Cryptocurrency tumbler or cryptocurrency mixing service is a service offered to mix potentially identifiable or 'tainted' cryptocurrency funds with others, so as to obscure the trail back to the fund's original source. Tumblers have arisen to improve the anonymity of cryptocurrencies, usually bitcoin (hence Bitcoin mixer), since the currencies provide a public ledger of all transactions.
Tumblers take a percentage transaction fee of the total coins mixed to turn a profit, typically 1-3%. Mixing helps protect privacy and can also be used for money laundering by mixing illegally obtained funds. Mixing large amounts of money may be illegal, being in violation of anti-structuring laws. Financial crimes author Jeffrey Robinson has suggested tumblers should be criminalized due to their potential use in illegal activities, specifically funding terrorism; however, a report from the CTC suggests such use in terrorism-related activities is 'relatively limited'. There has been at least one incident where an exchange has blacklisted "tainted" deposits descending from stolen bitcoins.
Peer-to-peer tumblers act as a place of meeting for bitcoin users, instead of taking bitcoins for mixing. Users arrange mixing by themselves. This model solves the problem of stealing, as there is no middleman. When it is completely formed, the exchange of bitcoins between the participants begins. Apart from mixing server, none of the participants can know the connection between the incoming and outgoing addresses of coins.
- Jeffries, Adrianne (19 December 2013). "How to steal Bitcoin in three easy steps". Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- The Cryptocurrency Tumblers: Risks, Legality and Oversight. Law and Society: Private Law - Financial Law Journal. Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Accessed 6 December 2017.
- Allison, Ian (February 11, 2015). "Bitcoin tumbler: The business of covering tracks in the world of cryptocurrency laundering". Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- Brantly, Aaron (31 October 2014). "Financing Terror Bit by Bit". Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- IHS Jane's Intelligence Review (30 December 2014). "Law enforcement struggles to control darknet". Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- Copestake, Jen (19 September 2014). "Hiding currency in the Dark Wallet". Retrieved 17 May 2015.