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The Crowsnest Highway, also known as the Interprovincial or, in British Columbia, the Southern Trans-Provincial, is an east-west highway, 1,161 km (721 mi) in length, through the southern parts of British Columbia and Alberta, providing the shortest highway connection between British Columbia's Lower Mainland and southeast Alberta. It is designated a core route in Canada's National Highway System, and is designated as Highway 3 for its entire length.
The highway, which is mostly two lanes, was officially designated in 1932, mainly following a mid-19th century gold rush trail originally traced out by an engineer named Edgar Dewdney. It takes its name from the Crowsnest Pass, the location at which the highway crosses the Continental Divide between British Columbia and Alberta.
In British Columbia, the first segment of the highway between the Trans-Canada Highway and Highway 5A is locally known as the Hope-Princeton Highway. In Alberta, the highway forms concurrencies with both the Red Coat Trail and the CANAMEX Corridor from Highway 2 west of Fort Macleod to Highway 4 at the eastern limits of Lethbridge.
The Crowsnest Highway's total length in British Columbia is 838 km (521 mi), and its total length within Alberta is 323 km (201 mi). The Crowsnest Highway's western terminus is at Hope, where it branches off from Highway 1. The highway goes east for 7 km (4.3 mi) to its junction with Highway 5, then through Allison Pass and Manning Provincial Park for 127 km (79 mi) towards the Town of Princeton. There are several significant ascents in this stretch between Hope and Princeton. The first is the steep climb to the Hope Slide, followed later by the remainder of the climb up to Allison Pass at an elevation of 1,342m (4,473 ft). After the summit of Allison Pass, where the Crowsnest crosses from the Fraser Valley Regional District into the Regional District of Okanagan-Similkameen, the road descends for 40 km (25 mi) before beginning another long climb up Sunday Summit (1,284m, 4,280 ft). Soon after Sunday Summit is the descent into Princeton, where Highway 5A begins.
After Princeton, the Crowsnest goes southeast for 67 km (42 mi), through Hedley, to the Village of Keremeos, where a junction with a length of highway designated as 3A is located, leading towards Penticton and Highway 97. Another 46 km (29 mi) southeast, and the Crowsnest reaches the Town of Osoyoos and a junction with Highway 97. The highway then proceeds to hug the Canada-U.S. border east through a stretch of switchbacks known as Anarchist Mountain, which is also the name of the upland rural community beyond the summit. A few kilometres east of Anarchist Mountain, the Crowsnest enters the Regional District of Kootenay Boundary.
52 km (32 mi) east of Osoyoos, the Crowsnest reaches its junction with Highway 33 at Rock Creek, then the highway heads east for 70 km (43 mi) to its junction with Highway 41 at a location called Carson, just west of Grand Forks. Another 26 km (16 mi) east, passing through Grand Forks en route, the Crowsnest meets Highway 395 at the southern end of Christina Lake.
Further east from Christina Lake, the Crowsnest travels for 47 km (29 mi) through Bonanza Pass to its junction with Highway 3B at Nancy Greene Lake, which is the cutoff to the ski town of Rossland, shortly thereafter crossing into the Regional District of Central Kootenay. It is another 26 km (16 mi) east from Nancy Greene Lake to the junction with Highway 22 at Castlegar, and another 2 km (1.2 mi) east to a junction with another stretch of Highway designated as 3A, also within Castlegar. Leaving Castlegar, the Crowsnest reaches its eastern junction with Highway 3B 26 km (16 mi) east. Highway 6 converges with the Crowsnest at Salmo, 11 km (6.8 mi) east of the 3B junction, and the two highways proceed south for 14 km (8.7 mi) to the Burnt Flat Junction, where Highway 6 diverges south.
East of Burnt Flat, the Crowsnest heads through the Kootenay Pass on a stretch known as the Kootenay Skyway, or Salmo-Creston Skyway. 67 km (42 mi) east of Burnt Flat, the Crowsnest reaches the Town of Creston, just past junctions with Highway 21 and Highway 3A. 40 km (25 mi) later, south of Yahk, Highway 95 merges onto the Crowsnest. The two highways share a common alignment for 72 km (45 mi) northeast along the Moyie River, crossing into the Regional District of East Kootenay along the way, to a junction with Highway 95A at Cranbrook. Another 6 km (3.7 mi) east, Highway 95 diverges north from the Crowsnest and Highway 93 merges onto the Crowsnest from the north. Highway 93 and the Crowsnest share a common alignment for the next 53 km (33 mi) southeast to Elko, where Highway 93 diverges south. 31 km (19 mi) north of Elko, the Crowsnest reaches Fernie, then it goes north another 30 km (19 mi) to its junction with Highway 43 at Sparwood, and another 19 km (12 mi) east, the highway reaches the boundary with Alberta at Crowsnest Pass.
