Cropping (animal)

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Boxers, showing natural and cropped ears
A Doberman Pinscher puppy with its ears taped to train them into the desired shape and carriage after cropping

Cropping is the removal of part or all of the external flaps of an animal's ear. The procedure sometimes involves bracing and taping the remainder of the ears to train them to point upright. Almost exclusively performed on dogs, it is an old practice that was once done for perceived health, practical or cosmetic reasons. Veterinary science states there is no medical or physical advantage to the animal from the procedure,[1][2] leading to concerns of animal cruelty over performing unnecessary surgery on animals. In modern times, cropping is banned in many nations, but is still legal in a limited number of countries. Where permitted, it is seen only in certain breeds of dog, such as the Pit bull, Doberman Pinscher, Schnauzer, Great Dane, Boxer and Cane Corso.

History and purposes[edit]

In 2000, veterinarian Bruce Fogle wrote:

"[D]ogs have their ears partly amputated — 'cropped' is the benign word people like to use — for no other reason than to make them look fierce. This is primarily a German tradition, born out of the military origins and uses of breeds like Great Danes, Boxers, Doberman Pinschers, and Schnauzers. This mutilitation — I am sorry to be so blunt, but that is what cropping is — is banned in its country of origin, and in most other FCI countries. North America remains the only significant region in the world where ear and tail amputations are still routinely performed. There is no medical or work-related justification for these procedures to be performed on pet dogs. Many dedicated, dog-loving veterinarians will no longer carry out these alterations."[3]

Traditional cropping[edit]

Historically, cropping was performed on working dogs in order to decrease the risk of health complications, such as ear infections or hematomas. Crops were also performed on dogs that might need to fight, either while hunting animals that might fight back or while defending livestock herds from predators, or because they were used for pit-fighting sports such as dogfighting or bear-baiting.[4][5] The ears were an easy target for an opposing animal to grab or tear.[4]

Cropping the ears of livestock guardian dogs was, and may still be, traditional in some pastoral cultures. The ears of working flock-defense dogs such as the Caucasian Shepherd Dog (Kavkazskaïa Ovtcharka)[6] and the Pastore Maremmano-Abruzzese were traditionally cropped to reduce the possibility of wolves or opponent-dogs getting a grip on them.[7]

According to one description, cropping was carried out when puppies were weaned, at about six weeks. It was performed by an older or expert shepherd, using the ordinary blade shears used for shearing, well sharpened. The ears were cut either to a point like those of a fox, or rounded like those of a bear. The removed auricles were first grilled[8] given to the puppy to eat, in the belief that it would make him more "sour".[7] An alternative method was to remove the ears from newborn puppies by twisting them off; however, this left almost no external ear on the dog.[7] Both ear-cropping and the use of spiked collars were described more than three hundred years ago, as a defense against wolves.[9]

Dogs may have their ears cropped, legally or not, for participation in dogfights, themselves illegal in many jurisdictions.[10][11]

The procedure[edit]

The veterinary procedure is known as "cosmetic otoplasty",[1] and involves the removal of a portion of the pinnae, the external flap of the ear. Cropping is usually performed on puppies at 7 to 12 weeks of age.[12] After 16 weeks, the procedure is more painful and the animal has greater pain memory.[4] Usually up to ⅔ of the ear flap is removed in a cropping operation, and the wound edges are closed with stitches. The ears are then bandaged. Long crops are taped until they heal into the proper shape.[12] The procedure is recommended to be undertaken under general anaesthesia; opponents' primary concerns revolve around post-operative pain.[13]

American veterinary schools do not generally teach cropping (or docking), and thus veterinarians who perform the practice have to learn on the job. There are also problems with amateurs performing ear-cropping, particularly at puppy mills.[14]

In the last 100 years or so, ear cropping has been performed more often for cosmetic purposes.[5][15] In nations and states where it remains legal, it is usually practiced because it is required as part of a breed standard for exhibition at dog shows.[15] In the US, although tail-docking, dewclaw removal, and neutering procedures remain common, ear-cropping is declining, except within the dog show industry.[15] Some show ring competitors state they would discontinue the practice altogether if they could still "win in the ring."[16]

Examples of cropping styles[edit]

Animal welfare and law[edit]

