Cruciferous vegetables

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This article is about the use of Brassicaceae as food. For a botanical description of plants in this family (whether or not used for food), see Brassicaceae.
Cabbage plants

Cruciferous vegetables are vegetables of the family Brassicaceae (also called Cruciferae). These vegetables are widely cultivated, with many genera, species, and cultivars being raised for food production such as cauliflower, cabbage, garden cress, bok choy, broccoli, brussels sprouts and similar green leaf vegetables. The family takes its alternate name (Cruciferae, New Latin for "cross-bearing") from the shape of their flowers, whose four petals resemble a cross.

Ten of the most common cruciferous vegetables eaten by people, known colloquially in North America as cole crops[1] and in the British Isles as "brassicas", are in a single species (Brassica oleracea); they are not distinguished from one another taxonomically, only by horticultural category of cultivar groups. Numerous other genera and species in the family are also edible. Cruciferous vegetables are one of the dominant food crops worldwide. They are high in vitamin C and soluble fiber and contain multiple nutrients and phytochemicals.

List of cruciferous vegetables[edit]

Extensive selective breeding has produced a large variety of cultivars, especially within the genus Brassica. One description of genetic factors involved in the breeding of Brassica species is the Triangle of U.

The taxonomy of common cruciferous vegetables
common name genus specific epithet Cultivar group
Horseradish Armoracia rusticana
Land cress Barbarea verna
Ethiopian mustard Brassica carinata
Kale Brassica oleracea Acephala group
collard greens Brassica oleracea Acephala Group
Chinese broccoli (gai-lan) Brassica oleracea Alboglabra Group
Cabbage Brassica oleracea Capitata Group
Savoy cabbage Brassica oleracea Savoy Cabbage Group
Brussels sprouts Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group
Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea Gongylodes Group
Broccoli Brassica oleracea Italica Group
Broccoflower Brassica oleracea Italica Group × Botrytis Group
Broccoli romanesco Brassica oleracea Botrytis Group / Italica Group
Cauliflower Brassica oleracea Botrytis Group
wild broccoli Brassica oleracea Oleracea Group
bok choy Brassica rapa chinensis
Komatsuna Brassica rapa pervidis or komatsuna
Mizuna Brassica rapa nipposinica
Rapini (broccoli rabe) Brassica rapa parachinensis
Choy sum (Flowering cabbage) Brassica rapa parachinensis
Chinese cabbage, napa cabbage Brassica rapa pekinensis
Turnip root; greens Brassica rapa rapifera
Rutabaga (swede) Brassica napus napobrassica
Siberian kale Brassica napus pabularia
Canola/rapeseed Brassica rapa/napus oleifera
Wrapped heart mustard cabbage Brassica juncea rugosa
Mustard seeds, brown; greens Brassica juncea
White mustard seeds Brassica (or Sinapis) hirta
Black mustard seeds Brassica nigra
Tatsoi Brassica rosularis
Wild arugula Diplotaxis tenuifolia
Arugula (rocket) Eruca vesicaria
Field pepperweed Lepidium campestre
Maca Lepidium meyenii
Garden cress Lepidium sativum
Watercress Nasturtium officinale
Radish Raphanus sativus
Daikon Raphanus sativus longipinnatus
Wasabi Wasabia japonica

Research[edit]

Cruciferous vegetables contain glucosinolates which are under basic research for their potential properties of affecting some types of cancer.[2][3][4][5] Glucosinolates are hydrolyzed to isothiocyanates (ITCs) by the action of myrosinase.[6] ITCs, possibly a bioactive component in cruciferous vegetables, are being investigated for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects.[6][7] As one example in laboratory research, ITCs such as phenethyl isothiocyanate reduced levels of the oncoprotein MCL1.[8][9] Other in vitro research indicates ITCs may affect levels of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, the oncoprotein affecting mechanisms of leukemia.[9][10]

Drug and toxin metabolism[edit]

