Crocodylus

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Crocodylus
Temporal range: Late Miocene - Recent
Persiancrocodile.jpg
C. palustris
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Superorder: Crocodylomorpha
Order: Crocodilia
Family: Crocodylidae
Subfamily: Crocodylinae
Genus: Crocodylus
Laurenti, 1768
Species

See text

Crocodylus Distribution.png
Worldwide distribution of Crocodylus

Crocodylus is one of three genera from the subfamily Crocodylinae of the family Crocodylidae.

Established species include five extinct species:[1]

The 13 living species are:

Phylogeny[edit]

The cladogram below follows the topology from a 2011 analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences by Robert W. Meredith, Evon R. Hekkala, George Amato and John Gatesy.[4]

 Crocodylus 
 Asia-Australia 


C. porosusCrocodylus porosus white background.jpg




C. palustrisMugger crocodile white background.jpg



C. siamensisSiamese Crocodile white background.jpg






C. johnsoniFreshwater crocodile white background.jpg




C. novaeguineae



C. mindorensis





 Africa-New World 

C. suchus




C. niloticusNile crocodile white background.jpg


 New World 

C. rhombiferCuban crocodile white background.jpg




C. moreletii




C. acutusAmerican crocodile white background.jpg



C. intermedius








The cladogram below follows the topology from a 2012 analysis of morphological traits by Christopher A. Brochu and Glenn W. Storrs. Many extinct species of Crocodylus might represent different genera. C. suchus was not included, because its morphological codings were identical to these of C. niloticus. However, the authors suggested that it could be explained by their specimen sampling, and considered the two species to be distinct.[1]

 Crocodyloidea 

"Asiatosuchus" germanicus



Prodiplocynodon langi




Asiatosuchus grangeri



"Crocodylus" affinis



"Crocodylus" depressifrons




Brachyuranochampsa eversolei



"Crocodylus" acer


 Crocodylidae 
 Tomistominae 

Kentisuchus spenceri




Dollosuchoides densmorei



Megadontosuchus arduini






Gavialosuchus eggenburgensis



Toyotamaphimeia machikanensis





Tomistoma lusitanica



Tomistoma schlegeliiTomistoma schlegelii. white background.JPG






"Tomistoma" cairense




Thecachampsa antiqua



Thecachampsa americana



Thecachampsa carolinense





Penghusuchus pani




Paratomistoma courti



"Tomistoma" petrolica








 Crocodylinae 

"Crocodylus" megarhinus


 Mekosuchinae 

Kambara implexidens



Australosuchus clarkae




Trilophosuchus rackhami



Quinkana







"Crocodylus" pigotti



"Crocodylus" gariepensis




Euthecodon arambourgii



Euthecodon brumpti




 Osteolaeminae 

Rimasuchus lloydi




Voay robustus




Osteolaemus osborniBristol.zoo.westafrican.dwarf.croc.arp. white background.jpg



Osteolaemus tetraspis







Mecistops cataphractusCrocodylus cataphractus faux-gavial d'Afrique2 white background.JPG


 Crocodylus 

C. checchiai



C. palaeindicus




C. anthropophagus



C. thorbjarnarsoni




C. niloticus Nile crocodile white background.jpg




C. siamensis Siamese Crocodile white background.jpg




C. palustris Mugger crocodile white background.jpg




C. porosusCrocodylus porosus white background.jpg



C. johnsoni Freshwater crocodile white background.jpg



C. mindorensis




C. novaeguineae



C. raninus








C. acutus American crocodile white background.jpg



C. intermedius



C. rhombiferCuban crocodile white background.jpg



C. moreletii











Evolution[edit]

Crocodylus species originated from an ancestor in the Indo-Pacific region between 9 million years ago and 16 million years ago.[6] They radiated into Africa between 8 million years ago and 12 million years ago. This was followed between 4 million years ago to 8 million years ago by a trans-Atlantic migration to the Americas.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Brochu, C. A.; Storrs, G. W. (2012). "A giant crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene of Kenya, the phylogenetic relationships of Neogene African crocodylines, and the antiquity of Crocodylus in Africa". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (3): 587. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.652324. 
  2. ^ McAliley, Willis, Ray, White, Brochu & Densmore (2006). Are crocodiles really monophyletic?—Evidence for subdivisions from sequence and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39: 16-32.
  3. ^ Brochu, C. A.; Njau, J.; Blumenschine, R. J.; Densmore, L. D. (2010). "A New Horned Crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene Hominid Sites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania". PLoS ONE 5 (2): e9333. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009333. PMC 2827537. PMID 20195356. 
  4. ^ a b Robert W. Meredith, Evon R. Hekkala, George Amato and John Gatesy (2011). "A phylogenetic hypothesis for Crocodylus (Crocodylia) based on mitochondrial DNA: Evidence for a trans-Atlantic voyage from Africa to the New World". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 183–191. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.026. 
  5. ^ http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Crocodylus&species=raninus
  6. ^ Srikulnath K, Thapana W, Muangmai N (2015) Role of chromosome changes in Crocodylus evolution and diversity. Genomics Inform 13(4):102-111. doi: 10.5808/GI.2015.13.4.102