|Cultural origins||Early 1980s, United States (Greater Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, California Bay Area, Houston)|
Crossover thrash (often abbreviated to crossover) is musical fusion of thrash metal and hardcore punk. The genre lies on a continuum between heavy metal and punk rock. Other genres on the same continuum, such as metalcore and grindcore, may overlap with crossover thrash.
The genre is often confused with thrashcore, which is essentially a faster hardcore punk rather than a more punk-oriented form of metal. Throughout the early and mid 1980s, the term "thrash" was often used as a synonym for hardcore punk (as in the New York Thrash compilation of 1982). The term "thrashcore" to distinguish acts of the genre from others was not coined until at least 1993. Many crossover bands, such as D.R.I., began as influential thrashcore bands. The "-core" suffix of "thrashcore" is sometimes used to distinguish it from crossover thrash and thrash metal, the latter of which is often referred to simply as "thrash", which in turn is rarely used to refer to crossover thrash or thrashcore. Thrashcore is occasionally used by the music press to refer to thrash metal-inflected metalcore.
Crossover thrash evolved when performers in metal began borrowing elements of hardcore punk's music. Void and their 1982 Split LP with fellow D.C. band The Faith are hailed as one of the earliest examples of hardcore/heavy metal crossover and their chaotic musical approach is often cited as particularly influential. Punk-based metal bands generally evolved into the genre by developing a more technically advanced approach than the average hardcore outfit (which focused on very fast tempos and very brief songs), these bands were more metal-sounding and aggressive than traditional hardcore punk and thrashcore.
The initial contact between punk rock and heavy metal involved a "fair amount of mutual loathing. Despite their shared devotion to speed, spite, shredded attire and stomping on distortion pedals, their relationship seemed, at first, unlikely." While Motörhead explored punk in the late ‘70s, it was UK hardcore that drew "...inspiration from metal’s volcanic heart" to create a "bludgeoning tonality and cataclysmic narratives" that "bridged the gulf" between metal and punk; the key band is "UK hardcore’s most crucial band: Discharge", which from 1980 to 1983 "challenged prevailing notions of what punk was supposed to sound like, and in doing so revolutionized the prospects of metal." 
Especially early on, crossover thrash had a strong affinity with skate punk, but gradually became more and more the province of metal audiences. The scene gestated at a Berkeley club called Ruthie's, in 1984. The term "metalcore" was originally used to refer to these crossover groups.
As Steven Blush says,
|“||It was natural. The most intense music, after Black Flag and Dead Kennedys, was Slayer and Metallica. Therefore, that's where everybody was going. That turned into a culture war, basically.||”|
Hardcore punk groups Corrosion of Conformity, Dirty Rotten Imbeciles and Suicidal Tendencies played alongside thrash metal groups like Megadeth, Anthrax, Metallica, Slayer and Exodus. This scene influenced the skinhead wing of New York hardcore, which began in 1984, and included crossover groups such as Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law, Agnostic Front, and Warzone.
In 1984 New Jersey crossover group, Hogan's Heroes, was formed and played alongside thrash metal groups like Destruction, Death Angel, Forbidden, and Prong. In the October 1984 issue of Maximum Rocknroll, famed Metallica LP cover artist Brian "Pushead" Schroeder wrote "You ain't heard this! Blisters with speedcore franticness, mean with whining licks as it kicks into a maniac pace. Well organized melodies that cry out in terrorizing metallic thrash. While some bands are trying to be metal, English Dogs are just the dawning of speedcore!", referring to the EP To the End's of the Earth. Other prominent crossover thrash groups include Crumbsuckers, Nuclear Assault, SSD, Discharge, Cryptic Slaughter, Stormtroopers of Death, and The Exploited.
List of bands
- Acid Reign
- The Accüsed
- Agnostic Front
- Attitude Adjustment
- Blunt Force Trauma
- The Brood
- Cerebral Fix
- Charged GBH
- Concrete Sox
- Corrosion of Conformity
- The Crucified
- Cryptic Slaughter
- Dayglo Abortions
- Dead Horse
- Death Ray Vision
- Dr. Know
- Dresden 45
- English Dogs
- The Exploited
- Fearless Iranians from Hell
- Final Conflict
- Gang Green
- Hogan's Heroes
- The Icemen
- Iron Reagan
- Life of Agony (early)
- Mucky Pup
- Municipal Waste
- Napalm Death
- Nuclear Assault
- Ratos de Porão
- Rhythm of Fear
- Send More Paramedics
- Short Sharp Shock (SSS)
- Sick Mother Fakers
- Soziedad Alkoholika
- Stormtroopers of Death
- Suicidal Tendencies
- Sworn Enemy
- This is Hell
- Toxic Holocaust
- Uncle Slam
- Vegan Reich
- Verbal Abuse
- What Happens Next?
- Yellow Machinegun
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- * Metalcore Magazine "Forbes, Chris. Tell Us About The Crossover Scene You Were A Part Of In The Eighies, June 20, 2007". Archived from the original on 2012-05-07. Retrieved 2012-02-22.
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