Croix de guerre 1939–1945 (France)

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Croix de guerre 1939–1945
Croix de Guerre 1939 France AVERS.jpg
1939–1945 War Cross with 2 silver-gilt (gold) stars
Awarded by  France
Type Bravery award
Awarded for Military duty during World War II mentioned in dispatches
Status No longer awarded
Clasps silver-gilt palm
silver palm
bronze palm
silver-gilt star
silver star
bronze star
Statistics
Established September 26, 1939
Precedence
Next (higher) Croix de guerre 1914–1918
Next (lower) Croix de guerre des TOE
Croix de Guerre 1939-1945 ribbon.svg

Streamer FCDG WWII.png
Ribbon bar & streamer of the French Croix de guerre 1939–1945

The Croix de guerre 1939–1945 (War Cross 1939–1945) is a French military decoration, a version of the Croix de guerre created on September 26, 1939, to honour people who fought with the Allies against the Axis forces at any time during World War II.

Award statute[edit]

Due to the large extent of the war zone, recipients included those who fought during, with, at, or in the following:[1]

Award description[edit]

Medal[edit]

The Croix de guerre was designed by the sculptor Paul-Albert Bartholomé. The medal is 37 mm in size and is in the shape of a Maltese cross with two swords criss-crossed through the center. In the center of the front, is the profile of the French Republic crested by a Phrygian cap. Around this portrait, are the words République française ("French Republic"). On the reverse of the medal are the dates of the conflict : 1939–1940, 1939–1945, or simply 1940.[1]

Ribbon[edit]

The suspension and service ribbon of the medal has a red background crossed with four green lines in its center.[2]

Devices[edit]

On every medal and ribbon, there is at least one ribbon device, either in the shape of a palm or of a star, and fashioned from either bronze, silver or gilded silver (gold). The relative importance of the six possible combinations is detailed below. The total number of devices on a "Croix de guerre" is not limited.

Award grades[edit]

Reverse of the 1939–1945 War Cross

Mentioned in Despatches[edit]

The lowest degree is represented by a bronze star while the highest degree is represented by a bronze palm:[2]

  • Bronze star (étoile en bronze) for those who had been mentioned at the regiment or brigade level.
  • Silver star (étoile en argent), for those who had been mentioned at the division level.
  • Silver-gilt star (étoile en vermeil), for those who had been mentioned at the corps level.
  • Bronze palm (palme en bronze), for those who had been mentioned at the army level.
  • Silver palm (palme en argent), represents five bronze ones.
  • Silver-gilt palm (palme en vermeil), for those who had been mentioned at the Free French Forces level (World War II only).[1]

The clasps are awarded for gallantry to any member of the French military or its allies and are, depending on the degree, roughly the equivalent for U.S. Bronze Star and Silver Star or UK Military Cross and Military Medal.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Marc Champenois. "Croix de guerre 1939–1945" (in French). France-phaleristique.com. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Croix De Guerre, France". The Institute of Heraldry. Retrieved 2 November 2013.