The Alberta portion of the Crowsnest Highway is designated Alberta Provincial Highway No. 3. Once into Alberta, the Crowsnest Highway goes east 16 km (9.9 mi) to the Bighorn Highway at Coleman, then 26 km (16 mi) east to its junction with Highway 22, another 20 km (12 mi) to its junction with Highway 6, then another 44 km (27 mi) to its junction with Highway 2 north, then proceeding 5 km (3.1 mi) east into the Town of Fort Macleod and the Crowsnest's junction with Highway 2 south. After Fort Macleod, the Crowsnest goes 27 km (17 mi) east, crossing the Oldman River, to Highway 3A southeast of Monarch, which feeds Highway 23.
The highway reaches the first access (Westview Drive W) to the City of Lethbridge 13 km (8.1 mi) later. At this point, the Crowsnest's only freeway segment begins. 2 km (1.2 mi) later, Highway 25 (University Drive W) branches to the north before crossing the Oldman River for the second time. The freeway segment ends at Mayor Magrath Drive, which branches as Highway 5 to the south. The highway intersects Highway 4 at the eastern limits of Lethbridge.
45 km (28 mi) east of Lethbridge, the Crowsnest reaches the Town of Taber. Within Taber, Highway 36 runs concurrently with the highway for 3 km (1.9 mi). Upon dropping the concurrency, the Crowsnest ends 113 km (70 mi) later at the Trans-Canada Highway in the City of Medicine Hat.
|Continues as BC 1 west (Trans-Canada Highway) to Vancouver|
|Fraser Valley||Hope||0.00||0.00||170||BC 1 east (Water Avenue) – Cache Creek, Kamloops, Prince George||Hope interchange
No westbound exit
West end of BC 5 concurrency.
|0.99||0.62||171||To BC 1 east (3rd Avenue)||Westbound exit only|
|3.08||1.91||173||Old Hope-Princeton Way||Thacker Creek interchange
No westbound entrance
|||6.67||4.14||177||BC 5 north (Coquihalla Highway) – Merritt, Kelowna, Kamloops||Othello interchange
East end of BC 5 concurrency.
|BC 3 east to exits freeway using Exit 177.|
|E. C. Manning Provincial Park||25.04||15.56||West end of E. C. Manning Provincial Park (Manning Park).|
|↑ / ↓||58.02||36.05||Allison Pass – el. 1,342 m (4,403 ft)|
|Okanagan-Similkameen||83.00||51.57||East end of E. C. Manning Provincial Park (Manning Park).|
|||99.77||61.99||Sunday Summit – el. 1,284 m (4,213 ft)|
|Princeton||133.56||82.99||Vermillion Avenue, Burton Avenue|
|133.93||83.22||BC 5A north (Bridge Street) – Merritt, Kamloops|
|Keremeos||200.62||124.66||7th Avenue, 7th Street||BC 3 branches north.|
|201.11||124.96||BC 3A north – Apex Mountain Resort, Penticton||BC 3 branches east.|
|||225.63||140.20||Nighthawk Road – Nighthawk (WA)|
|Osoyoos||247.11||153.55||BC 97 (Okanagan Highway) / To US 97 south – Penticton, Kelowna, U.S. Border, Wenatchee (WA)|
|248.23||154.24||Main Street, Spartan Drive, 83rd Street||BC 3 branches south, then turns east.|
|248.80||154.60||Osoyoos Trestle Bridge across Osoyoos Lake|
|Kootenay Boundary||Rock Creek||299.12||185.86||BC 33 north (Beaverdell Highway) – Big White Ski Resort, Kelowna|
|||368.53||228.99||BC 41 south / To SR 21 south – U.S. Border|
|Grand Forks||372.32||231.35||19th Street|
|||392.10||243.64||BC 395 south / To US 395 south – U.S. Border, Spokane (WA)|
|Christina Lake||394.55||245.16||West Lake Drive, Swanson Road|
|||406.39||252.52||Bonanza Pass – el. 1,535 m (5,036 ft)|
|Nancy Greene Provincial Park||441.53||274.35||BC 3B east – Rossland, Trail|
|Central Kootenay||Castlegar||467.95||290.77||BC 22 south / Columbia Avenue – Rossland, Trail||Kinnaird interchange|
|468.15||290.89||20th Street, 6th Avenue to BC 22 south||Westbound only|
|468.78||291.29||Crosses Columbia River|
|469.21||291.55||BC 3A east – West Kootenay Regional Airport, Nelson||Ootischenia interchange|
