Crocodylus

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Crocodylus
Temporal range: Late Miocene - Recent
Persiancrocodile.jpg
C. palustris
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Crocodilia
Family: Crocodylidae
Subfamily: Crocodylinae
Genus: Crocodylus
Laurenti, 1768
Species

See text

Crocodylus Distribution.png
Worldwide distribution of Crocodylus

Crocodylus is one of three genera from the subfamily Crocodylinae of the family Crocodylidae.

Taxonomy[edit]

Extant Species[edit]

The 13 living species are:


Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Croc profile (2), NPSPhoto (9255693421).jpg Crocodylus acutus American crocodile Southern Florida and the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of southern Mexico to South America as far south as Peru and Venezuela, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola and Grand Cayman.
Caiman del orinoco, Amazonas.JPG Crocodylus intermedius Orinoco crocodile Colombia and Venezuela
Australien-Krokodil.JPG Crocodylus johnsoni Freshwater crocodile Northern regions of Australia
Crocodylus mindorensis Köln Zoo 31122014 1.jpg Crocodylus mindorensis Philippine crocodile Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park within the Luzon rainforest, San Mariano, Isabela, Dalupiri island in the Babuyan Islands, Abra (province) in Luzon and the Ligawasan Marsh, Lake Sebu in South Cotabato, Pulangi River in Bukidnon, and possibly in the Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary in Mindanao
Crocodylus moreletii - Tiergarten Schönbrunn 2.jpg Crocodylus moreletii Morelet's crocodile or Mexican crocodile Mexico, Belize and Guatemala
Crocodylus - Crocodile - Krokodil - 02.jpg Crocodylus niloticus Nile crocodile or African crocodile, (the subspecies found in Madagascar, C. n. madagascariensis, is sometimes called the black crocodile) Israel and Syria, Somalia, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Egypt, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Gabon, Angola, South Africa, Malawi, Mozambique, Sudan, South Sudan, Botswana, and Cameroon
Neuguinea-krokodil-0272.jpg Crocodylus novaeguineae New Guinea crocodile New Guinea
Mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) from Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary JEG4362.JPG Crocodylus palustris Mugger crocodile, marsh crocodile, or Indian crocodile southern Iran, southern Pakistan, southern Nepal, India, Sri Lanka
Saltwater Croc from Sundarbans India.jpg Crocodylus porosus Saltwater crocodile or estuarine crocodile Southeast Asia and Northern Australia
CubanCrocodile 001.jpg Crocodylus rhombifer Cuban crocodile Cuba
3.06b.jpg Crocodylus siamensis Siamese crocodile Indonesia (Borneo and possibly Java), Brunei, East Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.
Kachikally-crocodile-pool-manify.jpg Crocodylus suchus West African crocodile or desert crocodile Mauritania, Benin, Liberia, Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Gambia, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Gabon, Togo, Ivory Coast and Republic of Congo
Crocodylus raninus (Considered to be a synonym of Crocodylus porosus; its status remains unclear.[1]) Borneo

Fossils[edit]

Established species also include six extinct species:[2]

Phylogeny[edit]

The cladogram below follows the topology from a 2011 analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences by Robert W. Meredith, Evon R. Hekkala, George Amato and John Gatesy.[3]

 Crocodylus 
 Asia+Australia 

C. porosusCrocodylus porosus white background.jpg

C. palustrisMugger crocodile white background.jpg

C. siamensisSiamese Crocodile white background.jpg

C. johnsoniFreshwater crocodile white background.jpg

C. novaeguineae

C. mindorensis

 Africa+New World 

C. suchus

C. niloticusNile crocodile white background.jpg

 New World 

C. rhombiferCuban crocodile white background.jpg

C. moreletii

C. acutusAmerican crocodile white background.jpg

C. intermedius

The cladogram below follows the topology from a 2012 analysis of morphological traits by Christopher A. Brochu and Glenn W. Storrs. Many extinct species of Crocodylus might represent different genera. C. suchus was not included, because its morphological codings were identical to these of C. niloticus. However, the authors suggested that it could be explained by their specimen sampling, and considered the two species to be distinct.[2]

 Crocodyloidea 

"Asiatosuchus" germanicus

Prodiplocynodon langi

Asiatosuchus grangeri

"Crocodylus" affinis

"Crocodylus" depressifrons

Brachyuranochampsa eversolei

"Crocodylus" acer

 Crocodylidae 
 Tomistominae 

Kentisuchus spenceri

Dollosuchoides densmorei

Megadontosuchus arduini

Gavialosuchus eggenburgensis

Toyotamaphimeia machikanensis

Tomistoma lusitanica

Tomistoma schlegeliiTomistoma schlegelii. white background.JPG

"Tomistoma" cairense

Thecachampsa antiqua

Thecachampsa americana

Thecachampsa carolinense

Penghusuchus pani

Paratomistoma courti

Maomingosuchus petrolica

 Crocodylinae 

"Crocodylus" megarhinus

 Mekosuchinae 

Kambara implexidens

Australosuchus clarkae

Trilophosuchus rackhami

Quinkana

Brochuchus pigotti

"Crocodylus" gariepensis

Euthecodon arambourgii

Euthecodon brumpti

 Osteolaeminae 

Rimasuchus lloydi

Voay robustus

Osteolaemus osborniBristol.zoo.westafrican.dwarf.croc.arp. white background.jpg

Osteolaemus tetraspis

Mecistops cataphractusCrocodylus cataphractus faux-gavial d'Afrique2 white background.JPG

 Crocodylus 

C. checchiai

C. palaeindicus

C. anthropophagus

C. thorbjarnarsoni

C. niloticus Nile crocodile white background.jpg

C. siamensis Siamese Crocodile white background.jpg

C. palustris Mugger crocodile white background.jpg

C. porosusCrocodylus porosus white background.jpg

C. johnsoni Freshwater crocodile white background.jpg

C. mindorensis

C. novaeguineae

C. raninus

C. acutus American crocodile white background.jpg

C. intermedius

C. rhombiferCuban crocodile white background.jpg

C. moreletii

Evolution[edit]

Crocodylus species originated from an ancestor in the Indo-Pacific region between 9 million years ago and 16 million years ago.[4] They radiated into Africa between 8 million years ago and 12 million years ago. This was followed between 4 million years ago to 8 million years ago by a trans-Atlantic migration to the Americas.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Crocodylus&species=raninus
  2. ^ a b Brochu, C. A.; Storrs, G. W. (2012). "A giant crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene of Kenya, the phylogenetic relationships of Neogene African crocodylines, and the antiquity of Crocodylus in Africa". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 32 (3): 587. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.652324.
  3. ^ Robert W. Meredith, Evon R. Hekkala, George Amato and John Gatesy (2011). "A phylogenetic hypothesis for Crocodylus (Crocodylia) based on mitochondrial DNA: Evidence for a trans-Atlantic voyage from Africa to the New World". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 60: 183–191. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.026. PMID 21459152.
  4. ^ Srikulnath, K; Thapana, W; Muangmai, N (2015). "Role of chromosome changes in Crocodylus evolution and diversity". Genomics Inform. 13 (4): 102–111. doi:10.5808/GI.2015.13.4.102.