 102–103. ISBN 0-8160-7121-7. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- Hoffecker, J.F. (July 1, 2009). "The spread of modern humans in Europe" (PDF). PNAS. 106 (38): 16040–16045. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10616040H. PMC . PMID 19571003. doi:10.1073/pnas.0903446106. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
- "Bones From French Cave Show Neanderthals, Cro-Magnon Hunted Same Prey". ScienceDaily. University Of Washington. 23 September 2003. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
- Dan Koehl. "The Cro Magnon man (Homo sapiens sapiens) Anatomically Modern or Early Modern Humans".
- Pidoplichko, I.H. (1998). Upper Palaeolithic dwellings of mammoth bones in the Ukraine: Kiev-Kirillovskii, Gontsy, Dobranichevka, Mezin and Mezhirich. Oxford: J. and E. Hedges. ISBN 0-86054-949-6.
- Kvavadze E; Bar-Yosef O; Belfer-Cohen A; et al. (September 2009). "30,000-year-old wild flax fibers". Science. 325 (5946): 1359. Bibcode:2009Sci...325.1359K. PMID 19745144. doi:10.1126/science.1175404. Supporting Online Material
- according to a claim by Michael Rappenglueck, of the University of Munich "Oldest lunar calendar identified". BBC News. 16 October 2000.
- Diamond, Jared (1992). The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-098403-1.
- Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Vandermeersch, Bernard (April 1993). "Modern Humans in the Levant". Scientific American: 94–100.
- Mellars, P (February 2006). "A new radiocarbon revolution and the dispersal of modern humans in Eurasia". Nature. 439 (7079): 931–5. Bibcode:2006Natur.439..931M. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 16495989. doi:10.1038/nature04521.
- Gravina, B; Mellars, P; Ramsey, Cb (November 2005). "Radiocarbon dating of interstratified Neanderthal and early modern human occupations at the Châtelperronian type-site". Nature. 438 (7064): 51–6. Bibcode:2005Natur.438...51G. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 16136079. doi:10.1038/nature04006.
- D'Errico, F.D.; Zilhao, J.; Julien, M.; Baffier, D.; Pelerin, J. (1998). "Neanderthal Acculturation in Western Europe? A Critical Review of the Evidence and its Interpretation". Current Anthropology. 39: S1–S44. doi:10.1086/204689.
- Zilhão, J; D'Errico, F; Bordes, Jg; Lenoble, A; Texier, Jp; Rigaud, Jp (August 2006). "Analysis of Aurignacian interstratification at the Chatelperronian-type site and implications for the behavioral modernity of Neandertals". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (33): 12643–8. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10312643Z. PMC . PMID 16894152. doi:10.1073/pnas.0605128103.
- Callaway, E. (2010): Neanderthal genome reveals interbreeding with humans. New Scientist online, May 6, 2010. article
- Masset, C. (1989): Grimaldi : une imposture honnête et toujours jeune, Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française, vol. 86, n° 8, pp. 228-243.
- Sollas, W.J. (October 1925). "98. The Chancelade Skull". Man (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland). 25: 157–161. JSTOR 2840633. doi:10.2307/2840633.
- Goodall, L.S.B. Leakey, Vanne Morris (2011). Unveiling man's origins: ten decades of thought about human evolution. London: Routledge. pp. 56–57. ISBN 0-415-61128-8.
- Munro, R. (1917). Prehistoric Britain. London: Williams and Norgate. pp. 79–81. ISBN 978-1-178-06534-3. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians".
- Fagan, Brian (2010). Cro-Magnon: How the Ice Age Gave Birth to the First Modern Humans. Bloomsbury Press.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cro-Magnons.|