||It has been suggested that portions of this article be split out and merged into the article titled List of government-owned companies, which already exists. (Discuss) (October 2016)|
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a legal entity that undertakes commercial activities on behalf of the state, its owner. The legal status of SOEs varies from being a part of the government to being stock companies with the state as a regular stockholder. The defining characteristics of SOEs are that they have a distinct legal form and are established to operate in commercial affairs and commercial activities. While they may also have public policy objectives (e.g., a state railway company may aim to make transportation more accessible), SOEs should be differentiated from other forms of government agencies or state entities established to pursue purely nonfinancial objectives.
Government-owned corporations are common with natural monopolies and infrastructure, such as railways and telecommunications, strategic goods and services (mail, weapons), natural resources and energy, politically sensitive business, broadcasting, demerit goods (e.g. alcoholic beverages), and merit goods (healthcare).
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Definitions
- 3 Economic sectors
- 4 Europe
- 5 Asia
- 6 Africa
- 7 Americas
- 8 Oceania
- 9 Summary
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
SOEs are also called state-owned company, state-owned entity, state enterprise, publicly owned corporation, government business enterprise, crown corporation, government-owned corporation, government-sponsored enterprises, commercial government agency, public sector undertaking, or parastatal.
SOEs can be fully owned or partially owned by government. As a definitional issue, it is difficult to determine categorically what level of state ownership would qualify an entity to be considered as state-owned since governments can also own regular stock, without implying any special interference. As an example, the China Investment Corporation agreed in 2007 to acquire a 10% interest in the global investment bank Morgan Stanley, but it is unlikely that it would qualify the latter as a government-owned corporation. Government-owned or state-run enterprises are often the result of corporatization, a process in which government agencies and departments are re-organized as semiautonomous corporate entities, sometimes with partial shares listed on stock exchanges.
The term 'government-linked company' (GLC) is sometimes used to refer to corporate entities that may be private or public (listed on a stock exchange) where an existing government owns a stake using a holding company. There are two main definitions of GLCs are dependent on the proportion of the corporate entity a government owns. One definition purports that a company is classified as a GLC if a government owns an effective controlling interest (more than 50%), while the second definition suggests that any corporate entity that has a government as a shareholder is a GLC.
In the Commonwealth realms, particularly Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, country-wide SOEs often use the style "Crown corporation", or "Crown entities". Examples of Crown corporations include the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and Air Canada before the latter underwent privatization. Cabinet ministers (ministers of the Crown) often control the shares in such public corporations.
At the level of local government, territorial or other authorities may set up similar enterprises which are sometimes referred to as "local authority trading enterprises" (LATEs). Many local authorities establish services, such as water supply as separate corporations or as a business unit of the authority.
SOEs often operate in sectors in which there is a natural monopoly, or the government has a strategic interest. However, government ownership of industry corporations is common.
Nationalization also forcibly converts a private corporation into a state-owned enterprise.
In most OPEC countries, the governments own the oil companies operating on their soil. A notable example is the Saudi national oil company, Saudi Aramco, which the Saudi government bought in 1988, changing its name from Arabian American Oil Company to Saudi Arabian Oil Company. The Saudi government also owns and operates Saudi Arabian Airlines, and owns 70% of SABIC as well as many other companies. They are, however, being privatized gradually.
In Western Europe and Eastern Europe there was a massive nationalization throughout the 20th century, especially after World War II. In Eastern Europe, governments dominated by Communists adopted the Soviet model. Governments in Western Europe, both left and right of centre, saw state intervention as necessary to rebuild economies shattered by war. Government control over so-called natural monopolies like industry was the norm. Typical sectors included telecommunications, power, petroleum, railways, airports, airlines, public transport, health care, postal services and sometimes banks. Many large industrial corporations were also nationalized or created as Government corporations, including among many British Steel Corporation, Statoil and Irish Sugar. Starting in the late 1970s and accelerating through the 1980s and 1990s many of these corporations were privatized, though many still remain wholly or partially owned by the respective governments.
A state-run enterprise needs to be distinguished from an ordinary limited liability corporation owned by the state. For example, in Finland, state-run enterprises (liikelaitos) are governed by a separate act. Even though responsible for their own finances, they cannot be declared bankrupt; the state answers for the liabilities. Stocks of the corporation are not sold and loans have to be government-approved, as they are government liabilities. In contrast, the state also owns controlling interest in ordinary limited liability corporations. A state-run enterprise is technically not always a corporation, it might also be a separate state entity, or simply a governmental agency acting as an enterprise, perhaps having its own budget. Conversely, the state can directly fund unprofitable business, such as railway services to remote areas, regardless of whether the operator is a private corporation.
- ÖBB (national railway system of Austria, administrator of Liechtenstein's railways)
- ASFINAG (Autobahn and highway financing, building, maintaining and administration)
- Hypo Alpe-Adria-Bank International: Austria nationalised this bank in 2009, and in 2014 its then-Chancellor feared its insolvency might have a similar effect to the Creditanstalt event of 1931.
- Verbund 51% SOE (electricity generator and provider)
- Volksbank 43.3% SOE (retail banking group, with additional operations in Hungary, Romania and Malta)
- ORF: funded from television licence fee revenue, dominant player in the Austrian broadcast media
- Österreichische Industrieholding (ÖIAG): Austrian industry-holding stock corporation for partially or entirely nationalized companies, as of 2005:
- National Railway Company of Belgium
- Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie
- Belgacom (53.3%)
- Belgischer Rundfunk
- Fluxys (2.1%)
- Federale Participatie- en Investeringsmaatschappij-Federale Participatie- en Investeringsmaatschappij (SFPI-FPIM)
- Elia System Operator (5.37%)
- Ethias (25%)
- Belfius (100%)
- Brussels Airport (25%)
Region of Wallonia owns the:
- Bulgarian Energy Holding
- Bulgarian State Railways
- National Railway Infrastructure Company
- Bulgarian Posts
- Sofia Airport
- LB Bulgaricum
The Czech Republic
The Fonds stratégique d'investissement, a sovereign wealth fund initiated by Nicolas Sarkozy in October 2008 at the height of the Dexia crisis, holds capital in approximately 50 firms, which are listed in the French wiki.
One significant piece of legislation in 2013 of the Hollande government is that for the constitution of the Banque Publique d'Investissement which has a mandate to encourage a German-patterned Mittelstand-like climate for France. The former partner of Hollande, Ségolène Royal, was appointed to the vice-Chair directorship of the Bank, from which position she stated that the "BPI's purpose is not to do business nor to make profits".
Agence des participations de l'État (APE) is a special agency of the French government managing the state's holdings in about 70 firms, including France Telecom, Renault and Air France. It was established in 2004. Among the fully owned corporations (51% or more) of the French Republic are:
- La Poste
- France Télévisions
- Radio France
- Régie autonome des transports parisiens
- Areva (89.9%) 8.4% directly by the French State and 85% owned by *French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission which is state-owned.
