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A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high precision; that is, small circular error probability. Modern cruise missiles are capable of travelling at supersonic or high subsonic speeds, are self-navigating, and are able to fly on a non-ballistic, extremely low-altitude trajectory.
- 1 History
- 2 General design
- 3 Categories
- 4 Deployment
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
In 1916, Lawrence Sperry built and patented an "aerial torpedo", a small biplane carrying a TNT charge, a Sperry autopilot and a barometric altitude control. Inspired by these experiments, the United States Army developed a similar flying bomb called the Kettering Bug. Germany had also flown trials with remote-controlled aerial gliders (Torpedogleiter) built by Siemens-Schuckert beginning in 1916.
In the Soviet Union, Sergei Korolev headed the GIRD-06 cruise missile project from 1932 to 1939, which used a rocket-powered boost-glide bomb design. The 06/III (RP-216) and 06/IV (RP-212) contained gyroscopic guidance systems. The vehicle was designed to boost to 28 km altitude and glide a distance of 280 km, but test flights in 1934 and 1936 only reached an altitude of 500 meters.
In 1944, Germany deployed the first operational cruise missiles in World War II. The V-1, often called a flying bomb, contained a gyroscope guidance system and was propelled by a simple pulsejet engine, the sound of which gave it the nickname of "buzz bomb" or "doodlebug". Accuracy was sufficient only for use against very large targets (the general area of a city), while the range of 250 km was significantly lower than that of a bomber carrying the same payload. The main advantages were speed (while not sufficient to outperform contemporary interceptors) and expendability. The production cost of a V-1 was only a small fraction of that of a V-2 supersonic ballistic missile, carrying a similar-sized warhead. Unlike the V-2, however, the initial deployments of the V-1 required stationary launch ramps which were susceptible to bombardment. Nazi Germany, in 1943, also developed the Mistel composite aircraft program, which can be seen as a rudimentary air-launched cruise missile, where a piloted fighter-type aircraft was mounted atop an unpiloted bomber-sized aircraft that was packed with explosives to be released while approaching the target. Bomber-launched variants of the V-1 saw limited operational service near the end of the war, with the pioneering V-1's design reverse-engineered by the Americans as the Republic-Ford JB-2 cruise missile.
Immediately after the war the United States Air Force had 21 different guided missile projects, including would-be cruise missiles. All were cancelled by 1948, except four — the Air Materiel Command BANSHEE, the SM-62 Snark, the SM-64 Navaho, and the MGM-1 Matador. The BANSHEE design was similar to Operation Aphrodite; like Aphrodite, it failed, and was cancelled in April 1949.
During the Cold War period both the United States and the Soviet Union experimented further with the concept, deploying early cruise missiles from land, submarines and aircraft. The main outcome of the United States Navy submarine missile project was the SSM-N-8 Regulus missile, based upon the V-1.
The United States Air Force's first operational surface-to-surface missile was the winged, mobile, nuclear-capable MGM-1 Matador, also similar in concept to the V-1. Deployment overseas began in 1954, first to West Germany and later to the Republic of China (Taiwan) and South Korea. On November 7, 1956, U.S. Air Force Matador units in West Germany, whose missiles were capable of striking targets in the Warsaw Pact, deployed from their fixed day-to-day sites to unannounced dispersed launch locations. This alert was in response to the crisis posed by the Soviet attack on Hungary which suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.
Between 1957 and 1961 the United States followed an ambitious and well-funded program to develop a nuclear-powered cruise missile, Supersonic Low Altitude Missile (SLAM). It was designed to fly below the enemy's radar at speeds above Mach 3 and carry a number of hydrogen bombs that it would drop along its path over enemy territory. Although the concept was proven sound and the 500 megawatt engine finished a successful test run in 1961, no airworthy device was ever completed. The project was finally abandoned in favor of ICBM development.
While ballistic missiles were the preferred weapons for land targets, heavy nuclear and conventional weapon tipped cruise missiles were seen by the USSR as a primary weapon to destroy United States naval carrier battle groups. Large submarines (for example, Echo and Oscar classes) were developed to carry these weapons and shadow United States battle groups at sea, and large bombers (for example, Backfire, Bear, and Blackjack models) were equipped with the weapons in their air-launched cruise missile (ALCM) configuration.
Cruise missiles generally consist of a guidance system, payload, and aircraft propulsion system, housed in an airframe with small wings and empennage for flight control. Payloads usually consist of a conventional warhead or a nuclear warhead. Cruise missiles tend to be propelled by a jet engine, turbofan engines being preferred due to their greater efficiency at low altitude and subsonic speed.
