From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
CrossFit, LLC
IndustryFitness, sports
Founded2000; 24 years ago (2000)
FounderGreg Glassman
Lauren Jenai
Area served

CrossFit is a branded fitness regimen that involves constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity.[1] The method was developed by Greg Glassman,[2] who founded CrossFit with Lauren Jenai in 2000,[3][4][5] with CrossFit its registered trademark.[6] The company forms what has been described as the biggest fitness chain in the world,[7][8] with around 12,000 affiliated gyms in over 150 countries as of 2022, under half of which are located in the United States.[9][10]

CrossFit is promoted as both a physical exercise philosophy and a competitive fitness sport, incorporating elements from high-intensity interval training, Olympic weightlifting, plyometrics, powerlifting, gymnastics, kettlebell lifting, calisthenics, strongman, and other exercises.[11] CrossFit presents its training program as one that can best prepare its trainees for any physical contingency, preparing them for what may be "unknown" and "unknowable".[12] It is practiced by members in CrossFit-affiliated gyms,[13] and by individuals who complete daily workouts (otherwise known as "WODs" or "Workouts of the Day").[14][15]

Studies indicate that CrossFit can have positive effects on a number of physical fitness parameters and body composition, as well as on the mental state and social life of its participants.[16][17][18] CrossFit, however, has been criticized for causing more injuries than other sporting activities such as weightlifting; although a review article in the Journal of Sports Rehabilitation found that "the risk of injury from participation in CrossFit is comparable to or lower than some common forms of exercise or strength training".[19] Its health benefits and injury rates are determined to be similar to other exercise programs.[20] There are also concerns that its methodology may cause exertional rhabdomyolysis, a possible life-threatening condition also found in other sports,[21][22][23] resulting from a breakdown of muscle from extreme exertion.[24][25]


Practicing American kettlebell swing

CrossFit, meaning cross-discipline fitness,[26] was first conceived as a company in 1996 as Cross-Fit.[27] Greg Glassman developed the rudiment of the training regimen starting when he was 16, combining elements of gymnastics, weightlifting, and calisthenics.[2] The first workout he created was called Fran that combined pull-ups and thrusters (a combination of front squat and push press).[28] Greg Glassman and Lauren Jenai incorporated CrossFit, Inc. in 2000.[29][30] They opened a gym in Santa Cruz, California in 2001 and posted their workouts on the Internet for their clients, and these workouts were then quickly adopted by individuals in the police, military, firefighting services. Those who used Glassman's internet postings expressed an interest in officially incorporating his workouts into their training regimen, and the first affiliated gym (known as 'box'), CrossFit North in Seattle, Washington, was then formed in 2002.[26] Glassman began to develop a curriculum to train and certify coaches and gym owners using his methodology.[26] Coaches associated with CrossFit include Louie Simmons, John Welbourn, and Bob Harper.

The number of CrossFit-affiliated gyms grew quickly: there were 13 gyms in 2005, 8,000 in 2013, and more than 13,000 in 2016.[31] By 2018, there were around 15,500 CrossFit gyms in 162 countries.[32][33] Its membership worldwide has been estimated to between two and five million.[34][35][36] However, the COVID-19 pandemic forced the closure of around 20% of its gyms (around 25% in the US),[26][37] and disaffiliations due to the Glassman controversy in 2020 further reduced the number of paid affiliations to 9,400 by early 2021. The number has since recovered to around 12,500 including non-paying affiliates (10,800 paying) by early 2022.[38] Strong growth was observed in Europe,[39] with France having the most CrossFit gyms outside of United States.[40]

Glassman obtained complete control over the company in 2012 after a divorce with Jenai, who tried to sell her share in the company to an outside party after the divorce settlement, but Glassman bought it with a $16 million loan from Summit Partners.[41]

On June 24, 2020, following the outcry after Glassman's comments regarding the murder of George Floyd it was announced that he was selling the company to Eric Roza, former CEO of Datalogix, in partnership with investment firm Berkshire Partners.[42] Roza assumed the role of CEO after the conclusion of the sale in July.[43] In late November, CrossFit announced a building lease for its Boulder headquarters.[44] At the end of 2020, CrossFit became an LLC.[citation needed]


A sergeant performing a broad jump during a training session at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar
Kipping pull-up

CrossFit is a strength, conditioning, and overall fitness program consisting mainly of a mix of aerobic exercise, calisthenics (bodyweight exercises), and Olympic weightlifting.[45] CrossFit, LLC describes its strength and conditioning program as "constantly varied functional movements executed at high intensity across broad time and modal domains."[46] CrossFit aims to develop fitness in what the company deems to be the ten components of physical fitness: cardiovascular/respiratory endurance, stamina, strength, flexibility, power, speed, coordination, agility, balance, accuracy.[47] Usually, the duration and content of each workout is not fixed.[48]