- Électricité de France (84.4%)
- Aéroports de Paris (52%)
- Française des Jeux (72%)
- Dexia Credit Local
The state of France owns a minority stake in:
- Peugeot (14%)
- STMicroelectronics Holding N.V. 50% held by French through Bpifrance and French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission
- Airbus/EADS 12% (28% total with Germany and Spain)
- GDF Suez (35.9%)
- Orange (13.2%)
- Safran (30,2%) (+ 7.4% by Areva)
- Air France-KLM (16%)
- Renault (15.01%)
- Thales Group (27%)
- Marché international de Rungis (33.34%) + 18.79% by local area + 4.60% by Caisse des dépôts et consignations
- Deutsche Bahn (full ownership by Germany)
- Hapag Lloyd 23,2% via city of Hamburg
- Airbus/EADS 12% (28% total with France and Spain)
- a range of competing Landesbanken, regionally organised by the Länder, function predominantly to provide wholesale banking
- Commerzbank 15,6%
- the Sparkassen system, where more than 400 German SOEs hold more than 40% of bank assets in Germany
- Volkswagen Group 12.7% (20% of voting rights) (Through State of Lower-Saxony)
- T-Mobile 32% (Deutsche Telekom) (17.4% though KfW, 14% Owned Directly by state)
- KfW Bank 100% and following assets amounting to a worth of $70.6Bn
- Deutsche Post 25.5% (through KfW) (Assets including DHL and Deutsche Postbank are therefore also partially owned by the state)
- Hypo Real Estate Seized by SoFFin in 2003 to restore financial stability to the German housing market.
- Bundesdruckerei (Federal Print Office) Renationalised in 2013
- Germany owns an approximate 4% stake in British Telecom as 12% of the stake of British Telecom was sold to T-Mobile in early 2015.
Note that many smaller State owned enterprises are owned by individual states of Germany such as TransnetBW and Rothaus (State Brewery of Baden).
- MOL Group (integrated petroleum and gas company).
In Ireland state-owned enterprises are referred to as "State-sponsored bodies".
- Bank of Ireland (15%)
|This section does not cite any sources. (March 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Companies owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finances
- Alitalia - Linee Aeree Italiane S.p.A. in a.s. (49,90%)
- ANAS S.p.A. (100%)
- ARCUS S.p.A. (100%)
- Cassa Depositi e Prestiti S.p.A. (70%)
- Cinecittà Luce S.p.A. (100%)
- Coni Servizi S.p.A. (100%)
- Consap S.p.A. (100%)
- Consip S.p.A. (100%)
- Expo 2015 S.p.A. (40%)
- ENAV S.p.A. (100%)
- Enel S.p.A. (31,24%)
- Eni S.p.A. (3,93%) (Cassa Depositi e Prestiti S.p.A. holds 26,40%)
- Leonardo-Finmeccanica S.p.A. (30,20%)
- Invitalia S.p.A. (100%)
- EUR S.p.A. (90%)
- Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane S.p.A. (100%)
- Fondo Italiano d'Investimento SGR S.p.A. (12,50%)
- GSE S.p.A. (100%)
- Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato S.p.A. (100%)
- Italia Lavoro S.p.A. (100%)
- Poste Italiane S.p.A. (64.696%)
- Rai Radiotelevisione Italiana S.p.A. (99,56%)
- Rete Autostrade Mediterranee S.p.A. (100%)
- SACE S.p.A. (100%)
- Sicot S.r.l. (100%)
- Società per lo Sviluppo del Mercato dei Fondi Pensione S.p.A. (56,01%)
- SOGEI S.p.A. (100%)
- SOGESID S.p.A. (100%)
- SOGIN S.p.A. (100%)
- STMicroelectronics Holding N.V. (50%)
- Studiare Sviluppo S.r.l. (100%)
- ABN AMRO (nationalized in 2008)
- SNS Reaal (nationalized in 2013)
- Nederlandse Spoorwegen
- Schiphol Group (69.77%)
- Holland Casino
- PGE Polish Energy Group
- Tauron Group
- PKN Orlen
- Lotos Group
- KGHM Polska Miedź
- Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa
- LOT Polish Airlines
- Águas de Portugal, a state owned environmental company, which operates on Water supply, Wastewater sanitation and treatment and Recovery of waste sectors
- Caixa Geral de Depósitos, a state owned banking corporation and the Portuguese largest bank
- Carris, a state owned transportation company that operates in Lisbon
- Comboios de Portugal, a state owned railway company, which hauls freight and passengers
- EMPORDEF, a state owned defence holding company
- Metro do Porto, a state owned light railway company that operates in Porto
- Metropolitano de Lisboa, a state owned subway system that operates in Lisbon
- NAV Portugal, (Portuguese) a state owned company that provides air traffic control
- Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, a state owned public service broadcasting organization
- REFER, a state owned rail infrastructure management company
- Sociedade de Transportes Colectivos do Porto, a state owned bus company of Porto
- TAP Portugal, a state owned national airline company (A 61% stake was sold in 2015. Parpública has kept a 39% stake in the company. The government of António Costa increase this stake to 50% in 2016)
- Transtejo & Soflusa, a state owned ferry company operating in Lisbon Metropolitan Area
- Air Serbia (51% share)
- Elektroprivreda Srbije
- Galenika a.d. (to be privatized)
- HIP Petrohemija
- JUBMES banka (20.08% share)
- Naftna Industrija Srbije (29.87% share)
- Pošta Srbije
- RB Kolubara
- RTB Bor
- Serbian Railways
- Telekom Srbija
- Yugoimport SDPR
- Zastava Arms
Slovenia is an ex-Yugoslavian republic. As such, its economy was largely state-owned prior to dissolution of that federation. The state still owns many enterprises, such as the banks, which in turn own such businesses as supermarkets and newspapers.
- Nova Ljubljanska banka, largest bank
- Nova KBM, second largest bank
- Abanka, third largest bank
- ADIF: (100%) construction and management of rail infrastructure.
- Renfe Operadora: (100%) rail transport.
- ENAIRE: (100%) state-owned holding, specialized in the commercial aviation sector. Owner of the air navigation service provider and of 51% of AENA.
- Aena: (51% state-owned, 49% is being privatized): airport management.
- Navantia: (100%) shipbuilding.
- Correos: (100%) postal services, courier.
- Enagas: (5%) Gas Transmission Network Operator
- Indra Sistemas: (20%) Technology Systems Developer
- Red Electrica de España: (20%) Transmission Network Operator
- Loterías y Apuestas del Estado: (100%) lottery.
- Bankia, through the FROB.
- Airbus/EADS 4% (28% total with Germany and France).
Two types: Government-owned companies, which legally are normal companies but mainly or fully national owned. They are expected to be funded by their sales. A big customer might be the government or a government agency. The other type is Government agencies which might also do activities competing with private owned companies. They usually are funded by tax money but can also sell services. The government has tried to avoid having agencies doing commercial activities, by separating out areas that compete with private companies into government-owned companies, for example within road construction. The reason is both to avoid unfair competition, and a wish to have market economy instead of plan economy as much as possible. Based on the tradition of avoiding "ministerial rule", the government has avoided interfering with the business of the companies, and allowed them to go international.
