|Location||Mexico City, Federal District
|Culture||Formative Period, Valley of Mexico- Toltec (?)|
|Foundation||Around 1000 BCE.|
|INAH Official Page||Cuicuilco|
Cuicuilco is an important archaeological Mesoamerican Middle and Late Formative (c. 700 BCE – 150 CE) period site located on the southern shore of the Lake Texcoco in the southeastern Valley of Mexico. Today, it is a significant archaeological site that was occupied during the Early Formative until its destruction in the Late Formative. Based on its date of occupation, Cuicuilco may be the oldest city in the Valley of Mexico and was roughly contemporary with, and possibly interacting with the Olmec of the Gulf Coast of lowland Veracruz and Tabasco (also known as the Olmec heartland).
Based on known facts, it was the first important civic-religious center of the Mexican Highlands, its population probably included all social strata and cultural traits that would characterize the Altépetl (city-state) of classical Mesoamerica.
Cuicuilco was destroyed and abandoned since the eruption of the volcano Xitle, causing migrations and changes to the population, it culminated with the Teotihuacán consolidation as classical period ruler of the Central Highlands.
At the site are 8 of the many housing and religious buildings that once existed, and the remains of a hydraulic system that supplied water the city. One of the pyramids was built in a strategic position, representing early prehispanic attempts to link religious concepts with cosmic events through building construction.
- 1 The name
- 2 History
- 3 Archaeological site
- 4 Current Situation
- 5 Other photos
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 External links
- 9 Bibliography
The etymology is unknown.
According to INAH, Zelia Nuttall believes that Cuicuilco means: “Place where songs and dances are made””.
Cuicuilco was originally founded as a farming village, but presents evidence of early religious practices including stone offerings and the use of ceramics as grave goods. The city grew around a large ceremonial center with pyramids and an associated urban area that included plazas and avenues bordering a series of small, shallow pools. These pools were fed by runoff from the nearby hills of Zacayuca and Zacaltepetl. Population at the city's peak is estimated at 20,000 people. Site features include terraces, various buildings, fortifications, and irrigation ditches and canals. The main known structure is a pyramidal basement built about 800–600 BCE.
Although this site produced a new ceramic tradition (around 600–200 BCE), it is considered that the overall site area was developed by several generations inhabiting the place.
Archaeological evidence, ceramic and structures, indicate that Cuicuilco developed during the first millennium BCE, during the Preclassical, as a small settlement, its inhabitants interacted with other sites, in the Mexico basin as well as relatively distant regions, e.g. Chupicuaro to the West and Monte Albán Southeast.
Estimated Cuicuilco occupation periods, at best may be considered tentative. The earliest occupation is estimated in 1200 BCE, there were many farmers’ villages of similar configuration and space distribution. During the period 1000–800 BCE conical structures with oval base were built. The specialists call these sites regional capitals considering that had higher hierarchy and functioned as integration centers, eventually became larger regional capitals.
If the great pyramid of Cuicuilco is an expression of this increment, then this level of development was reached between 800–600 BC, when was built. If true, the proto-urban characteristics might have extended to the late Preclassical, the Cuicuilco weakening between 100 BCE and 1 CE. Time when development of Teotihuacan began, that became and important Classical period urban center.
Beginning of the Culture
In the mid-Preclassical (c. 800 BCE), settlements emerged in the area, which slowly evolved and grew, becoming villas, subsequently developing into a major civic-ceremonial urban centers in late preclassical (c. 100 CE). As an urban center, Cuicuilco became very important, with an advanced and hierarchized society.
There are opinions that the development of place, from its foundation, was due to its strategic location near the Toluca entrance, and near the Texcoco lake shores.
Under this perspective, although the place produced (around 600–200 BCE) a new ceramic tradition, is also evident that the region was configured by successive generations.