Guidance systems also vary greatly. Low-cost systems use a radar altimeter, barometric altimeter and clock to navigate a digital strip map. More advanced systems use inertial guidance, satellite guidance and terrain contour matching (TERCOM). Use of an automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm/device in the guidance system increases accuracy of the missile. The Standoff Land Attack Missile features an ATR unit from General Electric.
Cruise missiles can be categorized by size, speed (subsonic or supersonic), and range, and whether launched from land, air, surface ship, or submarine. Often versions of the same missile are produced for different launch platforms; sometimes air- and submarine-launched versions are a little lighter and smaller than land- and ship-launched versions.
Guidance systems can vary across missiles. Some missiles can be fitted with any of a variety of navigation systems (Inertial navigation, TERCOM, or satellite navigation). Larger cruise missiles can carry either a conventional or a nuclear warhead, while smaller ones carry only conventional warheads.
- Kh-90 (3,000-4,000 km) / is a hypersonic air-to-surface cruise missile developed in 1990 by the USSR and later by Russia. This missile was designed to cruise from Mach 4 to Mach 6, eventually being able to travel at speeds lower than Mach 10–15.
- Kh-80 (3000-5000 km) /
- BrahMos-II (~300 km) / is a hypersonic missile currently under development in India and Russia.
- 3M22 Zircon Hypersonic anti-ship cruise missile.
- Shaurya (700-1,900 km) a canister launched hypersonic surface-to-surface tactical missile developed by India.
- High Speed Strike Weapon missile based on Boeing X-51.
- Tactical Boost Glide (TBG): Air-launched hypersonic boost glide missile under development.
- Yu-74 hypersonic glide vehicle that can be carried by RS-28 Sarmat. 
- WU-14 (DF-ZF) hypersonic glide vehicle which can also be used as an anti-ship ballistic missile. 
These missiles travel faster than the speed of sound, usually using ramjet engines. The range is typically 100–500 km, but can be greater. Guidance systems vary.
- 3M-54 Klub (up to 2,500 km) Russia (the "Sizzler" variant is capable of supersonic speed)
- 3M-51 Alfa (250 km)
- AGM-69 SRAM (200 km) United States
- SSM-N-9 Regulus II (1,852 km) United States
- Air-Sol Moyenne Portée (300-500 km+) France — supersonic stand-off nuclear missile
- BrahMos / India / Russia – fastest supersonic cruise missile
- C-101 China
- C-301 China
- C-803 China — supersonic terminal stage only
- C-805 China
- CVS401 Perseus (300 km) / United Kingdom / France (Under development) — stealth supersonic cruise missile
- KD-88 China
- Kh-31 Russia
- P-270 Moskit / USSR / Russia
- P-500 Bazalt / USSR / Russia
- P-700 Granit / USSR / Russia
- P-800 Oniks (600 km) Russia
- P-1000 Vulkan (800 km) / USSR / Russia
- Kh-61 / USSR / Russia
- YJ-12 China
- YJ-18 China
- YJ-91 China
- Yun Feng Taiwan
- Hsiung Feng III Taiwan
- SM-62 Snark (10,200 km) United States
- SM-64 Navaho (6,500 km) United States
- SLAM (182,000 km) United States
- RSS-40 Buran (8,500) USSR
- Burya (8,500 km) USSR
The United States, Russia, United Kingdom, Israel, South Korea, Turkey, Iran, China, Pakistan and India have developed several long-range subsonic cruise missiles. These missiles have a range of over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) and fly at about 800 kilometres per hour (500 mph). They typically have a launch weight of about 1,500 kilograms (3,300 lb) and can carry either a conventional or a nuclear warhead. Earlier versions of these missiles used inertial navigation; later versions use much more accurate TERCOM and DSMAC systems. Most recent versions can use satellite navigation.
- 3M14 (up tp 2,500 km) Russia
- AGM-86B ( United States
- AGM-129 ACM United States
- BGM-109 Tomahawk (up 1,700 km) / United States/United Kingdom
- BGM-109G Ground Launched Cruise Missile (2,500 km)
- DF-10/CJ-10 China
- Hyunmoo III South Korea (Hyunmoo IIIA 500 km, Hyunmoo IIIB 1000 km, Hyunmoo IIIC 1500 km)
- Kh-55 (3,000 km) Russia
- Kh-101 (4500-5500 km) Russia
- Meshkat Iran (Range 2000 km)
- Soumar (missile) Iran (Range allegedly 2000-3000 km)
- Nirbhay India (1000–1500 km; under development)
- Popeye Turbo SLCM Israel
- RK-55 (3,000 km) Soviet Union
- SOM (missile) (SOM B Block I) Turkey (350 km range under serial production, 500 km + range under development) – 500 km, 1500 km and 2500 km versions 
- MGM-13 Mace United States
These missiles are about the same size and weight and fly at similar speeds to the above category, but the range is (officially) less than 1,000 km. Guidance systems vary.
