|Cultural origins||Early 1980s, United States (Greater Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, California Bay Area, Houston)|
Crossover thrash (often abbreviated to crossover) is musical fusion of thrash metal and hardcore punk. The genre lies on a continuum between heavy metal and punk rock. Other genres on the same continuum, such as grindcore and metalcore, may overlap with crossover thrash.
The genre is often confused with thrashcore, which is essentially a faster hardcore punk rather than a more punk-oriented form of metal. Throughout the early and mid 1980s, the term "thrash" was often used as a synonym for hardcore punk (as in the New York Thrash compilation of 1982). The term "thrashcore" to distinguish acts of the genre from others was not coined until at least 1993. Many crossover bands, such as D.R.I., began as influential thrashcore bands. The "-core" suffix of "thrashcore" is sometimes used to distinguish it from crossover thrash and thrash metal, the latter of which is often referred to simply as "thrash", which in turn is rarely used to refer to crossover thrash or thrashcore. Thrashcore is occasionally used by the music press to refer to thrash metal-inflected metalcore.
Crossover thrash evolved when performers in metal began borrowing elements of hardcore punk's music. Void and their 1982 Split LP with fellow D.C. band The Faith are hailed as one of the earliest examples of hardcore/heavy metal crossover and their chaotic musical approach is often cited as particularly influential. Punk-based metal bands generally evolved into the genre by developing a more technically advanced approach than the average hardcore outfit (which focused on very fast tempos and very brief songs), these bands were more metal-sounding and aggressive than traditional hardcore punk and thrashcore.
Especially early on, crossover thrash had a strong affinity with skate punk, but gradually became more and more the province of metal audiences. The scene gestated at a Berkeley club called Ruthie's, in 1984. The term "metalcore" was originally used to refer to these crossover groups.
As Steven Blush says,
|“||It was natural. The most intense music, after Black Flag and Dead Kennedys, was Slayer and Metallica. Therefore, that's where everybody was going. That turned into a culture war, basically. And the people who were on the alt-rock, indie-rock side won, and the people who were crossover kind of got destroyed.||”|
Hardcore punk groups Corrosion of Conformity, Dirty Rotten Imbeciles and Suicidal Tendencies played alongside thrash metal groups like Megadeth, Anthrax, Metallica, Slayer and Exodus. This scene influenced the skinhead wing of New York hardcore, which began in 1984, and included crossover groups such as Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law, Agnostic Front, and Warzone.
Also in 1984 New Jersey crossover group, Hogan's Heroes, was formed and played alongside thrash metal groups like Destruction, Death Angel, Forbidden, and Prong. Other prominent crossover thrash groups include Crumbsuckers, Nuclear Assault, Stormtroopers of Death, SSD, Cryptic Slaughter, The Boneless Ones, The Exploited, and Discharge.
In the October 1984 issue of Maximum Rocknroll, famed Metallica LP cover artist Brian "Pushead" Schroeder wrote "You ain't heard this! Blisters with speedcore franticness, mean with whining licks as it kicks into a maniac pace. Well organized melodies that cry out in terrorizing metallic thrash. While some bands are trying to be metal, English Dogs are just the dawning of speedcore!" He was referring to the EP "To The End's Of The Earth"
List of bands
- The Accüsed
- Agnostic Front
- Attitude Adjustment
- Blunt Force Trauma
- The Brood
- Cerebral Fix
- Charged GBH
- Concrete Sox
- Corrosion of Conformity
- The Crucified
- Cryptic Slaughter
- Dayglo Abortions
- Dead Horse
- Death Ray Vision
- Dr. Know
- English Dogs
- The Exploited
- The Faith
- Fearless Iranians from Hell
- Final Conflict
- Gang Green
- Hogan's Heroes
- The Icemen
- Life of Agony (early)
- Mucky Pup
- Municipal Waste
- Nightmare Sonata
- Nuclear Assault
- Ratos de Porão
- Send More Paramedics
- Short Sharp Shock (SSS)
- Sick Mother Fakers
- Soziedad Alkoholika
- Stormtroopers of Death
- Suicidal Tendencies
- Sworn Enemy
- This is Hell
- Toxic Holocaust
- Uncle Slam
- Violator (band)
- Vegan Reich
- Verbal Abuse
- What Happens Next?
- Yellow Machinegun
- Felix von Havoc. "Maximum Rock'n'Roll #198". Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
- "Powerviolence: The Dysfunctional Family of Bllleeeeaaauuurrrgghhh!!". Terrorizer no. 172. July 2008. p. 36-37.
- As Max Ward writes, "625 started in 1993 in order to help out the local Bay Area thrashcore scene." Ward, Max (2000). "About 625". 625 Thrashcore. Retrieved June 5, 2008.
- DiStefano, Alex (February 23, 2015). "The 10 Best Crossover Thrash Bands". LA Weekly. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- Stewart Voegtlin, "Soulfly Cranks Up the Thrash and Triggers a Debacle", Village Voice, July 29, 2008.  Access date: July 31, 2008.
- Burton, Brent (2011-08-30). "Two classic D.C. hardcore bands empty their vaults". Washington City Paper. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
- "Faith/Void Split". Sputnikmusic. 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
- "The Faith/Void Split LP". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
- "Fast, Cheap and Out of Control/Director Paul Rachman retraces the history of punk rock.". Filmmaker Magazine. Sep 22, 2006.
- "Hardcore And Crust". Metal Music Archives. 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2014-09-27.
- Blush, p. 115
- Reed, Bryan C. "Corrosion of Conformity: An oral history of 30 years | Music Essay". Indy Week. Retrieved 2012-10-17.
- Blush, p. 193
- "Mywire.com". Mywire.com. Retrieved 2012-10-17.
- "Welcome to ActivePaper". Digitalnewspapers.libraries.psu.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-17.
- "Pickups.(guitar playing and recording techniques of artists and music groups)". Guitar Player. February 1, 2001.
- Peter Jandreus, The Encyclopedia of Swedish Punk 1977-1987, Stockholm: Premium Publishing, 2008, p. 11.
- Christe, Ian: Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal (2003), p. 184
- Rockpages.gr interview with Suicidal Tendencies
- Best Heavy Metal Albums Of 1986
- Blush, p. 186
- Blush, p. 188
- * 1948-1999 Muze, Inc. POP Artists beginning with HOD, Phonolog, 1999, p. 1.No. 7-278B Section 207
- * Metalcore Magazine "Forbes, Chris. Tell Us About The Crossover Scene You Were A Part Of In The Eighies, June 20, 2007". Retrieved 2012-02-22.
- * Decolator, Paul. New Jersey. Maximum RockNRoll, July 1986, p. 41.
- * In Effect Hardcore "Remembering Raybeez". Retrieved 2015-05-27.
- Anthrax, Danzig, Children Of Bodom & More: Metal File - News Story | Music, Celebrity, Artist News | MTV News
- "The Accused Sign to Southern Lord, Ready The Curse Of Martha Splatterhead". http://exclaim.ca/. External link in
- "Corrosion of Conformity, 'IX' - Album Review". Loudwire. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- "Ludichrist MusicMight biography".
- "BILLY MILANO's M.O.D. Returns To Live Stage In Austin (Video)".
- Prat, Greg (April 24, 2012). "Prong - Carved into Stone". Exclaim!. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- "14 Thrash Albums You Need to Own". Revolver Magazine.