Hour-long classes at affiliated gyms, or "boxes," typically include a warm-up, a skill development segment, the high-intensity "Workout of the Day" (or WOD), and a period of individual or group stretching. Some gyms also often have a strength-focused movement prior to the WOD, though CrossFit encourages most athletes to prioritize intensity over supplemental strength training or additional programming. Performance on each WOD is often scored and/or ranked to encourage competition and to track individual progress. Some affiliates offer additional classes, such as Olympic weightlifting, which are not centered on a WOD.[49]

CrossFit gyms use equipment from multiple disciplines, including barbells, dumbbells, gymnastics rings, rope climbs, pull-up bars, jump ropes, kettlebells, medicine balls, plyo boxes,[50] resistance bands, rowing machines, and various mats. CrossFit is focused on "constantly varied high-intensity functional movement,"[51] drawing on categories and exercises such as calisthenics,[52] Olympic-style weightlifting, powerlifting, strongman-type events, plyometrics, bodyweight exercises, indoor rowing, aerobic exercise, running, and swimming.[53]

CrossFit programming is decentralized, but its general methodology is used by thousands of private affiliated gyms, fire departments, law-enforcement agencies, and military organizations, including the Royal Danish Life Guards,[54][55][56][57] as well as by some U.S. and Canadian high school physical education teachers, high school and college sports teams, and the Miami Marlins.[29][58][59]

A 2014 statistical analysis showed that 50% of CrossFit participants were male and 50% were female.[60] CrossFit's growing interest internationally has created a spike in Olympic weightlifting interest in the United States.[61][62]

Business model[edit]

There are three main revenue streams for CrossFit: affiliation, education, and sport. CrossFit licenses the CrossFit name to affiliated gyms for an annual fee.[63] The affiliation fee was set at US$3,000 a year from 2011,[64][65] and stayed unchanged until 2024 when it would be raised to $4,500.[66] However, the affiliation fee is waived for those in law enforcement, military service, prisons, schools and universities.[67] The affiliation model is distinct from a franchise, and CrossFit gyms have complete freedom in their operation once the requirements for affiliation have been met.[68] At its peak in 2018, there were over 15,000 CrossFit affiliates, including non-paying ones, in 162 countries.[32] There are over 11,000 paying affiliates as of 2024.[9]

CrossFit also provides training courses to certify trainers and gym owner.[63] The standard two-day "Level 1 Certificate Course," (L1) is a requirement for CrossFit gym owners.[69][70] The requirement was raised to Level 2 (L2) for 2024.[66] Level 3 Trainer examination and Level 4 Coach assessment are also available.[71] CrossFit also offers CrossFit Kids Course, and many online course offerings. During the COVID-19 pandemic, CrossFit also began offering an Online Level 1 Course.[citation needed] There were more than 35,000 accredited CrossFit trainers in 2013.[72]

As part of its services to the affiliates, CrossFit offers CrossFit Affiliate Programming (CAP) to gyms for free since 2023.[73] Affiliates may also follow CrossFit's nutrition recommendations, adopting a paleo, keto and/or zone diets, or counting macros.[74] Affiliates, however, may develop their own programming, pricing, and instructional methods. Many athletes and trainers see themselves as part of a contrarian, insurgent movement that questions conventional fitness wisdom.[75] Other specialized adaptations include programs for pregnant women, seniors, and military special operations candidates.[76] CrossFit makes use of a virtual community internet model.[77][78] Many independent companies have been set up to provide online services including training programs for CrossFit communities, such as Mayhem, Linchpin, HWPO, PRVN, CompTrain and GoWOD, while other companies supply equipment and apparel such as Rogue Fitness and NoBull.[79][80]

CrossFit also organizes the CrossFit Games and its qualifying rounds such the Open. Participants in the Open pay a registration fee to compete.[81] The total generated from all the revenue streams for CrossFit has been estimated to be around $100 million a year.[2][82]

CrossFit Games[edit]

The CrossFit Games, created and directed by Dave Castro until 2021, have been held every summer since 2007. Athletes at the Games compete in workouts they learn about only hours beforehand, sometimes including surprise elements that are not part of the typical CrossFit regimen. Past examples include a rough-water swim, a softball throw, and a pegboard climb.[83] The Games are styled as a venue for determining the "Fittest on Earth," where competitors should be "ready for anything."[84]

In 2011, the Games adopted an online qualification format, facilitating participation by athletes worldwide. During the five-week-long "CrossFit Open", one new workout is released each week. Athletes have several days to complete the workout and submit their scores online, with either a video or validation by a CrossFit affiliate. Since the Open is available to any level of athlete, many affiliates encourage member participations.[85] The Open has been described as the largest participatory sporting event in the world, and the number of worldwide participants reached 415,000 in 2018.[86][87]

From 2011 to 2018, the top CrossFit Open performers for individuals and teams in each region advance to the regional events, held over the following two months around the world. Each regional event qualifies a specified number of its top finishers to send to the Games. The Games include divisions for individuals of each gender, co-ed teams, and a number of Masters and Teenage age groups.[88]