- MGM-1 Matador (700 km) United States
- SSM-N-8 Regulus (926 km) United States
- Apache (100-140 km)
- AGM-158 JASSM (370-1000 km) United States
- AGM-158C LRASM (USA) (370 km+-560 km+) United States
- Babur Pakistan (700 km)
- KD-63 China
- Popeye turbo ALCM Israel
- Ra'ad ALCM Pakistan
- Raad Iran
- Ya-Ali (missile) (700 km)
- Storm Shadow/SCALP // UK / France / Italy
- Taurus KEPD 350 // Germany / Sweden / Spain
- P-5 Pyatyorka (450-750 km)
These are subsonic missiles which weigh around 500 kilograms (1,102 lb) and have a range of up to 300 km (190 mi).
- AVMT-300 (300 km) Brazil
- C-801 China
- C-802 China
- C-803 China
- C-805 China
- C-602 China
- CM-602G China
- Delilah missile (250 km) Israel
- Gabriel IV (200 km) Israel
- SSM-700K Haeseong (180+ km) South Korea
- Kh-35 (300 km) Russia
- Kh-59 (115-285 km) Russia
- P-15 KN-1 (80 km) Russia
- Silkworm KN-1 China
- Nasr-1 Iran
- Naval Strike Missile (185 km-555 km) Norway
- Noor Iran
- Qader Iran
- RBS-15 Sweden
- RGM-84 Harpoon (124 km) United States
- AGM-84E Standoff Land Attack Missile (110 km) United States
- AGM-84H/K SLAM-ER (270 km) United States
- Silkworm China
- SOM (missile) Turkey
- Zafar (25 km) Iran
- V-1 flying bomb (250 km)
The most common mission for cruise missiles is to attack relatively high-value targets such as ships, command bunkers, bridges and dams. Modern guidance systems permit accurate attacks.
As of 2001[update] the BGM-109 Tomahawk missile model has become a significant part of the United States naval arsenal. It gives ships and submarines an extremely accurate, long-range, conventional land attack weapon. Each costs about $1.99 million USD. Both the Tomahawk and the AGM-86 were used extensively during Operation Desert Storm. On April 7, 2017, during the Syrian Civil War, U.S. warships fired more than 50 cruise missiles into a Syrian air base in retaliation for a Syrian Sarin gas attack against a rebel stronghold. 
The United States Air Force (USAF) deploys an air-launched cruise missile, the AGM-86 ALCM. The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is the exclusive delivery vehicle for the AGM-86 and AGM-129 ACM. Both missile types are configurable for either conventional or nuclear warheads.
The USAF adopted the AGM-86 for its bomber fleet while AGM-109 was adapted to launch from trucks and ships and adopted by the USAF and Navy. The truck-launched versions, and also the Pershing II and SS-20 Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles, were later destroyed under the bilateral INF (Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces) treaty with the USSR.
The British Royal Navy (RN) also operates cruise missiles, specifically the U.S.-made Tomahawk, used by the RN's nuclear submarine fleet. UK conventional warhead versions were first fired in combat by the RN in 1999, during the Kosovo War (the United States fired cruise missiles in 1991). The Royal Air Force uses the Storm Shadow cruise missile on its Tornado GR4 aircraft. It is also used by France, where it is known as SCALP EG, and carried by the Armée de l'Air's Mirage 2000 and Rafale aircraft.
India and Russia have jointly developed the supersonic cruise missile BrahMos. There are three versions of the Brahmos: ship/land-launched, air-launched and sub-launched. The ship/land-launched version were operational as of late 2007. The Brahmos has the capability to attack targets on land. Russia also continues to operate other cruise missiles: the SS-N-12 Sandbox, SS-N-19 Shipwreck, SS-N-22 Sunburn and SS-N-25 Switchblade. Germany and Spain operate the Taurus missile while Pakistan has developed its own cruise missile somewhat similar to Tomahawk cruise missile, named the Babur missile. Both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan) have designed several cruise missile variants, such as the well-known C-802, some of which are capable of carrying biological, chemical, nuclear, and conventional warheads.
