Cromwell, New Zealand

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Cromwell
Tīrau (Māori)
Town
Cromwell New Zealand October 2013.JPG
Coordinates: 45°02′S 169°12′E / 45.04°S 169.20°E / -45.04; 169.20Coordinates: 45°02′S 169°12′E / 45.04°S 169.20°E / -45.04; 169.20
CountryNew Zealand
RegionOtago region
Territorial authorityCentral Otago District
WardCromwell Ward
Government
 • Local authorityCentral Otago District Council
 • Regional councilOtago Regional Council
Area
 • Total15.63 km2 (6.03 sq mi)
Population
 (June 2021)[2]
 • Total6,640
 • Density420/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+12 (NZST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+13 (NZDT)
Postcode(s)
9310
Local iwiNgāi Tahu
Aerial view of Cromwell from the south
The town of Cromwell and Lake Dunstan

Cromwell (Māori: Tīrau) is a town in Central Otago in the Otago region of New Zealand.

Cromwell is between State Highway 6 (linking to Wānaka, 50 kilometres (31 mi) north, and Queenstown, 60 kilometres (37 mi) west) and State Highway 8 leading to the Lindis Pass, 75 kilometres (47 mi) northeast, and Alexandra, 33 km south. The road to Alexandra winds through the Cromwell Gorge. A point near Cromwell lies 119 kilometres from the sea, the farthest from the sea anywhere in New Zealand.[3] A prominent feature surrounding much of the town is the man-made Lake Dunstan. Cromwell also has the newly constructed Highlands Motorsport Park. Nearby settlements are at Bannockburn, Lowburn, Tarras, and Ripponvale.

Cromwell is also the home of the Cromwell Chafer Beetle (Prodontria lewisi).

The 45th parallel south runs just north of the township.

History[edit]

Cromwell was originally known as "The Junction", being at the confluence of the Clutha River / Mata-Au and the Kawarau River. In 1862, gold was discovered below the Junction by two miners, Hartley and Reilly. Once the word of a gold strike was out, there was an influx of several thousand miners to the area. Its newspaper, The Cromwell Argus, was established in 1869.[4]

As gold ran out, Cromwell became the service centre for an extensive farming and stone fruit growing area. It has a strategic location between the Lindis and the Haast passes, and acts as a hub between the towns of Wānaka, Queenstown and Alexandra. The former is commemorated with the giant sculpture of stone fruit which stands outside the northern end of the town.

Cromwell lay at the confluence of the Clutha River and the Kawarau River, which was noted for the difference between the colours of the waters of the two rivers and also for the historic bridge at the convergence of the two. Since the construction of the Clyde Dam and the filling of Lake Dunstan in the early 1990s the river confluence was drowned, as was the old town centre.

The decision to build Clyde Dam and use Cromwell as the accommodation base brought many changes to the town. Approximately one-third of the town was rebuilt on higher ground. The changes included the doubling of the residential area, relocation of the old town centre (now called "Old Cromwell Town"), upgrading of services, and the provision of modern educational and sports facilities, and a new bridge. The relocated town centre, or "The Mall," now houses the main retail, service and civic buildings in Cromwell. Several of the old buildings of the town which escaped the flooding have been retained as a historic precinct close to the shore of the Kawarau.

The town was named after Oliver Cromwell[5] and, as well as "The Junction", the town was previously known as "The Point" and "Kawarau".

Cromwell is nicknamed the "Fruit Bowl of the South".

Climate[edit]

Cromwell receives around 400 mm of rain a year due to its inland location. Although it is widely believed to have a continental climate, the town officially has an oceanic climate (Cfb) with rainfall just enough to escape the semi-arid climate (Bsk) classification.

Climate data for Cromwell
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 24.4
(75.9)
24.2
(75.6)
21.3
(70.3)
17.3
(63.1)
12.7
(54.9)
8.7
(47.7)
8.0
(46.4)
11.4
(52.5)
15
(59)
17.6
(63.7)
20.3
(68.5)
22.5
(72.5)
17.0
(62.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.7
(63.9)
17.3
(63.1)
14.6
(58.3)
10.8
(51.4)
7.2
(45.0)
4.1
(39.4)
3.2
(37.8)
5.6
(42.1)
8.9
(48.0)
11.3
(52.3)
13.7
(56.7)
16.1
(61.0)
10.9
(51.6)
Average low °C (°F) 11
(52)
10.4
(50.7)
7.9
(46.2)
4.2
(39.6)
1.7
(35.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
−1.5
(29.3)
−0.2
(31.6)
2.8
(37.0)
5.0
(41.0)
7.1
(44.8)
9.7
(49.5)
4.8
(40.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48
(1.9)
41
(1.6)
38
(1.5)
38
(1.5)
28
(1.1)
25
(1)
23
(0.9)
20
(0.8)
28
(1.1)
36
(1.4)
30
(1.2)
36
(1.4)
390
(15.4)
Source: NIWA [6]

Demography[edit]

Cromwell is described by Statistics New Zealand as a small urban area, and covers 15.63 km2 (6.03 sq mi)[1] and had an estimated population of 6,640 as of June 2021,[2] with a population density of 425 people per km2.