Here is the government owned of the Swiss Confederation:
After extensive privatisation of the public sector during the Margaret Thatcher administration, there remain few statutory corporations in the UK. Ongoing privatisations lasted from the end of the 1970s, through the 1980s until 1990 with the privatisation of British Rail. After the Hatfield rail crash accident, the British government decided to intervene and renationalised Railtrack (which was responsible for the maintenance of railway tracks and signals) into Network Rail. The impact of the privatisation of British Rail is much debated today, with increased passenger numbers and better safety offset by concerns about the cost to taxpayers.
- Central government
- British Broadcasting Corporation
- Channel Four Television Corporation
- Highways England
- NATS Holdings
- National Nuclear Laboratory
- National Physical Laboratory
- London and Continental Railways
- Network Rail
- National Health Service
- Ordnance Survey
- Post Office
- Rescued banks
- Devolved government
- Scottish Water (Scottish Government)
- Caledonian MacBrayne (Scottish Government)
- Translink (Northern Ireland Government)
- Northern Ireland Water (Northern Ireland Government)
- Cardiff Airport (Welsh Government)
- Prestwick Airport (Scottish Government)
- Local government
- City of Derry Airport (Derry City Council)
- Manchester Airports Group (Greater Manchester local authorities)
- Manchester Metrolink (Transport for Greater Manchester)
- Tyne and Wear Metro (Tyne and Wear Integrated Transport Authority)
- London Underground (Transport for London)
- Nottingham Express Transit
- Nottingham City Transport
In 2009, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan formed the Afghan Public Protection Force (APPF) as a "state owned enterprise" subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. By Presidential Decree, the APPF is mandated to replace all non-diplomatic private security companies by 20 March 2013 to become the sole provider of pay-for-service security contracts within Afghanistan.
After 1949, all business entities in the People's Republic of China were created and owned by the government. In the late 1980s, the government began to reform the state-owned enterprise, and during the 1990s and 2000s, many mid-sized and small sized state-owned enterprises were privatized and went public. There are a number of different corporate forms which result in a mixture of public and private capital. In PRC terminology, a state-owned enterprise refers to a particular corporate form, which is increasingly being replaced by the listed company. State-owned enterprises are mostly governed by both local governments' SASAC and, in the central government, the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC) of the State Council. However, some state-owned enterprise were governed by China Investment Corporation (and its domestic arm Central Huijin Investment), as well as under the governance of Ministry of Education for the university-run enterprises, or some financial institutes that were under the governance of the Ministry of Finance.
As of 2011, 35% of business activity and 43% of profits in the People's Republic of China resulted from companies in which the state owned a majority interest. Critics, such as The New York Times, have alleged that China's state-owned companies are a vehicle for corruption by the families of ruling party leaders who have sometimes amassed fortunes while managing them.
In the postwar years, Hong Kong's colonial government operated under a laissez-faire economic philosophy called positive non-interventionism. Hence Crown corporations did not play as significant a role in the development of the territory as in many other British territories.
The Mass Transit Railway Corporation (MTRC) was formed as a Crown corporation, mandated to operate under "prudent commercial principles", in 1975. The Kowloon-Canton Railway, operated under a government department, was corporatised in 1982 to imitate the success of MTRC (see KCR Corporation). MTRC was privatised in 2000 although the Hong Kong Government is still the majority shareholder. KCR was operationally merged with MTR in 2007.
Examples of present-day statutory bodies include the Airport Authority, responsible for running the Chek Lap Kok Airport, or the Housing Authority, which provides housing to about half of Hong Kong residents.
In India, a state-owned enterprise is termed a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) or a Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE). These companies are owned by the Union Government, or one of the many state or territorial governments, or both. The company equity needs to be majority owned by the government to be a PSU. Few examples are Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, Engineers India Limited, India Trade Promotion Organization, GAIL, BSNL, Food Corporation of India etc.
state-owned enterprises, known locally as Badan Usaha Milik Negara are easy to recognise by their names. Company names with suffix PERSERO mean that the company is wholly/majority owned by the government. The government takes control of the state corporations under one single ministry, the Ministry of State Enterprises, which acts like the CEO of a holding company. Some of the government-owned corporations are;
- Bank Mandiri, Bank Rakyat Indonesia, Bank Negara Indonesia, and Bank Tabungan Negara – Banking sector
- Pertamina, and Perusahaan Gas Negara – Energy, Oil/fuel, and gas sector
- Perusahaan Listrik Negara – the Electric company, Energy sector (national electricity utility)
- Telkom Indonesia – Telecommunications sector
- Garuda Indonesia, and Merpati Nusantara Airlines – Transport sector (domestic and international airline)
- Angkasa Pura I and Angkasa Pura II - Transport Sector (Indonesia Airport Services)
- PT Kereta Api Indonesia – Transport sector (National Railway)
- Perum Perumnas – Property sector (National Housing and Urban Development)
- Pelni - Transport Sector (Shipping Company)
- Pelindo - Transport Sector (Port Services)
- Pos Indonesia – Postal service sector
- TVRI – National television company
- PT Dirgantara Indonesia – Manufacture (aircraft manufacture)
- PT Industri Kereta Api – Manufacture (train manufacture)
- PT Barata Indonesia – Manufacture
- PT Boma Bisma Indra – Manufacture
- PT Krakatau Steel – Steel producer
- Antara- News agency
In January 2012, the Minister of State Enterprises decided to unite manufacturing companies and for the first stage PT Barata should acquire PT Bisma to make an effective manufacturing sector.
In Japan, Japan Post was reorganized into Japan Post Group in 2007 as a material step of the postal privatization. It ceased to be wholly owned by the government on November 4, 2015 when the government listed 11% of its holdings on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Japan Railways Group (JR), Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) and Japan Tobacco (JT) were formerly owned by the government.
- Affin Bank - Bank
- Axiata – Telecommunication
- CIMB – Bank
- Johor Corporation - Investment
- Malaysia Airlines - Airlines
- Malaysia Airports - Airport Operator
- Maybank – Bank
- Malaysia Building Society Berhad – Bank
- Petronas – Oil & Gas
- Prasarana Malaysia – Public Transport
- Sime Darby – Conglomerate
- Telekom Malaysia Berhad – Telecommunication
- Tenaga Nasional – Electric Utility
- UEM Group – Engineering & Construction
In the Philippines, state-owned enterprises are known as government-owned and controlled corporations. They can range from the Social Security System (SSS) and the Philippine Coconut Authority with no counterparts in the private sector to LandBank, a wholly government-owned bank that competes with private banks. A number of government-owned and controlled corporations, especially those created during the Marcos Era under his New Society program of crony capitalism, were privatized at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, including Philippine Airlines, Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company or PLDT and Philippine National Bank.
Government-linked corporations play a substantial role in Singapore's domestic economy. These GLCs are partially or fully owned by a state-owned investment company, Temasek Holdings. As of November 2011, the top six Singapore-listed GLCs accounted for about 17% of total capitalization of the Singapore Exchange (SGX). Notable GLCs include Singapore Airlines, SingTel, ST Engineering, and MediaCorp.
There are many state-owned enterprises in South Korea.