Nuclear warhead versions
The French Force de Frappe nuclear forces include both land and sea based bombers with Air-Sol Moyenne Portée high speed medium range nuclear cruise missiles. Two models are in use, ASMP and a newer ASMP-A. Approximately 60 nuclear missiles are in service, 50 land based and 10 sea based.
India is developing its own nuclear capable Nirbhay cruise missile since 2013. Nirbhay was tested in March 2013, October 2014, October 2015 and December 2016, but failed to successfully hit the target each time.
The Israeli Defense Forces reportedly deploy the medium-range air-launched Popeye Turbo ALCM and the Popeye Turbo SLCM medium-long range cruise missile with nuclear warheads on Dolphin class submarines.
Pakistan currently has three cruise missile systems in service, of which, two are nuclear-capable cruise missiles: the air-launched Ra'ad and the ground-launched Babur, and the sea-launched Zarb. Both, Ra'ad and Babur, can carry nuclear warheads between 10 and 25 kt, and deliver them to targets at a range of 350 km (220 mi) and 700 km (430 mi) respectively. Ra'ad has been in the use of the Pakistan Air Force since 2007, while Babur has been with the Pakistan Army since 2005. The Zarb, considered not nuclear and intended as an anti-ship missile, joined service with the Pakistan Navy in 2016.
Russia has Kh-55SM cruise missiles, with similar to United States' AGM-129 range of 3000 km, but are able to carry a more powerful warhead of 200 kt. They are equipped with a TERCOM system which allows them to cruise at an altitude lower than 110 meters at subsonic speeds while obtaining a CEP accuracy of 15 meters with an Inertial navigation system. They are air-launched from either Tupolev Tu-95s, Tupolev Tu-22Ms, or Tupolev Tu-160s, each able to carry 16 for the Tu-95, 12 for the Tu-160, and 4 for the Tu-22M. A stealth version of the missile, the Kh-101 is in development. It has similar qualities as the Kh-55, except that its range has been extended to 5,000 km, equipped with a 1,000 kg conventional warhead, and has stealth features which reduces its probability of intercept.
The United States has deployed four nuclear cruise missiles at one time or another.
- SSM-N-8 Regulus submarine-launched missile, out of service
- AGM-86 ALCM air-launched cruise missile, 350 to 550 missiles and W80 warheads still in service
- BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missile in nuclear submarine-, surface ship-, and ground-launched models, nuclear models out of service but warheads kept in reserve.
- AGM-129 ACM Advanced Cruise missile, out of service 
Efficiency in modern warfare
Currently cruise missiles are among the most expensive of single-use weapons, up to several million dollars apiece. One consequence of this is that its users face difficult choices in target allocation, to avoid expending the missiles on targets of low value. For instance during Operation Enduring Freedom the United States attacked targets of very low monetary value with cruise missiles, which led many to question the efficiency of the weapon. However, proponents of the cruise missile counter that the same argument applies to other types of UAVs: they are cheaper than human pilots when total training and infrastructure costs are taken into account, not to mention the risk of loss of personnel. As demonstrated in Operation Odyssey Dawn and prior conflicts, cruise missiles are much more difficult to detect and intercept than other aerial assets (reduced radar cross-section, infrared and visual signature due to smaller size), suiting them to attacks against static air defense systems. The development of hypersonic missiles systems is, however, problematic from a geopolitical perspective. In an article on this topic, Professor Nayef Al-Rodhan warned that a test ban is very unlikely and that the technology will renew a strategic arms race and geopolitical rivalries.
- Hypersonic cruise missiles
- Affordable Weapon System
- Cruise missile submarine
- Eugene Vielle (pioneer of technology that led to the Cruise missile)
- Expendable launch system
- Intercontinental ballistic missile
- List of missiles
- List of missiles by country
- List of rocket aircraft
- Lists of weapons
- Low Cost Miniature Cruise Missile
- NATO reporting name (has lists of various Soviet missiles)
- Submarine-launched cruise missile
- Surface-to-surface missile
- Weapon of mass destruction
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cruise missile.|
- The Evolution of the Cruise Missile by Werrell, Kenneth P.
- The Cruise Missile: Precursors and Problems by Werrell, Kenneth P.
- An introduction to cruise missiles — From the website of the Federation of American Scientists (FAS)
- Feasibility of Third World Advanced Ballistic & Cruise Missile Threat NDIA 155 slide presentation from 1999
- The DIY cruise missile
- The W80 Warhead
- Cruise Missile Fundamentals
- Tomahawk Variants
- Bypassing the NMD: China and the Cruise Missile Proliferation Problem (Kh-55)
- Video of cruise missile formation over Iraq
- A commercial terrain matching image-based navigation system (with video)