Historical population for Cromwell
YearPop.±% p.a.
20063,747—    
20134,341+2.12%
20185,610+5.26%
Source: [7]

Cromwell had a population of 5,610 at the 2018 New Zealand census, an increase of 1,269 people (29.2%) since the 2013 census, and an increase of 1,863 people (49.7%) since the 2006 census. There were 2,109 households. There were 2,898 males and 2,709 females, giving a sex ratio of 1.07 males per female, with 1,041 people (18.6%) aged under 15 years, 912 (16.3%) aged 15 to 29, 2,604 (46.4%) aged 30 to 64, and 1,053 (18.8%) aged 65 or older.

Ethnicities were 90.1% European/Pākehā, 9.1% Māori, 2.0% Pacific peoples, 3.9% Asian, and 2.5% other ethnicities (totals add to more than 100% since people could identify with multiple ethnicities).

The proportion of people born overseas was 16.8%, compared with 27.1% nationally.

Although some people objected to giving their religion, 56.3% had no religion, 35.7% were Christian, 0.2% were Hindu, 0.2% were Muslim, 0.5% were Buddhist and 2.0% had other religions.

Of those at least 15 years old, 666 (14.6%) people had a bachelor or higher degree, and 852 (18.6%) people had no formal qualifications. 747 people (16.3%) earned over $70,000 compared to 17.2% nationally. The employment status of those at least 15 was that 2,730 (59.8%) people were employed full-time, 663 (14.5%) were part-time, and 75 (1.6%) were unemployed.[7]

Individual statistical areas
Name Area (km2) Population Density (per km2) Households Median age Median income
Cromwell West 12.03 3,048 253 1,116 39.0 years $36,700[8]
Cromwell East 3.59 2,562 714 993 41.7 years $38,500[9]
New Zealand 37.4 years $31,800

Lindis-Nevis Valleys[edit]

The statistical area of Lindis-Nevis Valleys, which includes Bannockburn and Pisa Moorings, surrounds but does not include Cromwell. It covers 2,884.60 km2 (1,113.75 sq mi)[1] and had an estimated population of 3,210 as of June 2021,[10] with a population density of 1.1 people per km2.

Historical population for Lindis-Nevis Valleys
YearPop.±% p.a.
20061,149—    
20131,677+5.55%
20182,391+7.35%
Source: [11]

Lindis-Nevis Valleys had a population of 2,391 at the 2018 New Zealand census, an increase of 714 people (42.6%) since the 2013 census, and an increase of 1,242 people (108.1%) since the 2006 census. There were 963 households. There were 1,215 males and 1,173 females, giving a sex ratio of 1.04 males per female. The median age was 46.5 years (compared with 37.4 years nationally), with 387 people (16.2%) aged under 15 years, 330 (13.8%) aged 15 to 29, 1,224 (51.2%) aged 30 to 64, and 447 (18.7%) aged 65 or older.

Ethnicities were 95.1% European/Pākehā, 5.6% Māori, 1.4% Pacific peoples, 1.3% Asian, and 2.0% other ethnicities (totals add to more than 100% since people could identify with multiple ethnicities).

The proportion of people born overseas was 16.6%, compared with 27.1% nationally.

Although some people objected to giving their religion, 59.8% had no religion, 30.7% were Christian, 0.4% were Hindu, 0.4% were Buddhist and 1.6% had other religions.

Of those at least 15 years old, 468 (23.4%) people had a bachelor or higher degree, and 288 (14.4%) people had no formal qualifications. The median income was $40,400, compared with $31,800 nationally. 429 people (21.4%) earned over $70,000 compared to 17.2% nationally. The employment status of those at least 15 was that 1,188 (59.3%) people were employed full-time, 321 (16.0%) were part-time, and 33 (1.6%) were unemployed.[11]

Cromwell mayors[edit]

Former mayors of the Borough of Cromwell were as follows

  • WJ Barry 1866–1868
  • W Whetter 1868–1869
  • GW Goodger 1869–1870
  • W Smitham 1870–1871
  • JD Taylor 1871–1872
  • M Fraer 1872–1873
  • J Dawkins 1873–1874
  • DA Jolly 1874–1877
  • SN Brown 1877–1878
  • C Colclough 1878–1881
  • M Behrens 1881–1883
  • J Marsh 1883–1885
  • SH Turton 1885–1889
  • T McCracken 1889–1891
  • DA Jolly 1891–1892
  • JL Scott 1892–1895
  • T Rooney 1895–1897
  • K Pretsch 1897–1899
  • E Murrell 1899–1905
  • J Little 1905–1909
  • E Murrell 1905–1913
  • E Jolly 1913–1915
  • AM Brodrick 1915–1921
  • DC Jolly 1921–1927
  • CC Sanders 1927–1929
  • CWJ Roberts 1929–1937
  • JC Parcell 1937–1943
  • RE Austin 1943–1944
  • W Partridge 1944–1950
  • James Robert Munro 1950–1951
  • FG Dunn 1951–1956
  • LR Skinner 1956–1958
  • LA Jelley 1958–1960
  • IG Anderson 1960–1980
  • PJ Mead 1980–1986
  • DA Butcher 1986–1989

Historic places[edit]

Bannockburn Bridge[edit]

The sign on the south side was reconstructed from the original suspension bridge's pillars.