The practice is illegal across most of Europe, including all countries that have ratified the European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals, and most member countries of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale.[3] It is illegal in regions of Spain and in some Canadian provinces.[15] The situation in Italy is unclear; the ban effective 14 January 2007 may no longer be in force.[17]

Ear-cropping is still widely practiced in the United States and parts of Canada, with approximately 130,000 puppies in the United States thought to have their ears cropped each year.[18] The American and Canadian Kennel Clubs both permit the practice.[15] The American Kennel Club (AKC) position is that ear cropping and tail docking are "acceptable practices integral to defining and preserving breed character and/or enhancing good health."[19] While some individual states have attempted to ban ear-cropping,[20] there is strong opposition from some dog breed organizations, who cite health concerns and tradition.[21]

The American Veterinary Medical Association "opposes ear cropping and tail docking of dogs when done solely for cosmetic purposes" and "encourages the elimination of ear cropping and tail docking from breed standards".[22]

In 2009, veterinary chain Banfield Pet Hospital announced they would no longer do tail docking, ear cropping or devocalization on dogs.[16]

While it has been suggested the cropping may interfere with a dog's ability to communicate using ear signals, some also argue that cropping increases a dog's ability to communicate with ear signals. There has been no scientific comparative study of ear communication in cropped and uncropped dogs.[23]

Legal status by country[edit]

Country Status Ban/restriction date (if applicable)
Australia Banned [24]
Austria Banned[25] 1 January 2005
Belgium Banned[25] 1 January 2006
Bosnia and Herzegovina Banned, except tail-docking[26]
Brazil Banned for cosmetic purposes[25]
Bulgaria Banned[27] 1 February 2005
Canada Canada has no federal law banning pet cosmetic surgery. The Canadian Veterinary Medical Association opposes all cosmetic alterations.[28] Two provinces have provincial legislation prohibiting ear cropping, tail docking, and most cosmetic surgeries: Prince Edward Island (☨1)[29] and Newfoundland and Labrador (☨2).

Three provinces' veterinary associations ban all veterinarians from performing cosmetic surgeries on pets: New Brunswick (☨3),[25] Nova Scotia (☨4),[30] and Quebec[31] (☨5)

Three provincial veterinary associations have bans on ear cropping alone: Manitoba (☨6),[32] British Columbia (☨7),[33][34] and Saskatchewan (☨8).[35]

☨1: 10 July 2015

☨2: 1978
☨3: 15 October 2008
☨4: 1 April 2010
☨5: 1 January 2017
☨6: 3 February 2012
☨7: 2015
☨8: 2013

Croatia Banned[25] 2007[36]
Cyprus Banned[25] 1993
Czech Republic Banned[27] 1 April 1999
Denmark Banned[24] 1 June 1996
England Banned[37] 1899
Estonia Banned[25] 2001
Finland Banned[38] 1 July 1996
France Banned, except tail-docking[39] 1 January 2010
Germany Banned[27] 1 May 1992
Greece Banned[25] 27 February 1992
Hungary Banned[25]
Iceland Banned[25] 2001
India Previously restricted, currently unrestricted [40]
Ireland Banned[citation needed]
Israel Banned[41] 2000
Italy Banned[27] 1 November 2011
Latvia Banned[25]
Lithuania Banned[25]
Luxembourg Banned[27] 1 May 1992
Netherlands Banned[25] 1 September 2001
New Zealand Banned[24] 2004
Northern Ireland Banned[25] 2011
Norway Banned[24] 1987
Poland Banned[25] 1997
Portugal Banned[27] 1 January 1994
Romania Banned[25] 2008
Russia Restricted[citation needed]
Scotland Banned[25][37] 1899
Serbia Banned[42] 2019
Slovakia Banned[25] 1 January 2003
Slovenia Banned[43] April 2007
South Africa Banned[25] June 2008
Spain Banned in autonomies of Catalonia and Andalucia[25]
Sweden Banned[44] 1989
Switzerland[25] Banned 1997
Turkey Banned[45] 2004
United States Unrestricted (some states, including New York[20] and Vermont, have considered bills to make the practice illegal) 2003
Virgin Islands Banned[25] 2005
Wales Banned[25][37] 1899

Non-canine animals[edit]