For the 2019 Games, regionals were discontinued and individual athletes qualify by either being the national champion in the Open, finishing in the top 20 worldwide in the Open, winning a CrossFit-sanctioned event, or by invitation.[89] In 2020, due to COVID-19 pandemic the Games format was significantly altered for 2020 CrossFit Games: the competition was separated into two parts, with the first part consisting of an online contest for 60 athletes, with the top five male and female finishers qualified for the second part and they participated in-person in the final in Aromas, California.[90] The Games format returned to normal in 2021, but the qualification system was revamped; the participants qualified based on their continental regions, and a Quarterfinal stage was added between the Open and the Semifinals.[91]


There are four levels of CrossFit coach certification. To open a CrossFit affiliated gym, it originally only required a coach to be certified to level one.[92] In late 2023, the requirement for owners of affiliated gym was raised to level two.[66]

Level One (CF-L1) is the introduction level, where participants attend a group weekend class, talk about the basic methodology and fundamentals of CrossFit, and learn how to conduct their classes. They go over techniques and how to adjust them for those who cannot perform them. After completing the Level One training course, one should be confident in conducting a class, scale workouts accordingly for athletes, and hold CrossFit to its standards.[93]

In the second level, training goes deeper into the mechanics of the movements and how to be leaders and communicate with other students. In the Level Two course, participants learn about athletic capacity and are evaluated as a trainer in groups.[94]

To earn the Level Three certificate, a coach one must complete 1,500 hours of active fitness coaching and become CPR certified. To maintain the certification, Level 3 coaches must obtain 50 continuing education units every three years.[95] To earn the Level Four certificate, the highest level currently recognized by CrossFit, Inc., the coach must record several years as a Level Three and pass a test.[96]



The risk of injury associated with CrossFit training has been a controversial question since the program's popularity began to climb in the early 2000s.[30] Critics have accused CrossFit, Inc. of using dangerous movements and inappropriate levels of intensity, and allowing underqualified individuals to become CrossFit Trainers.[97][98][99][100]

In response to these criticisms, CrossFit, Inc. says, "CrossFit is relatively safe even when performed with poor technique, but it is safer and more effective when performed with good technique."[101] CrossFit, Inc. also says the risk of injury can be reduced by properly scaling and modifying workouts, a concept taught on its website and at the CrossFit Level 1 Trainer Course.[102][103]

CrossFit supports this position by citing three academic surveys of CrossFit participants. These surveys calculated injury rates between 2.4 and 3.1 injuries per 1000 hours of training, which CrossFit argues is consistent with or below injury rates found in "general fitness training."[104] An independent 2018 review of scientific literature also found that "injury rate with CrossFit was comparable to or lower than injury rates with Olympic weightlifting, distance running, military conditioning, track and field, rugby, or gymnastics." The review found that more men than women suffered from injuries in CrossFit, with injuries to the shoulders found to be more common (25%) than lower back (14.3%) and knee (13.1%), and injuries may occur in situations where supervision was not always available to athletes.[19]

Lawsuit by CrossFit, Inc. against the NSCA[edit]

A 2013 study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research entitled "Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition" followed 54 participants for ten weeks of CrossFit training. The study said that "...a notable percentage of our subjects (16%) did not complete the training program and return for follow-up testing." "The authors said "This may call into question the risk-benefit ratio for such extreme training programs..." Out of the "10 of the 11 participants who did not complete the study have provided their reasons for not finishing, with only 2 mentioning injury or health conditions that prevented them from completing follow-up testing."[105]

In 2014, CrossFit, Inc. filed a lawsuit against the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) for publishing this study, alleging the data was false and "intended to scare participants away from CrossFit."[106]

The NSCA denies CrossFit, Inc.'s allegations[106] but issued an erratum acknowledging that the injury data were incorrect.[107]

In September 2016, the District Court ruled in favor of CrossFit Inc.'s claims that the injury data were found to be false, but not that the NSCA was commercially motivated or that the publishing of the study was defamatory as the NSCA no longer stood behind the study.[108]

In February 2017, CrossFit filed for sanctions against the NSCA after one of the NSCA's witnesses admitted to falsifying statements during deposition.[109] In May 2017, the Court issued 17 issues sanctions against the NSCA, writing that the organization did have a commercial motive to falsify the data, had published the false data knowingly to disparage CrossFit, and had misled the public with their erratum.[109] CrossFit was awarded $74,000 in legal fees and allowed to continue investigating the NSCA. If the neutral-party analysis of the NSCA servers turns up any further misconduct, CrossFit may file an amended complaint for further sanctioning and compensation for lost revenue.[110]