|||495.67||308.00||BC 3B east – Trail, Rossland|
|Salmo||506.07||314.46||BC 6 north – Nelson, Nakusp, Vernon||West end of BC 6 concurrency.|
|||520.23||323.26||BC 6 south / To SR 31 – U.S. Border||East end of BC 6 concurrency.|
|||543.27||337.57||Kootenay Pass – el. 1,774 m (5,820 ft)|
|||582.34||361.85||Crosses Kootenay River|
|Creston||585.08||363.55||BC 21 south / To SH-1 – U.S. Border|
|586.50||364.43||BC 3A north – Kootenay Bay, Kootenay Lake Ferry, Nelson||BC 3 branches south.|
|589.30||366.17||10th Avenue N, Cook Street||BC 3 turns east.|
|Yahk||626.59||389.34||BC 95 south / To US-95 – U.S. Border, Coeur d'Alene (ID)||West end of BC 95 concurrency.|
|East Kootenay||Cranbrook||695.07||431.90||King Street, 9th Avenue S|
|695.89||432.41||6th Street N|
|696.80||432.97||Victoria Avenue, Theatre Road|
|698.05||433.75||22nd Street N|
|698.91||434.28||BC 95A north – Canadian Rockies Int. Airport, Kimberley||Cranbrook interchange|
|||704.34||437.66||BC 93 / BC 95 north – Fort Steele, Invermere, Radium Hot Springs||Fort Steele interchange
East end of BC 95 concurrency
West end of BC 93 concurrency
|||730.34||453.81||Wardner Bridge across Kootenay River|
|Elko||760.08||472.29||BC 93 south / To US 93 – U.S. Border, Kalispell (MT)||West end of BC 93 concurrency.|
|||788.75||490.11||Mount Fernie Park Road – Fernie Alpine Resort|
|Sparwood||821.32||510.34||Red Cedar Drive|
|821.89||510.70||BC 43 north (Elk Valley Highway) – Elkford|
|||841.29||522.75||Alberta – British Columbia border
Crowsnest Pass – el. 1,358 m (4,455 ft)
|Continues as Alberta Highway 3 east|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
|Continues as British Columbia Highway 3 west|
|||0||0||Alberta – British Columbia border
Crowsnest Pass – el. 1,358 m (4,455 ft)
|Coleman||16||10||Hwy 40 north (Forestry Trunk Road)|
|Blairmore||18||11||20 Avenue east|
|21||13||20 Avenue west|
|Frank||24||15||153 Street||Passes Frank Slide|
|Bellevue||26||16||9 Avenue / 213 Street||Access to Hillcrest|
|||30||19||East Hillcrest Drive||Access to Hillcrest|
|M. D. of Pincher Creek No. 9||Burmis||35||22||Hwy 507 south – Beaver Mines|
|||40||25||Hwy 3A east|
|||42||26||Hwy 22 north – Longview, Black Diamond, Turner Valley|
|||48||30||Hwy 3A west|
|Cowley||52||32||Hwy 510 north|
|Pincher Station||62||39|| Hwy 6 south – Pincher Creek, Waterton Lakes National Park, U.S. Border
|Piikani I.R. 147||Brocket||77||48||Hwy 786 south|
|M. D. of Willow Creek No. 26||||102||63||Future Hwy 3X east||Future Fort Macleod bypass (Phase 2)|
|||104||65||Hwy 810 south – Glenwood|
|||105||65||Divided highway begins|
|Fort Macleod||106||66||Hwy 2 north (Exit 89) – Claresholm, Calgary|| Hwy 2 concurrency begins
CANAMEX Corridor concurrency begins
|Hwy 2X south||Future Fort Macleod bypass (Phase 1)|
|108||67||One-way road pair begins|
|109||68||Hwy 811 north (6 Avenue)|
|110||70||One-way road pair ends|
|111||69||Hwy 2 south – Cardston, U.S. Border|| Red Coat Trail concurrency begins
Hwy 2 concurrency ends
|Hwy 2X north||Future Fort Macleod bypass (Phase 1)|
|||132||82||Hwy 3A east to Hwy 23 north – Monarch, Vulcan||Eastbound access to Hwy 23.|
|↑ / ↓||||134||83||Crosses Oldman River|
|Lethbridge County||||138||86||Hwy 3A west / Hwy 23 north – Monarch, Vulcan||Partial interchange
Westbound exit, eastbound entrance
|||142||88||Future Hwy 3X east||Future Lethbridge and Coaldale bypass.|
|Kipp||146||91||Urban Approach Road 205 north
Hwy 509 south – Stand Off
|Coalhurst||148||92||51 Avenue||Coalhurst access road|
|City of Lethbridge||151||94||Westside Drive W
Hwy 3A east (unsigned highway)
Eastbound exit, westbound entrance.