Cropping of large portions of the pinnae of other animals is rare, although the clipping of identifying shapes in the pinnae of livestock, called earmarks, was common prior to the introduction of compulsory ear tags.[46] Removal of portions of the ear of laboratory mice for identification, i.e. ear-notching, is still used. The practice of cropping for cosmetic purposes is rare in non-canines, although some selectively bred animals have naturally small ears which can be mistaken for cropping.[note 1]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Some animals, such as the Lamancha goat, have ears which are naturally small as the result of selective breeding, and some people mistakenly believe their ears to be cropped.[47][48] In other animals, small ears may result from a genetic mutation or the emergence of a genetically recessive trait, such as in Highland cattle, where the appearance of small ears, appearing to have their pinnae cropped, is viewed as a defect.[49]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Slatter, Douglas H. (2002) Textbook of small animal surgery 3rd edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders (imprint of Elsevier Health Sciences), 2896 pages, ISBN 978-0-7216-8607-3, p.1746
  2. ^ "Ear Cropping: Is it right for your dog?". Pet MD.
  3. ^ a b Fogle, Bruce (2000). KISS Guide to Living with a Dog. Dorling-Kindersley. p. 66. ISBN 0789459760.
  4. ^ a b c Dead link
    Sunny De Young (possibly others). "Ear cropping: Correct or cruel?". BriarLeaBouvier (blog). Glenwood City, WI: Briarlea Bouvier Kennel. Retrieved 19 September 2021.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
    possible duplicate page
    Martin, William M., DVM. "Ear cropping: Correct or cruel?". Ears by Dr. Bill. Flat Rock, NC: Brevard Animal Hospital (W.M. Martin, DVM). Retrieved 19 September 2021. Today, ear-cropping is a cosmetic surgery, pure and simple.
    possibly an equivalent page, and better-documented topic-authority
    Pagán, Camille Noe (3 February 2014). Flowers, Amy, DVM (ed.). "Ear cropping and tail docking". Web MD (pets). Retrieved 19 September 2021.CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  5. ^ a b Murgai, R.P., Major (1996). Handbook on Dogs. New Delhi, IN: New Age International. p. 46.
  6. ^ Samsonova, Anna (2 February 2011). "Caucasian Shepherd Dog (Kavkazskaïa Ovtcharka)". Fédération Cynologique Internationale. FCI-Standard nr. 328. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  7. ^ a b c Breber, Paolo (1983). "The Maremmano-Abruzzese shepherd dog". Il Cane da Pastore Maremmano-Abruzzese [The Maremmano-Abruzzese Shepherd Dogs] (in Italian) (2nd ed.). Olimpia: Firenze. pp. 98–99.
  8. ^ MacDonell,, Anne (1907). In the Abruzzi. Atkinson, Amy (illustrator). New York, NY: F.A. Stokes. p. 18.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  9. ^ de la Fontaine, Jean (1862) [1678]. "Fable 9". The Fables of la Fontaine. Translated by Wright, Elizur (English ed.). London, UK: Miller. Book X p 74. translated in verse from the French
  10. ^ Curtis, Patricia (2002). City Dog: Choosing and living well with a dog in town. New York, NY: Lantern Books. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-59056-000-6.
  11. ^ Robert, Thayer Sataloff; Sataloff, Joseph (2006). Occupational Hearing Loss (3rd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 590. ISBN 9781420015478.
  12. ^ a b Practice of Dogs Ear cropping Archived 2011-09-25 at the Wayback Machine [sic] Doggie's Paradise. Accessed September 2011
  13. ^ https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/LiteratureReviews/Documents/dogs_ear_cropping_bgnd.pdf
  14. ^ Broughton, Amy L (2003). "Cropping and Docking: A Discussion of the Controversy and the Role of Law in Preventing Unnecessary Cosmetic Surgery on Dogs | Animal Legal & Historical Center". Michigan State University College of Law.
  15. ^ a b c d e Ear cropping and tail docking Archived 2011-09-09 at the Wayback Machine The Canadian Federation of Humane Societies/Fédération des sociétés canadiennes d'assistance aux animaux (CFHS/FSCAA). Accessed September 2011.
  16. ^ a b Weise, Elizabeth (30 July 2011). "Banfield pet hospitals ban tail docking, ear cropping on dogs - USATODAY.com". USA Today. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012.
  17. ^ Cani pericolosi, l'ordinanza della Turco "Stop al taglio di orecchie e coda" (in Italian) La Repubblica, 15 January 2007. Accessed September 2011. "Dangerous dogs, the ordinance of Turco: 'stop the cutting of ears and tails' "