In May 2019, CrossFit, Inc. contacted the Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine with a demand for the retraction of another paper, published in the journal earlier that month.[111] The paper states that CrossFit participants "are more likely to be injured and to seek medical treatment compared with participants in traditional weightlifting", a finding that CrossFit, Inc. claimed to be based on scientific errors and material from retracted or misrepresented studies.[112]

Exertional rhabdomyolysis[edit]

Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a condition that can affect athletes in many sports especially endurance sports such as marathon running, and athletes who perform high volumes of exercise movements involving eccentric contraction or intense exercises when in excessive fatigue, particularly when the exercises are performed in extremes of heat.[23][22] The relationship between CrossFit and exertional rhabdomyolysis has been a subject of controversy for the company. Some medical professionals have asserted that both the CrossFit methodology and the environment created by CrossFit trainers put athletes at high risk for developing rhabdomyolysis.[113][114][25]

A man successfully sued his uncertified CrossFit trainers and was awarded US$300,000 in damages,[115] after he suffered from rhabdomyolysis after performing a CrossFit workout on December 11, 2005, at Manassas World Gym in Manassas, Virginia, under the trainers' supervision.[116] CrossFit, Inc. was not listed as a defendant in the lawsuit.[115]

CrossFit, Inc. does not dispute that its methodology has the potential to cause rhabdomyolysis.[117] The company states that exertional rhabdomyolysis can be found in a wide variety of sports and training populations and argues that its critics have conflated CrossFit's high awareness of rhabdomyolysis with high risk.[25][118] One CrossFit spokesman stated that "ESPN's report on the 53 deaths in US triathlons from 2007 to 2013 should have put the issue to rest."[118]

Since May 2005, CrossFit, Inc. has published several articles about rhabdomyolysis in the company's CrossFit Journal.[119][120][121][122] Three of the articles are included in the CrossFit Manual provided to all prospective trainers.[123]

CrossFit, Inc. has also been criticized for having a "cavalier"[124] attitude towards rhabdomyolysis by promoting a character known as "Uncle Rhabdo" (a cartoon clown dying dramatically—hooked up to a dialysis machine, with his kidneys and intestines falling on the floor).[120] In response to this criticism, Greg Glassman stated, "We introduced (Uncle) Rhabdo because we're honest and believe that full disclosure of risk is the only ethical thing to do."[118]

Social media controversies[edit]

CrossFit, Inc. has been variously criticized and praised for its unorthodox approach to social media.[125][126][127] This approach has included publishing articles and tweets about non-fitness topics (including politics, philosophy, and poetry)[128][129] as well as directly interacting with other social media users and critics of the company's program.[2]

On June 4, 2014, CrossFit uploaded a parody video to their Facebook page of Jesus, featuring concepts such as the "Holy Trinity of exercise".[130] Yasmine Hafiz wrote in The Huffington Post that some "viewers are outraged at the disrespectful use of a Christian symbol", with one user asking "on what planet is it comical or encouraged to mock someones belief?"[131][130]

In June 2018, CrossFit fired its chief knowledge officer, Russell Berger, after Berger wrote about the LGBT community on Twitter. Berger's tweet followed the closure of a CrossFit location in Indianapolis due to the backlash it faced after canceling a special LGBT Pride Month workout. Berger wrote on Twitter "As someone who personally believes celebrating 'pride' is a sin, I'd like to personally encourage #CrossFitInfiltrate for standing by their convictions and refusing to host an @indypride workout. The intolerance of the LGBTQ ideology toward any alternative views is mind-blowing." The tweet triggered angry responses denouncing Berger as a bigot and pressuring CEO Glassman for him to be fired; Berger was first placed on unpaid leave, but was later fired by Glassman, who publicly condemned Berger.[132]

In May 2019, CrossFit shuttered its Facebook and Instagram accounts, which had 3.1 million and 2.8 million followers respectively.[133][134] On the company's homepage, the announcement stated that CrossFit was concerned about user privacy and security in the wake of "well-known public complaints about the social-media company that may adversely impact the security and privacy of our global CrossFit community." The company also cited theft of intellectual property and Facebook's collusion with "food and beverage industry interests" as reasons for deactivating its social media accounts.[134]