|153.1||95.1|| Hwy 25 north – Picture Butte
University Drive W south
|155.0||96.3||Bridge Drive W (Former Hwy 3A west)||Interchange|
|155.4||96.6||Crosses Oldman River|
|155.6||96.7||Access road to Oldman River valley|
|156.1||97.0||5 Avenue N (To Scenic Drive)||Eastbound exit, westbound entrance|
|156.3||97.1||1 Avenue S – City Centre
To Hwy 4 / Hwy 5
|Eastbound exit only|
|156.8||97.4||Scenic Drive||Westbound exit, eastbound entrance|
|158.5||98.5||13 Street||Westbound to northbound exit only|
|159.2||98.9||19 Street (to 3 Avenue S)||Eastbound exit/entrance|
|159.4||99.0||Mayor Magrath Drive
Hwy 5 south – Lethbridge Airport, Magrath, Cardston
|161.4||100.3||1 Avenue S
To Hwy 4 south / Hwy 512 east
|Eastbound exit only|
Hwy 4 south / To I‑15 – Milk River, Coutts, U.S. Border, Great Falls (MT)
Hwy 843 north
| Red Coat Trail concurrency ends
CANAMEX Corridor concurrency ends
|Lethbridge County||||168||104||Future Hwy 4X||Future Lethbridge bypass.|
|Coaldale||173||107||Hwy 845 (20 Street) – Lomond, Raymond|
|||184||114|| Hwy 512 south
Future Hwy 3X west
|Future Lethbridge and Coaldale bypass.|
|M. D. of Taber||||198||123||Hwy 3A east – Barnwell|
|||202||126||Hwy 3A west – Barnwell|
|Taber||207||129||Hwy 855 north (Park Road)|
|208||129||Hwy 36 south – Warner||Hwy 36 concurrency begins.|
|210||130||Hwy 36 north (64 Street) – Vauxhall, Brooks||Hwy 36 concurrency ends.|
|211||131||Divided highway ends|
|Grassy Lake||242||150||Hwy 877 south – Skiff|
|County of Forty Mile No. 8||Burdett||254||158||Main Street||Passes through Burdett|
|||260||160||Hwy 879 – Foremost|
|Bow Island||266||165||Centre Street||Passes through Bow Island|
|||285||177||Hwy 885 south – Etzikom|
|Cypress County||Seven Persons||301||187||Hwy 887 – Orion|
|||312||194||Future Hwy 1X||Future Medicine Hat bypass.|
|City of Medicine Hat||321||199||Hwy 523 east (Holsom Road SW)|
|322||200||Viscount Avenue SW – Medicine Hat Airport|
|323||201|| Hwy 1 (TCH) – Brooks, Calgary, Swift Current, Regina
Hwy 41A east – City Centre
|Hwy 3 ends.|
|Continues as Hwy 41A east / Gershaw Drive SW|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
- Dewdney Trail
- Kettle Valley Railway (southern mainline of the CPR)
- CANAMEX Corridor
- Pan-American Highway
- Red Coat Trail
- "National Highway System". Transport Canada. 2009-12-13. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
- "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- "Provincial Highways 1 - 216 Progress Chart" (PDF). Alberta Transportation. March 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- Provincial Highways Designation Order, Alberta Transportation, p. 2
- Super, Natural British Columbia Road Map & Parks Guide (Map) (2010-2011 ed). Davenport Maps Ltd. in co-operation with Tourism British Columbia. § L-9, § L-10, § L-11, and § L-12.
- British Columbia Road Atlas (2007 ed.). Oshawa, ON: MapArt Publishing Corp. pp. 69-75.
- Nicol, Matthew; Horel, Steve (July 2015). "Landmark Kilometre Inventory" (PDF). British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure. Cypher Consulting. pp. 74–113.
- Alberta Official Road Map (Map) (2010 ed.). Alberta Tourism, Parks and Recreation. § N-5, N–6, N-7, N–8.
- "HIGHWAYS 2 and 3 Fort Macleod Bypass Functional Planning Study" (PDF). Alberta Transportation. McElhanney. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- Stantec (February 2006). "Highways 3 & 4 - Lethbridge and Area NHS & NSTC: Functional Planning Study" (PDF). Alberta Transportation. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- Stantec (2008). "Highway 1 & 3 Functional Planning Study" (PDF). Alberta Transportation. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- Crowsnest Highway tour
- 2010 Provincial Highways 1 - 216 Series Progress Chart (map, 8 MB) by Alberta Transportation.