- Incheon International Airport
- Seoul Metro
- Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation
- Korea National Oil Corporation
- Korea Land and Housing Corporation
- Korea Electric Power Corporation
- Korean Broadcasting System
- Rough Draft Studios
The founding father of the Republic of China and of the Kuomintang, Sun Yat-sen, was heavily influenced by the economic ideas of Henry George, who believed that the rents extracted from natural monopolies or the usage of land belonged to the public. Sun argued for Georgism and emphasized the importance of a mixed economy, which he termed "The Principle of Minsheng" in his Three Principles of the People.
"The railroads, public utilities, canals, and forests should be nationalized, and all income from the land and mines should be in the hands of the State. With this money in hand, the State can therefore finance the social welfare programs."
Kuomintang leader, and later President of the Republic of China on the mainland and Taiwan Island, Chiang Kai-shek, crushed pro-communist worker and peasant organizations and the rich Shanghai capitalists at the same time. Chiang continued Sun Yat-sen's anti-capitalist ideology—Kuomintang media openly attacked the capitalists and capitalism, demanding government-controlled industry instead.
The Kuomintang Muslim Governor of Ningxia, Ma Hongkui promoted state-owned monopoly companies. His government had a company, Fu Ning Company, which had a monopoly over commerce and industrial activity in Ningxia.
The Chinese Muslim 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) governed southern Xinjiang from 1934 to 1937. The General Ma Hushan was chief of the 36th Division. Chinese Muslims operated state-owned carpet factories.
Here is the state-owned enterprises held by the government of the kingdom of Thailand. The Kingdom of Thailand as shareholding of 51% or more.
- Airports of Thailand
- Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand
- Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand
- Krung Thai Bank
- Metropolitan Waterworks Authority
- Port Authority of Thailand
- Provincial Waterworks Authority
- PTT Public Company Limited
- Thai Airways International
- Airports Corporation of Vietnam
- Bank for Investment and Development of Vietnam
- State Capital Investment Corporation
- Vietnam Airlines
- Vietnam Air Services Company
- Vietnam Electricity
- Vietnam Multimedia Corporation
- Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group
- Viettel Mobile
- Vietnam Railways
Parastatals in Kenya, partly from a lack of expertise and endemic corruption, have largely inhibited economic development. In 1979, a presidential commission went as far as saying that they constituted "a serious threat to the economy", and, by 1989, they had still not furthered industrialization or fostered the development of a Black business class.
In South Africa the Department of Public Enterprises is the shareholder representative of the South African Government  with oversight responsibility for state-owned enterprises in key sectors. Some companies are not directly controlled by the Department of Public Enterprises, but by various other Departments:
- Airports Company of South Africa (ACSA) – Owner of major airports in South Africa
- Alexkor – Mining sector (diamond mining)
- Armscor (South Africa) – Defence sector (arms procurement agency for the South African Defence Force)
- Broadband Infraco – Telecommunications sector (long distance and international internet connectivity)
- Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
- Central Energy Fund – Energy development
- Denel – Aerospace and Defence sector (armaments manufacturer)
- Development Bank of Southern Africa
- Eskom – Energy sector (national electricity utility)
- National Parks Board – Nature conservation
- PBMR – Energy sector (development of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor nuclear energy technology)
- Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa PRASA – Transport sector (passenger railway services)
- PetroSA – National oil and gas company
- Post Office – Postal sector
- Rand Water – Water utility (Most based in the northern region)
- Sentech – Telecommunications infrastructure
- South African Airways – Transport sector (international airline)
- South African Broadcasting Corporation – Telecommunications sector
- South African Bureau of Standards
- SA Express – Transport sector (regional and feeder airline)
- South African Forestry Company – Forestry sector (manages forestry on state owned land)
- South African National Roads Agency – responsible for the maintenance and development of the national road network
- Transnet – Transport and related infrastructure sector (railways, harbours, oil/fuel pipelines and terminals)
- Trans-Caledon Tunnel Authority – Water transport authority
The South African Government has a share in the following companies:
- Telkom SA – Telecommunications sector (national telephone network (PSTN)) (39.8%) 
- Vodacom – Telecommunications sector (cellular services) (13.9%) 
- Sasol – Fuel sector (oil, petroleum, gas and coal) (27.3%) 
Various other smaller state-owned companies exist in South Africa.
- Air Tanzania
- Arusha International Conference Centre
- Marine Services Company Limited
- Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited
- Tanzania Railways Limited
- Tanzania Telecommunications Company Limited (65%)
- TAZARA Railway (50%)
- Tanzanian and Italian Petroleum Refining Company Limited (50%)
State-owner enterprises are divided into public enterprises (empresa pública) and mixed-economy companies (sociedade de economia mista). The public enterprises are subdivided into two categories: individual – with its own assets and capital owned by the Union – and plural companies – whose assets are owned by multiple government agencies and the Union, which have the majority of the voting interest. Caixa Econômica Federal, Correios, Embrapa, and BNDES are examples of public enterprises. Mixed-economy companies are enterprises with the majority of stocks owned by the government, but that also have stocks owned by the private sector and usually have their shares traded on stock exchanges. Banco do Brasil, Petrobras, Sabesp, and Eletrobras are examples of mixed-economy companies.
Beginning in the 1990s, the central government of Brazil launched a privatization program inspired by the Washington Consensus. Public-owned companies such as Vale do Rio Doce, Telebrás, CSN, and Usiminas (most of them mixed-economy companies) were transferred to the private sector as part of this policy.
Brasil State Owned Companies Fact Sheet / Download here http://www.planejamento.gov.br/secretarias/upload/Arquivos/dest/perfil_empresas_estatais/2014/2015_ano_base_2014.pdf
In Canada, state-owned corporations are referred to as Crown corporations, indicating that an organization is established by law, owned by the sovereign (either in right of Canada or a province), and overseen by parliament and cabinet. Examples of federal Crown corporations include:
Foreign SOEs are welcome to invest in Canada: in Fall 2013, British Columbia and Alberta signed agreements overseas to promote foreign direct investment in Canada. The Investment Canada Act governs this area federally. Former Prime Minister Stephen Harper stated in 2013 that the "government [needs] to exercise its judgement" over SOEs.
Saskatchewan has maintained the largest number of Crown corporations, including
Crown corporations of British Columbia include
- BC Hydro,
- BC Transit,
- BC Housing Management Commission,
- Liquor Distribution Branch, and the
- British Columbia Lottery Corporation.
- GroupeMédia TFO
- Independent Electricity System Operator
- Ontario Educational Communications Authority
- Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation
- Ontario Power Generation
- Liquor Control Board of Ontario
- Société des alcools du Québec
- Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec
Privatization, or the selling of Crown corporations to private interests, has become common throughout Canada over the past 30 years. Petro-Canada, Canadian National Railway, and Air Canada are examples of former federal Crown corporations that have been privatized. Privatized provincial Crown corporations include Alberta Government Telephones (which merged with privately owned BC Tel to form Telus), BCRIC, Manitoba Telecom Services, Saskatchewan Oil & Gas Corporation and Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan.