Cromwell Station Yard Plan

Bannockburn[edit]

An historic town which was once the centre of a thriving and successful gold mining industry. Remnants include the hotel, Post Office, Stewart's store, and many old dwellings. Now a restful area centred on viticulture and agriculture.

The Bannockburn Sluicings[edit]

Walk through an incredible landscape changed by hand in the pursuit of gold. The round trip is full of history and interest.

Bendigo Goldfields[edit]

Bendigo was a successful quartz mining area for over half a century. From the site of the old Bendigo township at the top of the Bendigo Loop Road a steep, narrow vehicle track winds up into the hills to Logantown and even further up to Welshtown, where some of the most striking remains of old stone cottages can be found.

Carrick Goldfields[edit]

The ruins of Carricktown are 4 km up a 4WD track from the old mining area of Quartzville (near the end of Quartzville Road), and the Young Australian 6m overshot water-wheel can be found a further 3 km on. The track continues up to Duffer's Saddle. Return down Nevis Road to Bannockburn.

Cromwell Gorge[edit]

Hartley and Reilly first discovered gold at the beginning of this rugged and spectacular gorge.

Old Cromwell Town[edit]

Old Cromwell Town's historic street (Melmore Terrace), 2014

The construction of the Clyde Dam created Lake Dunstan, which consumed part of the old Cromwell town. The deep river gorge, famed for its picturesque beauty, lined with orchards and vineyards, and especially the meeting point of two distinct rivers, was reformed with an artificially constructed shoreline. Though the original orchards were lost, Cromwell's climate has allowed it to maintain its reputation for wine and fruit production.

Education[edit]

The first school in Cromwell opened in 1865, but its roll outstripped its capacity and it was replaced in 1874. Another school opened in 1915 with a secondary section in 1924. Cromwell District High School opened in 1929,[12] and became Cromwell College in 1978 when it changed to accept year 7 and 8 students.[13]

Cromwell Primary School is a co-educational state primary school for Year 1 to 6 students,[14][15] with a roll of 359 as of July 2022.[16]

Goldfields School is a co-educational state primary school for Year 1 to 6 students,[17][18] with a roll of 300.[19]

Cromwell College is a co-educational state secondary school for Year 7 to 13 students,[20][21] with a roll of 558.[22]

Otago Polytechnic has a campus in Cromwell specialising in horticulture, catering and tourism. Its crop centre provides advisory services to horticulturalists on commercially viable new crops.[23]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c "ArcGIS Web Application". statsnz.maps.arcgis.com. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Subnational population estimates (RC, SA2), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996-2021 (2021 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 22 October 2021. (regional councils); "Subnational population estimates (TA, SA2), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996-2021 (2021 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 22 October 2021. (territorial authorities); "Subnational population estimates (urban rural), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996-2021 (2021 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 22 October 2021. (urban areas)
  3. ^ Cook, Marjorie (11 February 2009). "Revealed: New Zealand's furthest inland point". Otago Daily times.
  4. ^ Griffiths, George. "Fenwick, George". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  5. ^ Discover New Zealand - A Wises Guide (9th ed.). Wises Publications. 1994. p. 441.
  6. ^ "Welcome to the Climate Database". NIWA. 2014. Retrieved on 22 March 2015.
  7. ^ a b "Statistical area 1 dataset for 2018 Census". Statistics New Zealand. March 2020. Cromwell West (344900) and Cromwell East (345000).
  8. ^ 2018 Census place summary: Cromwell West
  9. ^ 2018 Census place summary: Cromwell East
  10. ^ "Population estimate tables - NZ.Stat". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
  11. ^ a b "Statistical area 1 dataset for 2018 Census". Statistics New Zealand. March 2020. Lindis-Nevis Valleys (344800). 2018 Census place summary: Lindis-Nevis Valleys
  12. ^ "After Sixty-Five Years". Cromwell Argus. 27 January 1930.
  13. ^ "Our School". Cromwell College. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  14. ^ "Cromwell Primary School Official School Website". cromprimary.school.nz.
  15. ^ "Cromwell Primary School Ministry of Education School Profile". educationcounts.govt.nz. Ministry of Education.
  16. ^ "Cromwell Primary School Education Review Office Report". ero.govt.nz. Education Review Office.
  17. ^ "Goldfields School Official School Website". goldfields.school.nz.
  18. ^ "Goldfields School Ministry of Education School Profile". educationcounts.govt.nz. Ministry of Education.
  19. ^ "Goldfields School Education Review Office Report". ero.govt.nz. Education Review Office.
  20. ^ "Cromwell College Official School Website". cromwell.school.nz.
  21. ^ "Cromwell College Ministry of Education School Profile". educationcounts.govt.nz. Ministry of Education.
  22. ^ "Cromwell College Education Review Office Report". ero.govt.nz. Education Review Office.
  23. ^ "Central Campus". op.ac.nz. Otago Polytechnic.
Sources

External links[edit]