Cubatão

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Cubatão
Aerial view of Cubatão
Aerial view of Cubatão
Flag of Cubatão
Flag
Coat of arms of Cubatão
Coat of arms
Location of Cubatão
Location of Cubatão
Cubatão is located in Brazil
Cubatão
Cubatão
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 23°53′43″S 46°25′32″W / 23.89528°S 46.42556°W / -23.89528; -46.42556Coordinates: 23°53′43″S 46°25′32″W / 23.89528°S 46.42556°W / -23.89528; -46.42556
Country  Brazil
Region Southeast
State  São Paulo
Metropolitan Region Baixada Santista
Founded April 9, 1832
Government
 • Mayor Marcia Rosa (PT)
Area
 • Total 142.88 km2 (55.17 sq mi)
Elevation 4 m (13 ft)
Population (2015)[1]
 • Total 127,006
 • Density 890/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
Time zone BRT (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2)
HDI (2000) 0,772 – medium
Website Cubatão

Cubatão is a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 12 kilometers away from Santos seaport, the largest in Latin America. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of Baixada Santista.[2] The population is 127,006 (2015 est.) in an area of 142.88 km².[1] It hosts industries, refining oil, steel mills and fertilizers.

In the early 1980s, Cubatão was one of the most polluted cities in the world, nicknamed "Valley of Death", due to births of brainless children and respiratory, hepatic and blood illnesses. High air pollution was killing forest over hills around the city. It's a rich town with a poor population. It was ranked the top ten dirtiest cities in the world by Popular Science.

On February 25, 1984 an oil spill set the shantytown Vila Socó on fire, killing 93 people according to official figures, though the actual death toll may be more than 200.[citation needed] The contamination of workers with persistent organic pollutants put Rhodia into Greenpeace's top 10 world's worst corporate crimes ever in its report to Rio Summit in 1992.

Strong efforts were made to diminish pollution in the city, costing $1.2 billion so far. Although things have improved a lot, it is impossible to completely clean the soil and groundwater and while many large industries continue to work in such a small area, there will always be some pollution.[citation needed]

Popular culture[edit]

Cubatão was mentioned in the Jello Biafra-Sepultura collaboration "Biotech is Godzilla" on the group's 1993 album Chaos A.D.

Sister cities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
  2. ^ Assembleia Legislativa do Estado de São Paulo, Lei Complementar Nº 815
  3. ^ "LEI MUNICIPAL Nº 907, DE 09/04/1972 - Cubatão / SP - Legislação Municipal" [MUNICIPAL LAW NUMBER 907, FROM 1972-4-9 - Cubatão / SP - Municipal Legislation] (in Portuguese). Cubatão Municipal Council. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  4. ^ "Um monumento à amizade (2)" [A monument to friendship (2)] (in Portuguese). Novo Milênio Electronic Journal. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  5. ^ "LEI MUNICIPAL Nº 1.594, DE 18/06/1986 - Cubatão / SP - Legislação Municipal" [MUNICIPAL LAW NUMBER 1,594, FROM 1986-6-18 - Cubatão / SP - Municipal Legislation] (in Portuguese). Cubatão Municipal Council. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  6. ^ "Um monumento à amizade (2)" [A monument to friendship (2)] (in Portuguese). Novo Milênio Electronic Journal. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  7. ^ "LEI MUNICIPAL Nº 1.976, DE 03/10/1991 - Cubatão / SP - Legislação Municipal" [MUNICIPAL LAW NUMBER 1,976, FROM 1991-10-3 - Cubatão / SP - Municipal Legislation] (in Portuguese). Cubatão Municipal Council. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  8. ^ "Um monumento à amizade (2)" [A monument to friendship (2)] (in Portuguese). Novo Milênio Electronic Journal. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  9. ^ "LEI MUNICIPAL Nº 1.993, DE 07/11/1991 - Cubatão / SP - Legislação Municipal" [MUNICIPAL LAW NUMBER 1,993, FROM 1991-11-7 - Cubatão / SP - Municipal Legislation] (in Portuguese). Cubatão Municipal Council. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  10. ^ Negra "Um monumento à amizade (2)" [A monument to friendship (2)] Check |url= value (help) (in Portuguese). Novo Milênio Electronic Journal. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  11. ^ "LEI MUNICIPAL Nº 2.002, DE 18/11/1991 - Cubatão / SP - Legislação Municipal" [MUNICIPAL LAW NUMBER 2,002, FROM 1991-11-18 - Cubatão / SP - Municipal Legislation] (in Portuguese). Cubatão Municipal Council. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  12. ^ "Um monumento à amizade (2)" [A monument to friendship (2)] (in Portuguese). Novo Milênio Electronic Journal. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  13. ^ "LEI MUNICIPAL Nº 2.086, DE 17/09/1992 - Cubatão / SP - Legislação Municipal" [MUNICIPAL LAW NUMBER 2,086, FROM 1992-9-17 - Cubatão / SP - Municipal Legislation] (in Portuguese). Cubatão Municipal Council. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  14. ^ "Um monumento à amizade (2)" [A monument to friendship (2)] (in Portuguese). Novo Milênio Electronic Journal. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  15. ^ "LEI MUNICIPAL Nº 3.047, DE 26/12/2005 - Cubatão / SP - Legislação Municipal" [MUNICIPAL LAW NUMBER 3,047, FROM 2005-12-26 - Cubatão / SP - Municipal Legislation] (in Portuguese). Cubatão Municipal Council. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 

External links[edit]