On June 6, 2020, the founder of CrossFit Greg Glassman tweeted, "It's: FLOYD-19" in response to a tweet from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington that states, "racism and discrimination are critical public health issues that demand an urgent response."[135] Glassman's tweet was widely panned; many CrossFit-affiliated gyms around the world responded by ending their affiliation, and Reebok also announced that they would end their corporate association.[136] Glassman also hosted a criticized Zoom call with CrossFit gym owners where he propounded conspiracy theories about COVID-19 and claimed that George Floyd had been killed as part of an elaborate cover-up of counterfeiting unrelated to racism.[137] On June 9, 2020, Glassman resigned as CEO[138][139] then two weeks later announced he had put the company up for sale.[140]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Glassman, Greg. "Understanding CrossFit". CrossFit Journal.
  2. ^ a b c d Bowles, Nellie (September 8, 2015). "Exclusive: On the Warpath with CrossFit's Greg Glassman". Maxim. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  3. ^ Soifer, Jason. "Co-founder of CrossFit workout program opens gym in Prescott". The Daily Courier. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  4. ^ Glassman, Greg. "Nutrition Lecture Part 2: Optimizing Performance". Crossfit, Inc. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  5. ^ "CrossFit, Inc: Private Company Information - Businessweek". Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  6. ^ "CROSSFIT Trademark of CrossFit, Inc. - Registration Number 3007458 - Serial Number 78422177 :: Justia Trademarks". Retrieved 2016-01-25.
  7. ^ Henderson, Scott (October 23, 2018). "CrossFit's Explosive Affiliate Growth by the Numbers". Morning Chalk Up.
  8. ^ "How a health nut created the world's biggest fitness trend". CNBC. 5 April 2016.
  9. ^ a b "Official CrossFit Affiliate Gym Locator". Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  10. ^ "Guaranteed Rate Named the Official Mortgage Company of the NOBULL CrossFit Games". PRNewwire. May 13, 2022.
  11. ^ David Corianna (19 September 2019). "CrossFit: Workout, for women, exercises, & training for beginners". FactDr. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  12. ^ Glassman, Greg (April 2007). "Understanding CrossFit" (PDF). CrossFit Journal (56).
  13. ^ Friedman, Jon. "Success and the Bull's Eye". The CrossFit Journal. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
  14. ^ "CrossFit". CrossFit, Inc.
  15. ^ "CrossFit Affiliate Map". CrossFit, Inc.
  16. ^ Sebastian Wagener; Matthias Wilhelm Hoppe; Thilo Hotfiel; Martin Engelhardt; Sasha Javanmardi; Christian Baumgart; Jürgen Freiwald (September 2020). "CrossFit – Development, Benefits and Risks". Sportorthopa¨die-Sporttraumatologie. 36 (3): 241–249. doi:10.1016/j.orthtr.2020.07.001. PMC 7473349.
  17. ^ João Gustavo Claudino; Tim J Gabbett; Frank Bourgeois; Helton de Sá Souza; Rafael Chagas Miranda; Bruno Mezêncio; Rafael Soncin; Carlos Alberto Cardoso Filho; Martim Bottaro; Arnaldo Jose Hernandez; Alberto Carlos Amadio; Julio Cerca Serrão (December 2018). "CrossFit Overview: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Sports Med Open. 26 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/s40798-018-0124-5. PMC 5826907. PMID 29484512.
  18. ^ Gianzina, E.A.; Kassotaki, O.A. (2019). "The benefits and risks of the high-intensity CrossFit training". Sport Sci Health. 15: 21–33. doi:10.1007/s11332-018-0521-7. S2CID 57428207.
  19. ^ a b Chelsey Klimek; Christopher Ashbeck; Alexander J Brook; Chris Durall (May 1, 2018). "Are Injuries More Common With CrossFit Training Than Other Forms of Exercise?". Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 27 (3): 295–299. doi:10.1123/jsr.2016-0040. PMID 28253059.
  20. ^ Jena Meyer; Janet Morrison; Julie Zuniga (December 2017). "The Benefits and Risks of CrossFit: A Systematic Review". Workplace Health Saf. 65 (12): 612–618. doi:10.1177/2165079916685568. PMID 28363035.
  21. ^ Guilherme Henrique Mattos Dantas; Rodolfo de Alkmim Moreira Nunes; Rodrigo Gomes de Souza Vale (May 27, 2021). "Case reports of athletes affected by rhabdomyolysis: A systematic review". International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. 17 (1): 189–196. doi:10.1177/17479541211018597. S2CID 236347445.
  22. ^ a b Henrik C Bäcker; John T Richards; Arne Kienzle; John Cunningham; Karl F Braun (March 1, 2023). "Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in Athletes: Systematic Review and Current Perspectives". Clin J Sport Med. 33 (2): 187–194. doi:10.1097/JSM.0000000000001082. PMID 36877581. S2CID 257363163.
  23. ^ a b "Exertional Rhabdomyolysis; Pushing Muscle to the Limit". British Journal of Sport Medicine. June 24, 2021.
  24. ^ Benjamin S Hopkins; Daniel Li; Mark Svet; Kartik Kesavabhotla; Nader S Dahdaleh (July 2019). "CrossFit and rhabdomyolysis: A case series of 11 patients presenting at a single academic institution". J Sci Med Sport. 22 (7): 758–762. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2019.01.019. PMID 30846355.