Chemicals contained in cruciferous vegetables induce the expression of the liver enzyme CYP1A2.[11] Furthermore, some drugs such as haloperidol and theophylline are metabolized by CYP1A2. Consequently, consumption of cruciferous vegetables may decrease bioavailability and half-life of these drugs.[12]

Brassicaceae contain a number of compounds under preliminary research for their potential hepato-protective properties.[13] Alliaceous and cruciferous vegetable consumption may induce glutathione S-transferases, uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferases, and quinone reductases[14] all of which are potentially involved in detoxification of carcinogens such as aflatoxin.[15] High consumption of cruciferous vegetables has potential risk from allergies, interference with drugs like warfarin and genotoxicity.[16][17]

Taste[edit]

People who can taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), which is either bitter or tasteless, are less likely to eat cruciferous vegetables,[18] due to the resemblance between isothiocyanates and PTC.

Contraindications[edit]

Goiter[edit]

Cruciferous vegetables can potentially be goitrogenic (inducing goiter formation). They contain enzymes that interfere with the formation of thyroid hormone in people with iodine deficiency.[19][20] Cooking for 30 minutes significantly reduces the amount of goitrogens and nitriles. At high intake of crucifers, the goitrogens inhibit the incorporation of iodine into thyroid hormone and also the transfer of iodine into milk by the mammary gland.[21]

Nursing[edit]