Towards the late preclassical (around 150 BCE), period Cuicuilco achieved the features of an urban regional center, with a population estimated at about 20,000 inhabitants, comparable with Teotihuacan at that time (cf. Sanders, 1981), Cuicuilco development was affected by the eruption of the Xitle volcano, forming a lava layer that partially or completely covered the city’s structures, whose extension is inferred to have reached nearly 400 hectares (cf. ibid.).
Physiological characteristics of the culture
People had round heads affected by tubular cranial deformation direct or oblique, the first being more common. Dental mutilation was practiced. Average life span was 51 years, mainly affected by diseases like osteomyelitis.
Agriculture and food
From their location, inhabitants had access to natural resources, as they were located approximately 4 km from the Xochimilco Lake, and near the Sierra de las Cruces and Ajusco (cf. Sanders 1981: 173); In addition there were water springs and streams. Prehispanic groups managed to produce food. The economic Mesoamerican base was centered on agriculture, probably supplemented with hunting, fishing and gathering; access to wood had to be simple, from nearby forests, and agricultural land in the vicinity of the nuclear portion of the site, buried today under meters of volcanic lava and modern buildings.
End of the culture
The decline began in the early 1st century BCE, with the increasing rise of Teotihuacán as a center of cultural and religious influence. By the year 400 CE, the Xitle volcano, located in the vicinity of “the Ajusco” (Nahuatl: atl, xochitl, co, “water”, “flower”, “place”; “place of flowers in water”), also known as Sierra del Ajusco - Chichinauhtzin, erupted burying and destroying what still remained Cuicuilco and Copilco (another important ceremonial center). This disaster led to Cuicuilca culture dispersion towards Toluca and Teotihuacan, that hosted a large part of the Cuicuilcas and incorporated many features of their culture.
It is considered that the Cuicuilco decline (100 BCE to 1 CE) had a minor recovery in 1–150 CE, by the presence of fire deities.
In spite of the Cuicuilco abandonment as an important ceremonial center, people continued making offerings when the site was covered by lava from the Xitle volcano, which happened around 400 CE. With Cuicuilco enveloped in ruin, Xitle erupted once again, covering much of the city in lava. This lava flow is evident based on excavation around the main pyramid. Excavations show a layer of lava separating the modern surface from the original, ancient surface. This shows much of the city was completely destroyed by the lava flows. This series of eruptions gave rise to Teotihuacan as the center of the Basin of Mexico.
From the beginning of the last century “El Pedregal” was an attractive place to define the predecessor cultures of the Teotihuacan y Mexica cultures in the México basin. Cuicuilco B investigations demonstrated that the site development was as a consequence of internal dynamics.
Archaeologists conclude that Cuicuilco was a prominent community prior to the emergence of Teotihuacan as an urban center, noting that the six small communities which some archeologists believe eventually combined to become Teotihuacan were founded and showing evidence of modest growth during the time Cuicuilco was building pyramids and public monuments. The city seems to have been abandoned around AD 150 to 200 after the eruption of a nearby volcano, Xitle, although the territory was reoccupied at a much later date. Pottery, and other evidence, suggests that refugees from the volcanic disaster migrated north and became part of the population pool of Teotihuacan, near the northern shore of the Lake Texcoco.
The site of Cuicuilco is covered by a dense volcanic lava field known as the Pedregal de San Ángel. The lava covers an area of approximately 80 km², including the foothills of the Ajusco mountain range and extending down to a nearby lake shore. A 1956 study concluded that the uneven lava deposits, reaching a depth over 10 m in areas, were a major factor in the preservation of Cuicuilco. The site is also inside a modern urban area, and is partially covered by buildings associated with the National University of Mexico. Only partial archaeological investigation has been possible, and modern building techniques have damaged the prehistoric city. Several 1990 archaeological finds at Cuicuilco, consisting of a circular pyramid constructed within a plaza with smaller structures associated with agricultural system, were destroyed for the construction of a multi-storied office complex. Consequently, the true size and complexity of Cuicuilco may be difficult to ascertain.
