Crustal magnetism

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Crustal magnetism map of Mars

Crustal magnetism is the magnetic field of the crust of a planetary body.[1][2] The crustal magnetism of Earth has been studied, in particular various magnetic crustal anomalies have been studied.[3] Two examples of crustal magnetic anomalies on Earth that been studied the Americas are the Brunswick magnetic anomaly (BMA) and East Coast magnetic anomaly (ECMA).[4] Also there can be a correlation between physical geological features and certain readings from crustal magnetism on Earth.[5] Below the surface of the Earth the temperature increases and so the crustal magnetism is lost because it rises above the curie temperate of the materials producing the field.[6]

On Mars the crustal magnetic fields have been noted as effecting its ionosphere.[7][8] (See also Atmosphere of Mars) The magnetic fields on Mars from its rocks and crust are thought to come from Ferromagnetism and if the material is heated above its curie temperature the magnetic imprint is un-done.[9] The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) discovered magnetic stripes in the crust of Mars, especially in the Phaethontis and Eridania quadrangles (Terra Cimmeria and Terra Sirenum).[10][11] The magnetometer on MGS discovered 100 km (62 mi) wide stripes of magnetized crust running roughly parallel for up to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi). These stripes alternate in polarity with the north magnetic pole of one pointing up from the surface and the north magnetic pole of the next pointing down.[12][13] When similar stripes were discovered on Earth in the 1960s, they were taken as evidence of plate tectonics. Researchers believe these magnetic stripes on Mars are evidence for a short, early period of plate tectonic activity.[14][15][16] Only roughly half of Mars seems have a crustal magnetic field, which has been explained that an internal dynamo only effected part of planet or that a body struck Mars in the past destroying the magnetism.[17]

Lunar crustal magnetism has also been discovered and studied.[18] The Lunar Prospector probe of the 1990s mapped the lunar crustal magnetic field across the whole globe of the Moon for the first time.[19] This allowed the impact on magnetic fields of previously identified impact basins to be studied.[20] The impact basins Orientale and Imbrium had some of weakest magnetic fields in the survey, and additional study puts constraints on the existence of a steady ambient Lunar magnetic fields in the Moons past given the assumptions of the data and collection techniques.[21] Remanent crustal magnetic fields are studied on Moon as in this case, and have also been examined on Earth and on Mars.[22] However, these are the only bodies that have by the early 21st century they have been studied even though it is predicted other bodies will have this geological feature.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "GSA Today - Crustal magnetism, tectonic inheritance, and continental rifting in the southeastern United States". www.geosociety.org. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
  2. ^ Treatise on Geophysics. Google Books: Elsevier. 2015-04-17. p. 187. ISBN 9780444538031.
  3. ^ "GSA Today - Crustal magnetism, tectonic inheritance, and continental rifting in the southeastern United States". www.geosociety.org. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
  4. ^ "GSA Today - Crustal magnetism, tectonic inheritance, and continental rifting in the southeastern United States". www.geosociety.org. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
  5. ^ Ravat, Dhananjay (2007). Gubbins, David; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio, eds. Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism. Springer Netherlands. pp. 140–144. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-4423-6_58. ISBN 9781402039928.
  6. ^ Treatise on Geophysics. Google Books: Elsevier. 2015-04-17. p. 187. ISBN 9780444538031.
  7. ^ "Mars' ionosphere shaped by crustal magnetic fields". Retrieved 2017-08-07.
  8. ^ "Mars' ionosphere shaped by crustal magnetic fields". sci.esa.int. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
  9. ^ "Mars' ionosphere shaped by crustal magnetic fields". sci.esa.int. Retrieved 2017-08-07.
  10. ^ Barlow, N. 2008. Mars: An Introduction to its Interior, Surface and Atmosphere. Cambridge University Press
  11. ^ ISBN 978-0-387-48925-4
  12. ^ ISBN 978-0-521-82956-4
  13. ^ ISBN 978-0-521-85226-5
  14. ^ Connerney, J. et al. 1999. Magnetic lineations in the ancient crust of Mars. Science: 284. 794-798.
  15. ^ Langlais, B. et al. 2004. Crustal magnetic field of Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research. 109: EO2008
  16. ^ Sprenke, K.; Baker, L. (2000). "Magnetization, palemagnetic poles, and polar wander on Mars". Icarus. 147: 26–34. Bibcode:2000Icar..147...26S. doi:10.1006/icar.2000.6439.
  17. ^ "Why is only half of Mars magnetized?". www.planetary.org. Retrieved 2017-08-09.
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ Mitchell, D.L.; Halekas, J.S.; Lin, R.P.; Frey, S.; Hood, L.L.; Acuña, M.H.; Binder, A. (2008). "Global mapping of lunar crustal magnetic fields by Lunar Prospector". Icarus. 194: 401–409. Bibcode:2008Icar..194..401M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.10.027.
  20. ^ [2]
  21. ^ [3]
  22. ^ [4]
  23. ^ [5]

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