Cross-border language

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A cross-border language or trans-border language is a language spoken by a population (ethnic group or nation) that lives in a geographical area in two or several internationally recognized countries that have common land or maritime borders. Cross-border languages are particularly common in Africa but are found on all other continents as well.

Examples include German (spoken in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and other neighbouring countries), Catalan (spoken in Spain, Andorra and elsewhere), Hungarian (spoken in most countries bordering Hungary) and Gaelic (spoken in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man).