Government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) are a group of financial services corporations created by the United States Congress. The United States GSEs are private corporations owned by their stockholders, rather than government-owned corporations. Their primary function is to generate profits for their stockholders, but they are structured and regulated by the U.S. government to enhance the availability and reduce the cost of credit to targeted borrowing sectors. Congress created the first GSE in 1916 with the creation of the Farm Credit System; it initiated GSEs in the home finance segment of the economy with the creation of the Federal Home Loan Banks in 1932; and it targeted education when it chartered Sallie Mae in 1972 (although Congress allowed Sallie Mae to relinquish its government sponsorship and become a fully private institution via legislation in 1995). The residential mortgage borrowing segment is by far the largest of the borrowing segments in which the GSEs operate. Together, the three mortgage finance GSEs (Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks) have several[quantify] trillion dollars of on-balance sheet assets. The federal government possesses warrants which, if exercised, would allow them to take a 79.9% ownership share in the companies. The federal government has not, as of December 2014, exercised these warrants.
Government sponsored enterprises include:
Federal government chartered and owned corporations
The federal government chartered and owned corporations are a separate set of corporations chartered and owned by the federal government, which operate to provide public services, but unlike the federal agencies (Environmental Protection Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs), or the federal independent commissions (e.g., the Federal Communications Commission, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, etc.), they have a separate legal personality from the federal government, providing the highest level of political independence. They sometimes receive federal budgetary appropriations, but some also have independent sources of revenue. These include:
- Commodity Credit Corporation
- Corporation for National and Community Service (Americorps)
- Corporation for Public Broadcasting
- Export-Import Bank of the United States
- Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation
- Farm Credit Banks
- Federal Crop Insurance Corporation
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
- Federal Financing Bank
- Federal Home Loan Banks
- Federal Prison Industries
- The Financing Corporation
- Gallaudet University
- Government National Mortgage Association
- Legal Services Corporation
- Millennium Challenge Corporation
- National Consumer Cooperative Bank
- National Corporation for Housing Partnerships (NCHP); Washington, D.C.
- National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility
- National Endowment for Democracy
- National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
- National Park Foundation
- National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak)
- Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation
- Overseas Private Investment Corporation
- Panama Canal Commission
- Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation; Washington, D.C.
- Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation
- St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation
- Securities Investor Protection Corporation
- Tennessee Valley Authority
The federal-government-acquired corporations are a separate set of corporations that were originally chartered and created by an entity other than the U.S. federal government, but that were, at some point, nationalised by the federal government. Most of these are corporations temporarily in possession of the government as a result of a seizure of property of a debtor to the government, such as a delinquent taxpayer; usually, these are awaiting liquidation at auction, and most are too small to note. However, there are also corporations that the federal government has nationalised to ensure the continued provision of an essential service or services (such as the federal government's nationalisation of the Alaska Northern Railroad in 1914 and Tanana Valley Railroad in 1917, now both part of the still-federally-owned Alaska Railroad, and, on a larger scale, the nationalisation of all U.S. railroads from 1917 to 1920 under the United States Railroad Administration).
Other types in the United States
There exists a second level of sovereign government in the United States after the federal government: those of the several states of the United States. The vast majority of non-governmental corporations in the United States are chartered by the states of the United States. This includes most charitable corporations , non-profit corporations, and for-profit corporations. States also have the power to charter corporations that they own, control, or are responsible for the regulation and finance of. These include municipal corporations and state chartered and owned corporations. State government-chartered and -owned corporations are numerous and provide public services. Examples include North Dakota Mill and Elevator and South Dakota Public Broadcasting. Generally speaking, a statute passed by a state legislature specifically sets up a government-owned company in order to undertake a specific public purpose with public funds or public property. Lotteries in the United States are also run by government corporations, such as the Georgia Lottery Corporation and many others.
There also exists a third level of sovereign government in the United States: the sovereignty of the Native American tribal governments. As such, the Native American (including Alaska Native) tribal governments have the power to charter corporations and undertake public undertakings that might benefit their tribal citizens, Native Americans being not only citizens of their particular tribes, but also citizens of their respective U.S. states, and of the United States. For example, a tribal council could establish a public service broadcaster along the lines of Ireland's Raidió Teilifís Éireann, partially fund it with a television licence on tribal land, and make up the difference through advertising, thereby making it both a means of uniting the tribe and giving it a voice and a commercial venture by the tribe.
The Alaska Natives are particularly advanced in using their tribal sovereignty to incorporate corporations that are owned by and for the benefit of their tribal citizens and often compete in highly competitive economic sectors through the Alaska Native Regional Corporations. The Native American tribes in the 48 contiguous states often use their sovereignty and their ability to charter to compete using regulatory easements; for instance, Native American tribal corporations often trade in goods that are highly taxed in surrounding states (such as tobacco), or engage in activities that surrounding states have (for reasons of public policy) forbidden, such as the operation of casinos or other gaming establishments. Most of these endeavors have proven very successful for Native American tribal sovereigns and their tribal corporations, bringing wealth into the hands of Native Americans.
Uruguay had the first welfare state of Latin America under the presidency of José Batlle y Ordoñez in 1904. Government-owned corporations monopolize services such as electricity (UTE), land-line communications (Antel) and water (OSE). Antel competes with private corporations in the cell-phone lines and international telephony markets. In 1992, under the presidency of Luis Alberto Lacalle, the government attempted to privatize all its companies, following the neoliberal Washington Consensus. However, a referendum won by 75% of the population kept the companies in the hands of the government. By the end of his term, president Lacalle alleged that he had achieved a successful modernization of the companies, which had made them more efficient.
In Australia the predominant term used for SOEs is government business enterprise (GBE). Various Australian states also have GBEs, especially with respect to the provision of water and sewerage, and many state-based GBEs were privatized in some states during the last decade of the twentieth century. Former Commonwealth SOEs include Telstra, established in the 1970s as Telecom Australia. Telstra, now Australia's leading telecommunications company, was privatized in 1997 by the government of John Howard. As of June 2010 Telstra owned a majority of the copper wire infrastructure in Australia (the rest is owned by Optus) and is pending sale to its former parent, the Australian government, for a non-binding amount of 11 billion Australian dollars, as ducts in the copper wire tunnels are needed to install the fiber optic cable. The Commonwealth Bank, as its name indicates, was also founded as public company before later being privatized.
In Victoria many GBEs were sold in the 1990s to reduce the state's level of debt. The State Electricity Commission of Victoria and the Gas and Fuel Corporation were the best-known government enterprises to be disaggregated and sold.