The prehispanic settlement and its surroundings, upon being covered by lava, were sealed and without ulterior alterations. Archaeological materials above the lava were affected differently during the last 2000 years.
The lava flow sealed a body of water, constitutes sedimentation typical of Peat or turf, stagnant water in a marshy environment with a high degree of organic material preservation. The presence of ceramic and stone materials fragments suggests shore proximity.
In Peat can see evidence of several volcanic ash eruptions from the Xitle and perhaps, the Popocatépetl. At the western side of a sample probe, under a peat paleo-flow a sand stream was found, with pebbles and gravel, evidence of a steep slope and torrential waters.
Lava at the bottom of the Lake was covered by sedimentation, indicating that lava did not destroy the lacustrine environment and the water body continued after the eruption of the Xitle towards 200 CE.
During Byron Cummings (1922–1925) exploration, ceramic was found from phases preceding the eruption, this was followed by Eduardo Noguera (1939), who excavated burials in the proximity of the pyramidal sector known as Cuicuilco A, corresponding to the preclassical archaeological site. In 1957 Heiser and Bennyhoff investigations provided relevant information to refine the chronological sequence of the main building basement (cf. Schávelzon, 1983)
Between 1966 and 1968, important complexes of architectural structures were found as well as a series of conical formations, a group called Cuicuilco B, where more than 300,000 ceramic pots were rescued (Müller, 1990). Based on analysis of archaeological ceramics of Cuicuilco B, Florence Müller determined that the occupation of the settlement continued after the Xitle eruption, during the Classical, Epiclassical, postclassical periods until the Spanish conquest, even though the importance of the site as well as the number of inhabitants dropped radically.
In 1990 in the sector known as Cuicuilco C, Rodríguez identified predominant preclassical ceramic materials, as well as, to a lesser extent, pots from later periods, including colonial and modern (Rodriguez, 1994).
Stratigraphy has determined that, after the Xitle eruption, materials were deposited on a layer of lava cushions associated with a body of water, which demonstrate the presence of settlements or villages from approximately 200 to 950 CE, according to the preliminary analysis of ceramic layer
Features of archaeological materials allow inferring the context of the natural and cultural training processes. Inhabitants discarded vases and fragments in the vicinity of the body of water, and many pots were trapped in the lava, especially domestic pieces such as pans, pots, pitchers, dishes, boxes and comales, even if it does not preclude the possibility that at the end of the life of these vessels, they were simply thrown into the water, considered as trash. On the other hand, the presence of braziers fragments, miniature pieces and Tlaloc vases indicates that these were thrown into the water as offerings as part of rites, similar situation to those recorded by Spanish chroniclers as Sahagún (1989) and Duran (1967) in the twin cities of Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco as well as in other settlements in late postclassical Mexico.
Many ceramic materials identified in the preliminary analysis, correspond to phases of Teotihuacán apogee during the classical period (Tlamimilolpa and Xolalpan phases), between 200 and 650 CE. According to recently adjusted chronology based on radiocarbon dating (cf. Rattray, 1991); predominant types are temporarily located in the epiclassical period, 650-950 CE, Coyotlatelco tradition (cf. Rattray, 1966), and are contemporaneous with the Tula Chico occupation (cf. Cobean, 1990), as well as other important settlements in the Valley of Mexico, as Cerro de la Estrella and Azcapotzalco (altepetl). There are also materials, although low percentages, whose production and consumption starts in the epiclassical (based recent research made in the Tula region) but have been associated with the Tula apogee, according to ethno historical sources and some radiocarbon dating, it is located chronologically between 950 and 1150 CE. (cf. Cobean, 1990)
These archaeological materials indicate strong social interaction between the Valley of Mexico and other regions under the hegemonic power of Teotihuacán, as well as the conformation of sociopolitical units after the decline of said Empire, also as evidence of socio-economic aspects associated with the emergence of the Toltec State.