  25. ^ a b c Weber, Vanessa (2013-09-26). "CrossFit: Can the Popular Extreme Workout Be Dangerous?". ABC News. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  26. ^ a b c d Hart, Matt (July 20, 2021). "Does CrossFit have a future". The New Yorker.
  27. ^ "Original 1996 CrossFit Founding". Scribd. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  28. ^ Spin, Brian (June 4, 2018). "Know Your History: The Story of Fran by Greg Glassman". The Barbell Spin.
  29. ^ a b Sanderlin, Rebekah. "Commando-style workout has cult following". Fayetteville Observer. Archived from the original on 2011-07-20.
  30. ^ a b Cooperman, Stephanie (December 22, 2005). "Getting Fit, Even if It Kills You". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  31. ^ "No Sign of CrossFit Boom Slowing Down - Athletic Business". Archived from the original on April 15, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  32. ^ a b Henderson, Scott (October 23, 2018). "CrossFit's Explosive Affiliate Growth by the Numbers". Morning Chalk Up.
  33. ^ Henderson, Scott (November 12, 2018). "CrossFit Affiliate Growth, Part 2: International Analysis". Morning Chalk Up.
  34. ^ Joe Recupero, Laurel Walzak, ed. (2020). Sport Media Vectors. Common Ground Research Networks. ISBN 978-1-86335-221-5 – via Google Books.
  35. ^ "How Many People Do CrossFit?". CrossFit Fortify.
  36. ^ Galic, Bojana (January 9, 2023). "81 CrossFit Statistics You Should Know".
  37. ^ Ewer, Brett (February 22, 2023). "Fitness is Essential". CrossFit.
  38. ^ Kalil, Lauren (January 9, 2022). "CrossFit Affiliates Increase By Nearly 1,400 in 2021, Home Office Plans to See Upward Curve Continue in 2022". Morning Chalk uUp.
  39. ^ Blennerhassett, Patrick (April 25, 2022). "Why is CrossFit Booming in Europe?". Morning Chalk Up.
  40. ^ Blennerhassett, Patrick (April 27, 2022). "France is Now CrossFit's Biggest Success Story Outside of the US". Morning Chalk Up.
  41. ^ "CrossFit wins court case, avoids corporate takeover". Vox Media. November 15, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  42. ^ Easter, Michael (February 1, 2021). "These Two Men Are on a Mission to Save CrossFit". Men's Health.
  43. ^ "Eric Roza, Boulder Gym Owner, Buying CrossFit After CEO Greg Glassman's Controversial Exit". CBS4 Denver. June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  44. ^ High |, Lucas (2020-11-24). "CrossFit leases space for new Boulder HQ". Boulder Daily Camera. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  45. ^ Hines, E. "Crossfit in Paris". Expatriates Magazine. EP. Archived from the original on 2013-10-16.
  46. ^ Glassman, Greg. "Understanding CrossFit" (PDF). The CrossFit Journal. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
  47. ^ "CrossFit Guide for Beginners (Must Know Before You Start)". Garage Gym Power. 2019-11-19. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
  48. ^ Crockett, Matt C.; Butryn, Ted (2018-06-01). "Chasing Rx: A Spatial Ethnography of the CrossFit Gym". Sociology of Sport Journal. 35 (2): 98–107. doi:10.1123/ssj.2017-0115. ISSN 0741-1235. S2CID 151686296.
  49. ^ "Prairie Crossfit". Prairie Crossfit.
  50. ^ Brigham, Lincoln (2006). "Crossfit journal: Plyo Boxes" (PDF). Crossfit. p. 4. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  51. ^ Glassman, Greg. "Understanding Crossfit". Crossfit. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  52. ^ "Calisthenics". 29 October 2015. Archived from the original on 8 October 2016.
  53. ^ Diaz, Raquel (23 May 2017). "Crossfit". Latin Australian. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  54. ^ Wallack, Roy M. (2009). Run For Life: The Anti-Aging, Anti-Injury, Super Fitness Plan. Skyhorse Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-60239-344-8.
  55. ^ Svan, Jennifer H. (January 13, 2009). "CrossFit Workouts are Rarely Routine". Military Advantage.
  56. ^ "Welcome to The Royal Life Guards Sports Association". Royal Danish Life Guards Sports Association. Archived from the original on 2013-01-15.
  57. ^ Mitchell, Bryan (June 25, 2008). "CrossFit workout craze sweeps the Corps". Marine Corps Times. Archived from the original on April 20, 2010.
  58. ^ Rodriguez, Juan C. (March 2, 2010). "Florida Marlins: Cameron Maybin's improved swing/miss numbers encouraging". South Florida Sun Sentinel. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010.
  59. ^ Stewart, I.A. (December 14, 2007). "UCSC Notebook: Men's rugby getting fit for the season". Santa Cruz Sentinel.[dead link] Alt URL
  60. ^ "Latest CrossFit Market Research Data". Rally Fitness. N.p. 28 November 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  61. ^ "Olympics: USA Weightlifting wants to capitalize on boom in sports's popularity for next Olympic cycle". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  62. ^ "CrossFit hoists Olympic weightlifting into the public eye". NBC Olympics. Archived from the original on 2017-10-01. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  63. ^ a b Spandorf, Rochelle B.; Brockett, Jennifer L.; Buono, Anna R. (Spring 2014). "Certification Programs: Franchises or Not?" (PDF). Franchise Law Journal. 33 (4): 505–524. Accessed via the Academic Search Complete Database at LSU[permanent dead link]