- Air Services Australia (privatisation is being examined)
- ASC Pty Ltd
- Australian Broadcasting Corporation
- Australian Government Future Fund
- Australian Government Solicitor
- Australia Post
- Australian Rail Track Corporation
- Clean Energy Finance Corporation
- Defence Housing Australia
- NBN Co – fully owned and responsible for the rollout of the National Broadband Network
- Reserve Bank of Australia
- Screen Australia
- Snowy Hydro (13%)
- Special Broadcasting Service – fully owned, and combines government funding and commercial funding
Australian Capital Territory
The GBEs of the Australian Capital Territory include:
New South Wales
The GBEs of New South Wales include:
- State Transit
- Endeavour Energy
- Integral Energy
- Snowy Hydro (58%)
- Sydney Water
- Sydney Trains
- NSW Trains
- Hunter Water Corporation
- Newcastle Port Corporation
- Port Kembla Port Corporation
- NSW State Water
- Superannuation Administration Corporation
- Sydney Ports Corporation
- Forestry Corporation of New South Wales
The GBEs of the Northern Territory include:
The GBEs of Queensland include:
South Australia is notable for having very controversially privatized most of its GBEs:
Tasmania has a considerable amount of GBEs, relative to other states:
The GBEs of Victoria include:
The GBEs of Western Australian include:
New Zealanders refer to their state-owned enterprises as "state-owned enterprises", as "SOEs", or as "crown entities". Local-government councils and similar authorities also set up locally controlled enterprises, such as water-supply companies and "local-authority trading enterprises" (LATEs) as separate corporations or as business units of the councils concerned.
Government-owned businesses designated as crown entities include:
New Zealand's state-owned enterprises have included:
- New Zealand Post
- Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited
- Airways New Zealand
- Transpower New Zealand Limited
- Mercury Energy
- Meridian Energy
- Genesis Energy Limited
- Learning Media Limited
- Solid Energy
State-owned enterprises which have undergone privatisation and subsequent renationalisation:
- New Zealand Railways Corporation
- Air New Zealand
- Quotable Value (QV - partially privatised)
In this list, government-owned corporations are classified on their legal status: silver color represents legal monopolies, and no competition is permitted; light green represents a corporation that has private competitors; yellow means that although competition is legally permitted, there are no other corporations de facto; white refers to a free market, regulated or not.
|Postal||Railways||Pharmacy||Gambling||Alcohol||Health care||Universities||Telephone||Broadcasting||Oil & Gas||Energy||Water||Airports||Highways|
|Argentina||mix (Correo Argentino)||Yes (Administración de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias)||mix (LIFSE)||yes (Lotería Nacional)||mix (Instituto Nacional de Vitivinicultura (INV)||mix||mix (public universities)||no||mix (TV Pública Digital, LRA Radio Nacional, Télam)||yes (YPF)||mix (Enarsa, CNEA)||mix||mix (EZE, CRD, BHI, etc.)||mix|
|Australia||Yes (Australia Post) monopoly on postal delivery of letters to 250g||mix (Australian Rail Track Corporation; varies by State)||mix (PBS funding only; no retail competition)||mix (varies by State)||no||mix (Medicare)||mix||mix (NBN Co wholesale only; no retail competition)||mix (ABC, SBS)||no||mix (varies by State)||mix (varies by State)||mix (varies by State)||mix (varies by State)|
|Belgium||Yes (Bpost)||yes (NMBS/SNCB)||no||mix (Nationale Nationale Loterij/Lotterie Nationale)||no||mix||mix||mix (Belgacom)||mix (VRT, RTBF, BRF)||no||mix||mix||yes|
|Brazil||Yes (Correios)||mix (pt:VALEC, pt:CBTU, Trensurb)||no||yes (Caixa Econômica Federal)||mix (ethanol only)||mix (SUS)||mix (public universities)||mix (Telebras)||mix (Agência Brasil)||mix (Petrobras)||mix (Eletrobras)||mix (varies by State)||mix (Infraero)||no|
|Canada||Yes (Canada Post)||mix (Via Rail), passenger rail; freight is private.||no||varies by province||varies by province (LCBO, SAQ, SLGA)||yes (Medicare)||95% publicly governed charitable trusts (public universities)||varies by province (Sasktel)||mix (CBC)||private enterprise favored||varies by province (Hydro-Québec, BC Hydro, Hydro One, Manitoba Hydro, Nalcor, SaskPower)||varies by province||publicly governed by local authority in trust; see above||Except 407 ETR|
(Correos de Chile)
|mix (public universities)
(SCL, CCP, IPC, etc.)
|Colombia||Yes (4-72)||no||no||mix (Etesa) [a]||varies by department||Nueva EPS||mix (Universidad Nacional), plus various local ones||mix (Telefónica Telecom) (Empresas Públicas de Medellín)||mix (Radio Televisión Nacional de Colombia)||mix (Ecopetrol)||(ISA Emgesa)||mix|
|Czech Republic||Yes (Česká pošta)||yes (České dráhy)||no||no||no||yes (VZP)||mix||no||mix (Česká televize, Český rozhlas)||no||majority-held ČEZ Group|
|Denmark||Yes (Post Danmark)||mix (Banedanmark, DSB)||no||yes (Danske Spil)||no||mix||mix (public universities; vast majority of all universities)||mix||mix (DR)||mix (Energinet.dk)||mix (DONG Energy)||municipalities||mix (Københavns Lufthavne)||yes (Helsingørmotorvejen)|
|Finland||De facto (Posti)||de facto (VR)||no||yes (Veikkaus, RAY, Fintoto)||yes (Alko)||mix (municipal)||mix (some private vocational universities)||mix (TeliaSonera)||mix (YLE)||de facto (Neste)||mix (Fortum)||yes (municipal)||yes (Finavia)||yes|
(Française Des Jeux)
|no||mix (CMU)||mix (EPSCP)||mix (Orange S.A.)||mix (France Télévisions)||no||mix (Électricité de France, CEA)||mix||mix||mix|
|mix (DB)||no||no||no||mix (BG)||mix||mix (DTAG)||mix (ARD, ZDF, Deutschlandradio)||no||mix (Stadtwerke Köln)||mix||yes (states)||yes (by federal and state governments)|
|de facto (OSE, TrainOSE)||no||no||no||mix (ESY)||mix (All institutions titled as Universities are state owned whereas there are numerous private colleges)||mix (OTE)||mix (NERIT)||mix (ELPE)||mix (DEI)||mix|
|Iceland||De facto (Íslandspóstur)||no railways in Iceland||no||no gambling in Iceland||yes (ÁTVR)||mix||mix||no||mix (RÚV)||no oil industry in Iceland||mix (Landsvirkjun)|
|India||Yes (India Post)||yes (Indian Railways)||mix (IDPL)||no||mix, varies by state (BEVCO, TASMAC)||mix||mix||mix (BSNL)||mix (Doordarshan, Akashvani)||mix (ONGC), IndianOil||yes||mix||mix (Airports Authority of India)||mix|
|Indonesia||Yes (Pos Indonesia)||de facto (PT Kereta Api)||mix (Kimia Farma, etc.)||no||no||mix||mix (public universities)||mix (Telkom Indonesia)||mix (TVRI and RRI)||mix (Pertamina and PGN)||yes (Perusahaan Listrik Negara)||mix||mix (Angkasa Pura)||mix (Jasa Marga)|
|Republic of Ireland||Yes (An Post)||yes (Iarnród Éireann)||no||mix National Lottery, (Prize Bond, HRI, BnaC)||no||mix (Health Service Executive)||mix||no||mix (RTÉ, Teilifís na Gaeilge)||mix (Ervia)||mix (ESB, BMN),||mix (Irish Water)||mix (Dublin Airport Authority, etc.)||de facto (National Roads Authority)|
