Cross-State Air Pollution Rule

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The Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) is a ruling by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that requires member states of the United States to reduce power plant emissions that contribute to ozone and/or fine particle pollution in other states.[1][2] The EPA describes this rule as one that "protects the health of millions of Americans by helping states reduce air pollution and attain clean air standards."[1]


The CSAPR requires 23 United States states to reduce their annual emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx) to help downwind states attain the 24-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and 25 states to reduce ozone season nitrous oxide emissions to help downwind states attain the 8-hour NAAQS.[2]

The states that are required to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions are divided into two groups, both of which must reduce their emissions in 2012. Group 1 is required to make additional emissions reductions by 2014.[2]


Date Event
July 6, 2011 The EPA finalized the rule, replacing the EPA's earlier Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) from 2005.[1]
December 15, 2011 The EPA finalized a supplemental rulemaking to require five states - Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin - to make summertime NOx reductions under the CSAPR ozone season control program.[1]
February 7, 2012 The EPA issued a minor adjustment to the rule.[1]
June 5, 2012 The EPA issued another minor adjustment to the rule.[1]
August 21, 2012 A D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals overturned the CSAPR.[3][4][5]
April 29, 2014 The United States Supreme Court reversed the decision of the D. C. Circuit Court of Appeals.[5][6][7][8]
June 26, 2014 The United States federal government files its motion with the D. C. Circuit Court of Appeals to lift its stay. Until the motion is decided, the earlier law (CAIR) remains in effect.[5]
October 23, 2014 The U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit ordered that EPA's motion to lift the stay of the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule be granted. CSAPR Phase I implementation is now scheduled for 2015.[9]


The CSAPR has been defended by environmental groups such as the Environmental Defense Fund,[10] progressive think tanks such as ThinkProgress,[11] and publications such as the Huffington Post.[12]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "Cross-State Air Pollution Rule". United States Environmental Protection Agency.
  2. ^ a b c "Basic Information, Cross-State Air Pollution Rule". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  3. ^ Wald, Matthew L. (August 21, 2012). "Court Blocks E.P.A. Rule on Cross-State Pollution". New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  4. ^ Dolan, Ed (August 27, 2012). "Court Rejects EPA Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Where to Next?". EconoMonitor. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  5. ^ a b c "Bulletin: Cross-State Air Pollution Rule". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  6. ^ "Supreme Court Decision: EPA vs EME Homer City Generation" (PDF). United States Supreme Court. April 29, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  7. ^ Profeta, Tim (May 1, 2014). "Cross State Air Pollution Rule Reinstated by Supreme Court". Nat Geo News Watch. National Geographic Society. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  8. ^ Barron-Lopez, Laura (April 29, 2014). "Court upholds cross-state air pollution rule". The Hill. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Benefits of EPA Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Fact sheets of economic and health benefits by state". Environmental Defense Fund. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  11. ^ Atkin, Emily (December 9, 2013). "4 Reasons The Supreme Court Might Want To Uphold The EPA's Cross-State Air Pollution Rule". ThinkProgress. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  12. ^ "Cross State Air Pollution Rule (tag)". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 28, 2014.

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