Brassica species may cause baby colic in breast-feeding, although the evidence for this is not strong.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gibson AC. "Colewart and the cole crops". University of California Los Angeles. 
  2. ^ "Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention". Fact Sheet. National Cancer Institute, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 7 June 2012. 
  3. ^ Le HT, Schaldach CM, Firestone GL, Bjeldanes LF (Jun 2003). "Plant-derived 3,3'-Diindolylmethane is a strong androgen antagonist in human prostate cancer cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (23): 21136–45. doi:10.1074/jbc.M300588200. PMID 12665522. 
  4. ^ Murillo G, Mehta RG (2001). "Cruciferous vegetables and cancer prevention". Nutrition and Cancer. 41 (1-2): 17–28. doi:10.1080/01635581.2001.9680607. PMID 12094621. 
  5. ^ Minich DM, Bland JS (Jun 2007). "A review of the clinical efficacy and safety of cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals". Nutrition Reviews. 65 (6 Pt 1): 259–67. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2007.tb00303.x. PMID 17605302. 
  6. ^ a b Singh SV, Singh K (Oct 2012). "Cancer chemoprevention with dietary isothiocyanates mature for clinical translational research". Carcinogenesis. 33 (10): 1833–42. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgs216. PMC 3529556free to read. PMID 22739026. 
  7. ^ Gupta P, Kim B, Kim SH, Srivastava SK (Aug 2014). "Molecular targets of isothiocyanates in cancer: recent advances". Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 58 (8): 1685–707. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201300684. PMC 4122603free to read. PMID 24510468. 
  8. ^ Gao N, Budhraja A, Cheng S, Liu EH, Chen J, Yang Z, Chen D, Zhang Z, Shi X (2011-04-07). "Phenethyl isothiocyanate exhibits antileukemic activity in vitro and in vivo by inactivation of Akt and activation of JNK pathways". Cell Death & Disease. 2 (4): e140. doi:10.1038/cddis.2011.22. PMC 3122055free to read. PMID 21472003. 
  9. ^ a b Lawson AP, Long MJ, Coffey RT, Qian Y, Weerapana E, El Oualid F, Hedstrom L (Dec 2015). "Naturally Occurring Isothiocyanates Exert Anticancer Effects by Inhibiting Deubiquitinating Enzymes". Cancer Research. 75 (23): 5130–42. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-1544. PMC 4668232free to read. PMID 26542215. 
  10. ^ Zhang H, Trachootham D, Lu W, Carew J, Giles FJ, Keating MJ, Arlinghaus RB, Huang P (Jun 2008). "Effective killing of Gleevec-resistant CML cells with T315I mutation by a natural compound PEITC through redox-mediated mechanism". Leukemia. 22 (6): 1191–9. doi:10.1038/leu.2008.74. PMC 2585768free to read. PMID 18385754. 
  11. ^ Lampe JW, King IB, Li S, Grate MT, Barale KV, Chen C, Feng Z, Potter JD (Jun 2000). "Brassica vegetables increase and apiaceous vegetables decrease cytochrome P450 1A2 activity in humans: changes in caffeine metabolite ratios in response to controlled vegetable diets". Carcinogenesis. 21 (6): 1157–62. doi:10.1093/carcin/21.6.1157. PMID 10837004. 
  12. ^ Bibi Z (2008). "Role of cytochrome P450 in drug interactions". Nutrition & Metabolism. 5: 27. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-5-27. PMC 2584094free to read. PMID 18928560. 
  13. ^ Aggarwal BB, Ichikawa H (Sep 2005). "Molecular targets and anticancer potential of indole-3-carbinol and its derivatives". Cell Cycle. 4 (9): 1201–15. doi:10.4161/cc.4.9.1993. PMID 16082211. 
  14. ^ Kensler TW, Curphey TJ, Maxiutenko Y, Roebuck BD (2000). "Chemoprotection by organosulfur inducers of phase 2 enzymes: dithiolethiones and dithiins". Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions. 17 (1-4): 3–22. doi:10.1515/DMDI.2000.17.1-4.3. PMID 11201301. 
  15. ^ Kensler TW, Chen JG, Egner PA, Fahey JW, Jacobson LP, Stephenson KK, Ye L, Coady JL, Wang JB, Wu Y, Sun Y, Zhang QN, Zhang BC, Zhu YR, Qian GS, Carmella SG, Hecht SS, Benning L, Gange SJ, Groopman JD, Talalay P (Nov 2005). "Effects of glucosinolate-rich broccoli sprouts on urinary levels of aflatoxin-DNA adducts and phenanthrene tetraols in a randomized clinical trial in He Zuo township, Qidong, People's Republic of China". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 14 (11 Pt 1): 2605–13. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0368. PMID 16284385. 
  16. ^ Latté KP, Appel KE, Lampen A (Dec 2011). "Health benefits and possible risks of broccoli - an overview". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 49 (12): 3287–309. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2011.08.019. PMID 21906651. 
  17. ^ Scott O, Galicia-Connolly E, Adams D, Surette S, Vohra S, Yager JY (2012). "The safety of cruciferous plants in humans: a systematic review". Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology. 2012: 503241. doi:10.1155/2012/503241. PMC 3303573free to read. PMID 22500092. 
  18. ^ Wooding S, Kim UK, Bamshad MJ, Larsen J, Jorde LB, Drayna D (Apr 2004). "Natural selection and molecular evolution in PTC, a bitter-taste receptor gene". American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (4): 637–46. doi:10.1086/383092. PMC 1181941free to read. PMID 14997422. Lay summaryScience Blog. 
  19. ^ Shomon M (August 27, 2009). "What are Goitrogens and How Do they Affect the Thyroid?". Thyroid Disease. About.com. 
  20. ^ McDougall J (December 2005). "Thyroid Deficiency Strikes One in Six". McDougall Newsletter. 4 (12). 
  21. ^ Masterjohn C (15 February 2008). "Bearers of the Cross: Crucifers in the Context of Traditional Diets and Modern Science". The Weston A. Price Foundation for Wise Traditions in Food, Farming, and the Healing Arts. 
  22. ^ Scott O, Galicia-Connolly E, Adams D, Surette S, Vohra S, Yager JY (2012). "The safety of cruciferous plants in humans: a systematic review". Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology. 2012: 503241. doi:10.1155/2012/503241. PMC 3303573free to read. PMID 22500092. 

Further reading[edit]