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Crotalaria verrucosa (Blue Rattlepod) W IMG 3297.jpg
Crotalaria verrucosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
(unranked): Core genistoids
Tribe: Crotalarieae
(Benth.) Hutch[1]

See text.

  • Crotalarieae L.
  • Borbonieae Hutch. 1964
  • Genisteae subtribe Crotalariinae Benth. 1865
  • Lotononideae Hutch. 1964

Crotalarieae is a tribe of flowering plants belonging to the bean family Fabaceae.


The Crotalarieae arose 31.2 ± 3.4 million years ago (in the Oligocene).[3][4] The members of this tribe consistently form a monophyletic clade in molecular phylogenetic analyses.[3][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] The tribe does not currently have a node-based definition and no morphological synapomorphies have been identified.[5][7] Several genera in the tribe produce quinolizidine alkaloids or macrocyclic pyrrolizidine alkaloids.[12][17][18]


Crotalarieae comprises the following genera:[19][20][21][22]


  1. ^ Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S Afr J Bot. 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017. 
  2. ^ van Wyk B-E. (2013). "Kew entry for Crotalarieae". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, England. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Boatwright JS; Savolainen V; Van Wyk B-E; Schutte-Vlok AL; Forest F.; Van der Bank M. (2008). "Systematic position of the anomalous genus Cadia and the phylogeny of the tribe Podalyrieae (Fabaceae)". Syst Bot. 33 (1): 133–147. doi:10.1600/036364408783887500. 
  4. ^ Lavin M, Herendeen PS, Wojciechowski MF (2005). "Evolutionary rates analysis of Leguminosae implicates a rapid diversification of lineages during the tertiary". Syst Biol. 54 (4): 575–94. PMID 16085576. doi:10.1080/10635150590947131. 
  5. ^ a b Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk BE, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot. 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  6. ^ Boatwright JS, le Roux MM, Wink M, Morozova T, van Wyk BE (2008). "Phylogenetic relationships of tribe Crotalarieae (Fabaceae) inferred from DNA sequences and morphology". Syst Bot. 33 (4): 752–761. JSTOR 40211942. doi:10.1600/036364408786500271. 
  7. ^ a b Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot. 99 (12): 1991–2013. PMID 23221500. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. 
  8. ^ Käss E, Wink M (1996). "Molecular evolution of the Leguminosae: Phylogeny of the three subfamilies based on rbcL-sequences". Biochem Syst Ecol. 24 (5): 365–378. doi:10.1016/0305-1978(96)00032-4. 
  9. ^ Käss E, Wink M (1997). "Phylogenetic Relationships in the Papilionoideae (Family Leguminosae) Based on Nucleotide Sequences of cpDNA (rbcL) and ncDNA (ITS 1 and 2)". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 8 (1): 65–88. PMID 9242596. doi:10.1006/mpev.1997.0410. 
  10. ^ Doyle JJ, Doyle JL, Ballenger JA, Dickson EE, Kajita T, Ohashi H (1997). "A phylogeny of the chloroplast gene rbcL in the Leguminosae: taxonomic correlations and insights into the evolution of nodulation". Am J Bot. 84 (4): 541–554. PMID 21708606. doi:10.2307/2446030. 
  11. ^ Doyle JJ, Chappill JA, Bailey CD, Kajita T (2000). "Towards a comprehensive phylogeny of legumes: evidence from rbcL sequences and non-molecular data". In Herendeen PS, Bruneau A. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 9. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 1–20. ISBN 184246017X. 
  12. ^ a b Wink M, Mohamed GI (2003). "Evolution of chemical defense traits in the Leguminosae: mapping of distribution patterns of secondary metabolites on a molecular phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences of the rbcL gene". Biochem Syst Ecol. 31 (8): 897–917. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(03)00085-1. 
  13. ^ Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M, Sanderson MJ (2004). "A phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the plastid matK gene resolves many well-supported subclades within the family". Am J Bot. 91: 1846–1862. PMID 21652332. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1846. 
  14. ^ Crisp MD, Gilmore S, Van Wyk BE (2000). "Molecular phylogeny of the genistoid tribes of papilionoid legumes". In Herendeen PS, Bruneau A. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 9. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 249–276. ISBN 184246017X. 
  15. ^ Kajita T, Ohashi H, Tateishi Y, Bailey CD, Doyle JJ (2001). "rbcL and legume phylogeny, with particular reference to Phaseoleae, Millettieae and allies". Syst Bot. 26 (3): 515–536. JSTOR 3093979. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.515. 
  16. ^ LPWG [Legume Phylogeny Working Group] (2013). "Legume phylogeny and classification in the 21st century: progress, prospects and lessons for other species-rich clades". Taxon. 62 (2): 217–248. doi:10.12705/622.8. 
  17. ^ Van Wyk BE. (2003). "The value of chemosystematics in clarifying relationships in the Genistoid tribes of papilionoid legumes". Biochem Syst Ecol. 31 (8): 875–884. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(03)00083-8. 
  18. ^ Van Wyk BE, Verdoorn GH (1990). "Alkaloids as taxonomic characters in the tribe Crotalarieae (Fabaceae)". Biochem Syst Ecol. 18 (7–8): 503–515. doi:10.1016/0305-1978(90)90122-V. 
  19. ^ Van Wyk BE, Schutte AL (1995). "Phylogenetic relationships of the tribes Podalyrieae, Liparieae and Crotalarieae". In Crisp MD, Doyle JJ. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 7: Phylogeny. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 283–308. ISBN 0947643796. 
  20. ^ Boatwright JS, Wink M, van Wyk BE (2011). "The generic concept of Lotononis (Crotalarieae, Fabaceae): Reinstatement of the genera Euchlora, Leobordea and Listia and the new genus Ezoloba". Taxon. 60 (1): 161–77. 
  21. ^ Boatwright JS, Tilney PM, Van Wyk BE (2009). "The generic concept of Lebeckia (Crotalarieae, Fabaceae): reinstatement of the genus Calobota and the new genus Wiborgiella". S Afr J Bot. 75 (3): 546–556. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2009.06.001. 
  22. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program (2003). "GRIN genus records of Crotalarieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 

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