  64. ^ "Apply to be An Affiliate". Box Basics.
  65. ^ "Cost of Affiliation". CrossFit.
  66. ^ a b c Beers, Emily (December 1, 2023). "Gym Owner Opinion Mixed; Some Applaud CrossFit's Affiliation Fee Announcement, Others Threaten to Leave". Morning Chalk Up.
  67. ^ "Additional Types of CrossFit Affiliates". November 28, 2022.
  68. ^ Gomillion, Sarah (2017). "The Success of CrossFit and Its Implications for Businesses of All Types". University of Tennessee.
  69. ^ "Certification Courses". CrossFit. Archived from the original on 2013-09-06.
  70. ^ "CrossFit Courses". Archived from the original on September 6, 2013. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  71. ^ "Certifications". CrossFit.
  72. ^ Babiash, Paige; Porcari, John P.; Steffen, Jeffery; Doberstein, Scott; Foster, Carl (November 2013). "CrossFitTM: New Research Puts Popular Workout to the Test". American Council on Exercise.
  73. ^ Genetin-Pilawa, Joe (April 17, 2023). "CrossFit Affiliate Programming Now Free with Yearly Affiliate Fee". Morning Chalk Up.
  74. ^ "How to Start - CrossFit: Forging Elite Fitness". Archived from the original on 2013-01-15. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
  75. ^ "Albany CrossFit Expands to Clifton Park on August 21, 2011: How Tough Workouts and Eating Like Cavemen Paid Off". Boston Globe. August 8, 2011. Archived from the original on October 4, 2011.
  76. ^ Scott, Paul (October 23, 2007). "A no-nonsense look at the often nonsensical world of fitness clubs" (PDF). Best Life. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2014.
  77. ^ Walsh, Bob (2007). How People Blogging Are Changing The World and How You Can Join Them. Apress. ISBN 978-1-59059-691-3.
  78. ^ Godin, Seth (2009). Tribes. Piatkus Books. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-7499-3975-5.
  79. ^ Collins, Saskia (August 1, 2019). "The CrossFit Games: The Fight for the Biggest Brand on Earth". Pitch.
  80. ^ "The Companies Behind the Top CrossFit Games Athletes". Two-Brain Business. April 29, 2021.
  81. ^ Friend, Brian (August 16, 2023). "What Is the CrossFit Open?". BarBend.
  82. ^ "How CrossFit Became A $4 Billion Brand". Forbes. February 25, 2015.
  83. ^ "Why the Pegboard Challenge at the CrossFit Games Was Such a Beast". Men's Fitness. 31 July 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-12.
  84. ^ Murphy, Celina (September 19, 2013). "Meet The Fittest Woman On Earth". Ireland Independent. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
  85. ^ "209,585: Rise of the Open". CrossFit Games. March 26, 2014.
  86. ^ Cluley, Emma (October 11, 2019). "CrossFit Games: The journey to crown the 'Fittest on Earth'". BBC Sport.
  87. ^ Edmonds, Will (February 22, 2018). "Is the CrossFit Open the biggest sporting competition on Earth?". CNN.
  88. ^ "What is CrossFit?". Archived from the original on 2015-02-13. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  89. ^ "Welcome to the 2019 CrossFit Games Season". CrossFit Games. February 14, 2019.
  90. ^ "2020 CrossFit Games Announces New Online + In-Person Format". CrossFit Games. 7 August 2020.
  91. ^ Kyllmann, Caro (January 9, 2021). "What are the CrossFit Continent Divisions and Quarterfinals?". BoxRox.
  92. ^ "How to Affiliate". Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  93. ^ "CrossFit Level 1 Certificate Course". Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  94. ^ Booe, Martin. "how to become a CrossFit trainer".
  95. ^ "Certified CrossFit Coach". Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  96. ^ "CROSSFIT". cross Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  97. ^ "Is CrossFit Dangerous?". 4 September 2014. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  98. ^ "Is CrossFit Safe? What '60 Minutes' Didn't Tell You". Forbes. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  99. ^ "CrossFit: Extreme growth, concerns". 25 July 2014. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  100. ^ "Is CrossFit Killing Us?". Outside Online. 4 November 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  101. ^ "The Truth Hurts: Part 1". THE RUSSELLS. 15 June 2015. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  102. ^ "Scaling CrossFit Workouts by Jeremy Gordon, CF-L4". CrossFit Journal. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  103. ^ "CrossFit L-1 Trainer Guide" (PDF). CrossFit Journal. CrossFit, Inc. May 15, 2010. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  104. ^ "The Truth Hurts: Part 1". THE RUSSELLS. 15 June 2015. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  105. ^ Smith, Michael M.; Sommer, Allan J.; Starkoff, Brooke E.; Devor, Steven T. (November 2013). "Crossfit-Based High-Intensity Power Training Improves Maximal Aerobic Fitness and Body Composition". The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 27 (11): 3159–3172. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318289e59f. PMID 23439334. S2CID 25295158.