  18. ^ "Cropping and Docking: A Discussion of the Controversy and the Role of Law in Preventing Unnecessary Cosmetic Surgery on Dogs". Animallaw.info. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
  19. ^ Ear Cropping, Tail Docking and Dewclaw Removal Archived 2011-09-03 at the Wayback Machine American Kennel Club Canine Legislation Position Statements
  20. ^ a b "NEW CALL TO ACTION FOR AMENDED NY STATE CROP/DOCK BILL". American Kennel Club. 9 June 2006. Archived from the original on 18 June 2006. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
  21. ^ Abraham, S. (1993). "Sad lesson learned" (PDF). American Kennel Club Gazette, American Boxer Club. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  22. ^ "Ear cropping and tail docking of dogs". American Veterinary Medical Association. Archived from the original on 20 May 2020.
  23. ^ Coren, Stanley (2001) How to speak dog: mastering the art of dog-human communication New York: Simon & Schuster ISBN 978-0-7432-0297-8 chap. 9 [pages unnumbered]
  24. ^ a b c d "Ear cropping and tail docking". Canadian Federation of Humane Societies. Archived from the original on 9 September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Υπουργείο Αγροτικής Ανάπτυξης και Τροφίμων | Δικτυακός Τόπος Διαβουλεύσεων" [Website consultation]. Ministry of Rural Development and Food, Athens, Greece (in Greek). April 2011.
  26. ^ "Zakon o zaštiti i dobrobiti životinja" (in Bosnian). Article 12. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  27. ^ a b c d e f "Chart of signatures and ratifications of Treaty 125 - European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals". Treaty Office. 14 October 2020.
  28. ^ "CVMA | Documents | Cosmetic Alteration – Position Statement". www.canadianveterinarians.net.
  29. ^ Cormier, Mitch (4 November 2015). "Animal Welfare Act outlaws animal ear cropping and tail docking". CBC News.
  30. ^ CBC News (March 25, 2010)N.S veterinarians ban tail docking Accessed February 10, 2012.
  31. ^ "Quebec's order of veterinarians bans pet cosmetic surgery". CBC News - Montreal. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). 6 February 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
  32. ^ "Ear cropping of dogs banned in Manitoba". CBC News. 10 February 2012.
  33. ^ "Cosmetic ear cropping banned by B.C. veterinarians". CBC New - British Columbia. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). 28 October 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
  34. ^ http://www.cvbc.ca/CVBC2/LatestNews/Veterinarians_Ban_Ear_Cropping.aspx[permanent dead link]
  35. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ "Rep sa sretnim završetkom". Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 11 January 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  37. ^ a b c Johnston, Beatrice L. (1970) For those who cannot speak: a history of the Canadian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 1869-1969 City of Laval, P.Q.: Dev-Sco Publications p.13
  38. ^ Oy, Edita Publishing. "FINLEX ® - Ajantasainen lainsäädäntö: Eläinsuojelulaki 247/1996 (Finnish Animal Protection Law)". finlex.fi (in Finnish).
  39. ^ "Sous-section 2 : Dispositions relatives aux animaux de compagnie (Articles R214-19-1 à R214-34) - Légifrance". www.legifrance.gouv.fr (in French).
  40. ^ Now, you can dock dogs' tail
  41. ^ "A review of the scientific aspects and veterinary opinions relating to tail docking in dogs" (PDF). defra.gov.uk. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2007.
  42. ^ "ZAKON O DOBROBITI ŽIVOTINJA". Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  43. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Slovene Animal Protection Act (in Slovene)
  44. ^ "Djurskyddsbestämmelser - Hund" (PDF). Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  45. ^ "5199 Animal Protection Law - Article 8". Laws , Regulations in Turkey. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  46. ^ Lexique Camarguais Archived 2011-10-15 at the Wayback Machine (in French) Manade Devaux. "Lexicon of Camargue terms" Accessed September 2011
  47. ^ Woods, Dale L.; Hendrickson, Pat (1978), The American Lamancha, and its Ears., Dairy Goat Journal, archived from the original on 24 September 2010, retrieved 20 September 2011
  48. ^ "What did you do to its ears?". www.goats4h.com.
  49. ^ Crop Ear. what does it look like? Archived 2011-08-16 at the Wayback Machine Cruachan Highland Cattle. Accessed September 2011.

External links[edit]