|Israel||Yes (Do'ar Yisrael)||de facto (Israel Railways)||no||yes (Mifal HaPayis)||yes||mix||yes||mix||mix (IBA, IETV, Kol Yisrael etc.)||mix (Oil Refineries)||mix (IEC)||de facto (Mekorot)||yes (IAA)||mix (Netivei Israel)|
|Isle of Man||Yes (Isle of Man Post Office)||yes (Isle of Man Transport)||no||no||no||de facto (Department of Health and Social Care)||yes (Isle of Man College of Further & Higher Education)||no||mix (Manx Radio, Manx residents also pay BBC Television licence fee)||n/a||yes (Manx Electricity Authority)||yes (Isle of Man Water and Sewerage Authority)||yes (Isle of Man Airport)||yes (Department of Infrastructure)|
|Italy||De facto (Poste italiane)||mix (FS)||no||yes (AAMS)||no||mix (SSN)||mix||no||mix (RAI)||mix (Eni)||mix (Enel)||mix||mix (AOT, REG, ALL etc.)||mix (ANAS)|
|mix (JR)||no||yes (JRA etc.)||no||mix (NHI)||mix||mix (NTT)||mix (NHK)||no||no||yes||mix (NRT, Haneda, ITM, etc.)|
|Republic of Korea||De facto
(Korea Railroad Corporation)
|no||yes (Kangwon Land Inc.)||no||de facto
(Korea Expressway Corporation)
|Malaysia||Yes (Pos Malaysia)||de facto (KTMB, SSR, Prasarana)||mix||no||no||mix||mix (public universities)||mix (Telekom Malaysia)||mix (RTM)||yes (Petronas)||mix (Tenaga Nasional, Sarawak Energy)||mix||mix (Malaysia Airports)||de facto (Malaysian Federal Roads System, Malaysian State Roads system)|
|Mexico||Mix (Servicio Postal Mexicano)||mix (Ferrocarril Transistmico)||mix (e.g. in public hospitals)||no||no||mix (Mexican Social Security Institute, Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers)||mix (National Autonomous University of Mexico, National Polytechnic Institute and state universities among others)||no||mix (Once TV México, Notimex, XEIMT-TDT)||yes (Pemex)||yes (electricity: CFE)||mix
(varies by state/municipality)
|mix (Aeropuertos y Servicios Auxiliares, Benito Juárez International Airport)||mix (Caminos y Puentes Federales)|
|Netherlands||No||mix (Nederlandse Spoorwegen),[b] passenger rail. Freight is private||no||yes
|no||mix||mix(Dutch universities) except Nyenrode Business University||no||mix (Netherlands Public Broadcasting)||no||no||yes|
|New Zealand||Yes (NZ Post)||yes (KiwiRail)||no||yes (New Zealand Lottery Commission)||no||mix (District health boards)||yes||no||mix (TVNZ)||no||mix (Genesis Energy, Mercury Energy, Meridian Energy, Solid Energy, Transpower New Zealand Limited)||yes||mix||yes (State Highway network)|
|Norway||Yes (Posten Norge)||yes (NSB)||no||yes (Norsk Tipping)||yes (Vinmonopolet)||yes, via state monopoly||mix||mix (Telenor)||mix (NRK)||mix (Statoil, Petoro)||yes (Statkraft, and various municipally owned companies)||mix||mix (Avinor)|
|Peru||Yes (Serpost)||no||no||no||no||mix (EsSalud)||yes (local ones, including (Universidad Mayor de San Marcos)||no||yes (TV Peru)||yes (Petroperú)||mix||yes (only in local water supply and sewage services, including Sedapal)|
|Philippines||Yes (PhilPost)||yes (PNR)||no||yes (PAGCOR)||no||yes||yes (UP)||no||mix (PTV)||mix (PNOC)||mix (NAPOCOR)||mix|
|Portugal||no||mix (Comboios de Portugal)||no||no||no||mix||mix||no||mix (Rádio e Televisão de Portugal)||no||no||mix (Águas de Portugal)||no||mix|
|Russia||Yes (Russian Post)||de facto (Russian Railways)||no||mix (Gosloto, etc.)||no||mix (Mandatory Medical Insurance)||mix||mix (Rostelecom, TransTelekom)||mix (VGTRK, 1TV, TVC, Public Television, Zvezda, RT, Voice of Russia via monopolies Russian Satellite Communications Company and RTRS)||mix (Rosneft, Gazprom Neft via monopoly Transneft)||mix (Inter RAO, Rosenergoatom, RusHydro, Gazprom via monopoly Russian Grids)||mix||mix||de facto (federal highways, Rosavtodor, Avtodor)|
|Singapore||Yes (SingPost)||mix (SMRT)||mix||yes (Singapore Pools)||mix||mix (SingHealth)||mix (NUS, NTU, SIT, SUTD)||yes (SingTel)||yes (MediaCorp)||yes (SNOC)||mix (Temasek)||mix (PUB)||yes||yes|
|Spain||Yes (Correos)||mix (FEVE, Renfe Operadora, Adif)||no||mix (Loterías y Apuestas del Estado)||no||mix (Spanish National Health System)||mix (public universities)||mix||mix (EFE, RTVE)||mix (Enagas)||mix (Red Electrica de España)||mix||mix (Aena)||mix|
|Sweden||De facto (Posten AB)||de facto (SJ, Green Cargo)||mix (Apoteket)||yes (Svenska Spel)||yes (Systembolaget)||mix||mix (All state-owned except 3 universities Chalmers University of Technology (owned by government,faculty,student union run as a private entity), Stockholm School of Economics (22% from state funds) and Jönköping University Foundation||mix (Telia)||mix (SVT)||no||de facto (Vattenfall, Svenska Kraftnät)||mix||mix (Swedavia)||yes (Svevia)|
|Switzerland||mix (Swiss Post) monopoly on postal delivery of letters to 250g||mix (SBB CFF FFS)||no||no||no||mix (cantonal hospitals)||yes (cantonal and federal universities)||no||mix (SRG SSR)||no||mix||yes (operated by cantonal and/or municipalities)||mix (international airports)||yes (operated by cantons)|
|Thailand||Yes (Post)||yes (State Rail)||yes (GPO)||yes (State Lotto)||Alcohol Permit||mix (MOPH)||mix (public universities)||mix (Telecom)||mix (MCOT)||mix (PTT)||yes (EGAT)||yes||yes|
|Turkey||Yes (PTT)||yes (TCDD)||no||yes (Millî Piyango İdaresi)||no||mix||mix (state universities)||no||mix (TRT)||mix (TPAO)||mix||mix (State Hydraulic Works)||mix|
|United Arab Emirates||Yes (Emirates Post)||no||mix||no||Liquor permit||mix (GCC, Daman)||mix||yes (TRA)||yes (DMI)||mix (ENOC, ADNOC, etc.)||mix (TAQA)||yes||mix|
|Ukraine||Yes (Ukrposhta)||Yes (Ukrainian Railways)||no||yes||no||mix||mix||no||mix||mix||yes||yes||mix||yes|
|United Kingdom||Mix (Post Office Ltd)||mix
(DRS, Northern Ireland Railways, Network Rail)
|no||mix (Premium Bond)||no||mix (NHS)||mix (publicly funded universities)||no||mix (BBC, Channel Four, S4C)||no||no||Mix
(Scottish Water, Northern Ireland Water)
(All public roads except M6 Toll and some private toll roads are state owned)
|United States||Yes (USPS)||mix (Amtrak), passenger rail; freight is private||no||mix (State Lotteries)||varies by state (ABC store states)||mix (Medicare, Medicaid, Military Health System)||mix (U.S. military service academies, public universities)||mix (Burlington Telecom)||mix (CPB, BBG, VOA)||mix (CPS Energy)||mix (TVA)||mix||mix||mix (U.S. Routes, the Interstate)|
|Uruguay||Yes (Correo Uruguayo)||yes (AFE)||no||mix (Casinos del Estado)||no||mix||mix (UdelaR)||mix (ANTEL)||mix (SODRE)||mix (ANCAP)||mix (UTE)||yes (OSE)||mix|
|Venezuela||Yes (Ipostel)||yes (IFE)||mix||mix||mix||mix (Mission Barrio Adentro)||mix (SCV, ULA), UIV, etc.||yes (CANTV)||mix (TVes, ANTV, VTV)||yes (PDVSA)||mix (CVG)||yes|
|Vietnam||Yes (VNPT)||yes (Vietnam Railways)||mix||no gambling in Vietnam||yes||mix||mix (public universities)||mix (VNPT, Viettel)||de facto (VTV, VTC, Voice of Vietnam)||yes (Petrovietnam, Petrolimex)||yes (EVN)||mix||yes (Airports Corporation)|
|Postal||Railways||Pharmacy||Gambling||Alcohol||Health care||Universities||Telephone||Broadcasting||Oil & Gas||Energy||Water||Airports||Highways|
- Constitutional economics
- Government agency
- Government-sponsored enterprise
- List of government-owned airlines