It is a restricted area where deposits were affected by activities of the 20th century, fragments found of Aztec ceramics from the end of the late postclassical, materials of the colonial period (native and Spaniards) as well as 19th century European fine earthenware. This material provide evidence of a settlement or village in Cuicuilco from the Tepaneca-Aztec empire, before the Spaniards arrival, continuing the occupation of land owners such as Bernal Díaz del Castillo and other.
Due to its location, Cuicuilco is in a difficult situation. Modern planning and economic interests of the place. There disputes on conservation and legislation of the archaeological heritage.
Known Cuicuilco is divided into two zones. The first is known as Cuicuilco A, where the ceremonial center is located. The other is called Cuicuilco B and lies West of Cuicuilco A, in the Olympic village Sports Centre.
Its importance is recognized by all historians and archaeologists, however has been barely studied, especially if compared with other archaeological sites, as Teotihuacan and Tula. The main investigation obstacle is that the area is covered almost entirely with a lava layer, of about 9 and 10 meters thick. This difficulty is compounded by urbanization area with constructions directly above of the archaeological site, as was the Telmex building and the Cuicuilco commercial Plaza in 1997.
This "kiva" was discovered and named by archeologist Byron Cummings, who likened it to semi-buried round chambers found in the SW U.S. Its ritual purpose is unknown.
Looking southwest from the top of the pyramid with the Villa Olimpica (now housing) built for the 1968 Summer Olympics
- "Cuicuilco "lugar de colores o cantos"" [Cuicuilco, "place of colors and songs"] (in Spanish). Red Escolar. Retrieved Sept. 2010.
- López Camacho, Javier -, Córdova Fernández, Carlos. "Cuicuilco, pagina web official" [Cuicuilco, official web page]. INAH (in Spanish). Retrieved Sept. 2010.
- Fournier, Patricia;, Pastrana, Alejandro (July–August 1997). "CUICUILCO DESDE CUICUILCO" [Cuicuilco from Cuicuilco] (in Spanish). Actualidades arqueológicas. Retrieved Sept. 2010.
- Adams, Richard E. W. "Prehistoric Mesoamerica." University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 1991.
- Muller, F. "La cerámica de Cuicuilco B: Un rescate arqueológico." INAH, México, 1990.
- Wolf, E. and A. Palerm. "Sistema de riego en el Pedregal." In "Agricultura y Civilización en Mesoamerica, Secretaria de Educación Pública", colección SepSetentas, México, 1972.
- Cobean, Robert H. 1990 La cerámica de Tula, Hidalgo . Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México. (Spanish)
- Durán, Diego de 1967 Historia de las Indias de Nueva España e islas de la Tierra Firme. 3 vols. Editorial Porrúa, S.A., México. (Spanish)
- Müller, Jacobs Florencia 1990 La cerámica de Cuicuilco B. Un rescate arqueológico. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México. (Spanish)
- Lenz, Hanz 1990 Historia del papel en México y cosas relacionadas. 1525-1950 . Miguel Angel Porrúa, México. (Spanish)
- Rattray, Evelyn C. 1966 An archaeological and stylistic study of Coyotlatelco pottery. Mesoamerican Notes 7-8:87-193. Universidad de las Américas, Puebla, México.
- 1991 Fechamientos por radiocarbono en Teotihuacan. Arqueología, segunda época 6:3-18. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México. (Spanish)
- Rodríguez, Ernesto 1994 Cuicuilco "C". Un rescate arqueológico en el sur de la Ciudad de México. Tesis de Licenciatura en Arqueología, Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México. (Spanish)
- Sanders, William T. 1981 Ecological adaptations in the Basin of Mexico: 23,000 B.C. to the present. En Supplement to the Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol I, Archaeology, ed. por J.A. Sabloff, pp. 147–197. University of Texas Press, Austin.
- Schávelzon, Daniel 1983 La pirámide de Cuicuilco. Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.
- Sahagún, Bernardino de 1989 Historia general de las cosas de la Nueva España. Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, México. (Spanish)