  106. ^ a b Mathis-Lilley, Ben (July 11, 2014). "CrossFit Sues Publisher of Study Described by Study Author as "Very Positive" Toward CrossFit". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  107. ^ "Journal corrects CrossFit injury data in paper at center of lawsuit". Retraction Watch. 21 September 2015. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  109. ^ a b "Crossfit, Inc. v. National Strength and Conditioning Association, No. 3:2014cv01191 - Document 176 (S.D. Cal. 2017)". Justia Law. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  110. ^ "CrossFit Clobbers Competitor with Sanctions in False Advertising Case". The Litigation Daily. June 7, 2017.
  111. ^ Elkin, J. L.; Kammerman, J. S.; Kunselman, A. R.; Gallo, R. A. (2019). "Likelihood of Injury and Medical Care Between CrossFit and Traditional Weightlifting Participants". Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. 7 (5): 2325967119843348. doi:10.1177/2325967119843348. PMC 6505252. PMID 31106222.
  112. ^ "CrossFit demands retraction of paper claiming their participants are more likely to be injured". Retraction Watch. 28 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  113. ^ Robertson, Eric (2013-09-20). "CrossFit's Dirty Little Secret". Medium. Retrieved 2020-06-18.
  114. ^ Nunn, Gary (2016-01-06). "The disease attacking super fit athletes". Stuff. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  115. ^ a b Mitchell, Bryan (August 16, 2006). "Lawsuit alleges CrossFit workout damaging". Marine Corps Times. Archived from the original on August 24, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
  116. ^ "Gym's High-Intensity Workout Left Me Disabled, Man Testifies". The Washington Post. October 7, 2008.
  117. ^ Aschwanden, Christie (2014-04-30). "The extremes of CrossFit". Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  118. ^ a b c Greene, Russ (September 7, 2014). "Comment #1". CrossFit. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  119. ^ Savage, Phil. "The Truth About Rhabdo by Dr. Michael Ray - CrossFit Journal". Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  120. ^ a b Glassman, Greg. "CrossFit Induced Rhabdo by Greg Glassman - CrossFit Journal". Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  121. ^ Glassman, Greg. "Killer Workouts by Eugene Allen - CrossFit Journal". Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  122. ^ Starrett, Kelly. "Rhabdomyolysis Revisited by Dr. Will Wright - CrossFit Journal". Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  123. ^ leeshouse (20 October 2010). "Crossfit Instructor Manual v4". Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  124. ^ "An Orthopedic Surgeon's Perspective on CrossFit". STACK. 17 September 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  125. ^ "Coke, CrossFit, and Created Outrage". Body for Wife. 3 July 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  126. ^ "Do Not Cross CrossFit". July 2, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  127. ^ "CrossFit's Sour Sense of Humor". Outside Online. 29 May 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  128. ^ Gregory, Sean. "Five Things You Need To Know About CrossFit". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  129. ^ "Rest Day". CrossFit, Inc. April 23, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  130. ^ a b Martin, Cath (June 7, 2014). "The CrossFit by Jesus parody that takes the concept literally". Christian Today. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
  131. ^ Hafiz, Yasmine (June 5, 2014). "CrossFit Posts Jesus Parody on Facebook Page and the Comments Explode". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
  132. ^ Stephanie M. Lee (June 6, 2018). "CrossFit Just Fired Its Spokesperson Who Said LGBT Pride Is a 'Sin'". BuzzFeed News.
  133. ^ LoFranco, Justin (23 May 2019). "CrossFit Shutters Facebook, Instagram Accounts Amid Data Privacy Concerns". Morning Chalk Up. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
  134. ^ a b "CrossFit, Inc. Suspends Use of Facebook and Associated Properties". CrossFit. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
  135. ^ Greg Glassman [@CrossFitCEO] (November 4, 2010). "It's: FLOYD-19" (Tweet). Retrieved June 7, 2019 – via Twitter.
  136. ^ "Reebok, gyms cut ties with CrossFit amid consumer demands for corporate action against racism". The Washington Post. June 8, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  137. ^ "CrossFit Gym C.E.O. Greg Glassman Steps Down in Chaos". The New York Times. June 9, 2020.
  138. ^ "CrossFit CEO Steps Down After His Racial Remarks Led Reebok, Others To Cut Ties". Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  139. ^ Rob McLean and Clare Duffy (10 June 2020). "Greg Glassman resigns as CrossFit CEO after controversial tweets about George Floyd". CNN. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  140. ^ "CrossFit founder Greg Glassman to sell company after backlash over 'divisive statements'". CBS News. 24 June 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2020.

External links[edit]