- List of government-owned companies
- Non-departmental public body
- Political economy
- Public benefit corporation
- Public bodies
- Public company (public corporation)
- Public ownership
- Regulatory agency
- Rule according to higher law
- Special-purpose district
- State within a state
- Stock market
- State-owned enterprises of New Zealand
- Statsforetak (Norwegian state enterprise)
- Statutory Agency
- Statutory corporation
- Volkseigener Betrieb (East German state enterprise)
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 1–16
- "All Men Are Created Unequal". The Economist. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
Quote: «The wars and depressions between 1914 and 1950 dragged the wealthy back to earth. Wars brought physical destruction of capital, nationalisation, taxation and inflation»
- Groendahl, Boris (17 February 2014). "Faymann Evokes 1931 Austria Creditanstalt Crash on Hypo Alpe". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "Sarkozy annonce la création d'un fonds d'investissement souverain". L'Obs. 24 October 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Kohler and Weisz: "Pour un nouveau regard sur le Mittelstand: Rapport au Fonds stratégique d'investissement", La Documentation Française, 2012
- "AU NOM DE LA COMMISSION DES AFFAIRES ÉCONOMIQUES SUR LE PROJET DE LOI relatif à la création de la banque publique d’investissement"
- latribune.fr: "BPI: Ségolène Royal vole la vedette au directeur général" 24 Apr 2013 (French)
- "Business in France: The long arm of the state". The Economist. 2007-09-01. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "Agence des Participations de l'État". Site Internet de la direction générale du Trésor. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "Chinese Firm and France to Buy Stakes in Peugeot". The New York Times. 19 February 2014.
- "After Two Centuries, Peugeot Family Cedes Control". The New York Times. 20 February 2014.
- "Revamped Airbus lives up to the European dream". Telegraph.co.uk. 5 January 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- OECD. "710. Financial balance sheets - consolidated - SNA 2008". Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- Hüfner, Felix, "The German Banking System: Lessons from the Financial Crisis", oecd.org, 1 July 2010.
- "Working Papers", oecd.org.
- "Saved a state bailout, Slovenes question hefty banking bill". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "Afghan Public Protection Force-معینیت محافظت عامه".
- Bradsher, Keith (November 9, 2012). "China's Grip on Economy Will Test New Leaders". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
- "Dahlan Iskan to merge Barata with Boma Bisma Indra". January 14, 2012.
- Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs (June 2012). "2012 Investment Climate Statement - Singapore". United States Department of State. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Simei Qing "From Allies to Enemies", 19
- Coble, Parks M. (1986). The Shanghai capitalists and the Nationalist government, 1927–1937. Volume 94 of Harvard East Asian monographs (2, reprint, illustrated ed.). Harvard Univ Asia Center. p. 263. ISBN 0-674-80536-4. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
- Barnett, A. Doak (1968). China on the eve of Communist takeover. Praeger. p. 190. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Draguhn, Werner; David S. G. Goodman (2002). China's communist revolutions: fifty years of the People's Republic of China. Psychology Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-7007-1630-0. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Forbes, Andrew D. W. (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 131. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Himbara, David (1993). "Myths and Realities of Kenyan Capitalism". Journal of Modern African Studies. 31 (1): 93–107. doi:10.1017/s0022278x00011824. JSTOR 161345.
- "Productivity performance in Kenya" (PDF): 43.
- "Conflicting Information Over Kenya Airways' Layoffs".
- "State Owned Companies", Department of Public Enterprises, Republic of South Africa. Retrieved 2017-01-28.
- "Here is Government’s shareholding in South African telecoms companies", mybroadband.co.za, 23 June 2015.
- "Major shareholders", sasol.co.za. Retrieved 2017-01-28.
- "Treasury Registrar". Ministry of Finance (Tanzania). Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Office of the Premier, International Trade, and Minister Responsible for the Asia Pacific Strategy and Multiculturalism. "Premier Clark announces Jobs and Trade Mission to Asia". Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "B.C. minister says Malaysian investment vindicates province's bets on LNG sector". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "Redford’s trip to China highlights petrochemical potential", edmontonjournal.com, 17 Sep 2013.
- "Alberta Premier Alison Redford says China's investors want more details on rules". Calgary Sun. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "CHINA: Canada's Alberta province signs framework agreement to expand energy ties amid waning Chinese interest". EnergyAsia. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "Foreign investment doesn't need 'absolute clarity: Harper". thestar.com. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 24
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 44
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 60
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 50
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 77
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 82
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 105
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 120
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 125
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 131
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 145
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 149
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 162
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 165
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 168
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 180
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations, pp. 18, 214
- "Coalition cold on privatisations". The Australian. 2013-09-30.
- Putt, Sarah (15 April 2013). "Kordia sells Orcon to private investors". Computerworld. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- PRIVATISATION DEBATE SHOULD BE RIGOROUS | Roger Kerr, New Zealand Business Roundtable Executive Director. Rogerkerr.wordpress.com (2011-01-17). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations—A Study Prepared by the U.S. General Accounting Office for the Committee on Government Operations (pdf), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988, p. 301, GAO/AFMD-89-43FS Document: H402-4. Alternate location:
- Malaysia GLC OpenDay 2015.
- The Public Firm with Managerial Incentives by Elmer G. Wiens.