Cuilén

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Cuilén mac Illuilb
King of Alba
Refer to caption
Cuilén's name as it appears on folio 33r of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489 (the Annals of Ulster).[1]
Predecessor Dub mac Maíl Choluim
Successor Amlaíb mac Illuilb and/or Cináed mac Maíl Choluim
Died 971
Burial St Andrews
Issue Custantín, Máel Coluim?
House Alpínid dynasty
Father Illulb mac Custantín

Cuilén mac Illuilb (died 971) was an early mediaeval King of Alba.[note 1] He was a son of Illulb mac Custantín, King of Alba, and member of Clann Áeda meic Cináeda, a branch of the Alpínid dynasty. During the tenth century, the Alpínids rotated the kingship of Alba between two main dynastic branches. Dub mac Maíl Choluim, a member of a rival branch of the kindred, seems to have succeeded after Illulb's death in 962. Cuilén soon after challenged him but was defeated in 965. Dub was eventually expelled and slain in 966/967. Whether Cuilén was responsible for his death is uncertain.

Following Dub's fall, Cuilén appears to have ruled as undisputed king from 966–971. Little is known of Cuilén's short reign other than his own death in 971. According to various sources, he and his brother, Eochaid, were slain by Britons. Some sources identify Cuilén's killer as Rhydderch ap Dyfnwal, a man whose daughter had been abducted and raped by the king. Rhydderch was evidently a man of eminent standing, and seems to have been a son of Dyfnwal ab Owain, King of the Cumbrians, and could have possibly ruled the Kingdom of the Cumbrians at the time of Cuilén's death.

After Cuilén's assassination, the kingship of Alba may have been assumed by another member of Clann Áeda meic Cináeda, Cináed mac Maíl Choluim, a man who appears to have launched a retaliatory raid against the Cumbrians. There is evidence indicating that Cináed faced considerable opposition from Cuilén's brother, Amlaíb, a man who was accorded the title King of Alba in Irish sources recording his death at Cináed's hands in 977. Cuilén's son, Custantín, eventually succeeded Cináed as king. There is evidence to suggest that Cuilén had another son, Máel Coluim.

The Alpínid dynasty[edit]

Map of northern Britain
Locations relating to the life and times of Cuilén.

Cuilén was one of three sons of Illulb mac Custantín, King of Alba (died 962).[16] The two other sons were Eochaid (died 971) and Amlaíb (died 977).[17] Illulb was in turn a son of Custantín mac Áeda, King of Alba (died 952), a man who possessed strong connections with the Scandinavian dynasty of Dublin.[18] There is evidence to suggest that some of Custantín's descendants bore Scandinavian names.[19] For instance, Illulb's name could be either a Gaelicised form of the Old English personal name Eadwulf,[20] or a Gaelicised form of the Old Norse personal name Hildulfr.[21] If the latter possibility is indeed correct, Illulb's name could be evidence that his mother was a member of a Scandinavian kindred.[22] Likewise, Amlaíb's name could represent a form of the Gaelic personal name Amalgaid,[23] or else a Gaelicised form of an Old Norse personal name Óláfr.[24] Therefore, Amlaíb's name could be evidence that his mother was a member of a Scandinavian kindred as well,[25] and perhaps a descendant of Amlaíb Cúarán (died 980/981) or Amlaíb mac Gofraid (died 941).[26] Further evidence of Scandinavian influence on the contemporary Scottish court may be evidenced by a possible epithet accorded to Cuilén by the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba.[27] In one instance, this source records Cuilén's name as "Culenrīg".[28] The bar above the letter "i" in this word appears to indicate that rīg should be expanded to "ring".[29] Whilst it is possible that this word represents the Old Norse hringr, meaning "ring"[30] or "ring-giver",[31] the name instead may be corrupted from a scribal error, and the word itself might refer to something else.[32]

Refer to caption
Cuilén's name as it appears on folio 29v of Paris Bibliothèque Nationale MS Latin 4126 (the Poppleton manuscript): "Culenrīg".[33] The word might include an epithet at the end, or may be corrupted from a copying error.

Cuilén and his immediate family were members of the ruling Alpínid dynasty, the patrilineal descendants of Cináed mac Ailpín, King of the Picts (died 858).[14] The root of this kindred's remarkable early success laid in its ability to successfully rotate the royal succession amongst its members.[34] For example, Illulb's father—a member of the Clann Áeda meic Cináeda branch of the dynasty—succeeded Domnall mac Causantín (died 900)—a member of the Clann Custantín meic Cináeda branch—and following a remarkable reign of forty years resigned the kingship to this man's son, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (died 954).[35][note 2] Cuilén's father succeeded to the kingship following Máel Coluim's demise, and ruled as king until his own death in 962.[37] The record of Illulb's fall at the hands of an invading Scandinavian host is the last time Irish and Scottish sources note Viking encroachment into the kingdom.[38] The Scandinavian Kingdom of York had collapsed by the 950s, and the warbands of the kings of Dublin seem to have ceased their overseas adventures during this period as well. Unlike English monarchs who had to endure Viking depredations from the 980s to the 1010s, the kings of Alba were left in relative peace from about the time of Illulb's fall. Free from such outside threats, however, the Alpínids seem to have struggled amongst themselves.[39]

Contested kingship and kin-strife[edit]

Refer to caption
The name of Cuilén's rival kinsman, Dub mac Maíl Choluim, as it appears on folio 32v of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489.[40]

There is some uncertainly regarding the succession after Illulb's demise. On one hand, he may well have been succeeded by Máel Coluim's son, Dub (died 966/967).[41][note 3] Such a chronology is certainly evinced by the chronicle of John Fordun (died 1363) and various king lists.[43] The Prophecy of Berchán, on the other hand, states that the kingship was temporarily shared by Dub and Cuilén. If correct, this source could indicate that neither man had been strong enough to displace the other in the immediate aftermath of Illulb's passing.[44] Although the Alpínid branches represented by Illulb and Dub seem to have maintained peace throughout Illulb's reign,[45] inter-dynastic conflict clearly erupted in the years that followed.[46]

The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba may indicate that Dub spent much of his reign contending with Cuilén.[47] Certainly, this source states that the two battled each other on Dorsum Crup, where Dúnchad, Abbot of Dunkeld (died 965), and Dubdon, satrap of Atholl (died 965) were slain.[48][note 4] The battle seems to have taken place at Duncrub,[53] possibly the same site as first-century Battle of Mons Graupius.[54] The conflict itself is attested by the Annals of Ulster in 965, in an entry recording Dúnchad's fall in a clash between the men of Alba.[55] Although the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba states that Dub attained the victory, the same source reports that he was later expelled from the kingdom.[56] The Annals of Ulster reports Dub's death in 967.[57] According to the so-called "X" group of king lists, Dub was killed at Forres and his body was hidden under a bridge at Kinloss during a solar eclipse.[58] The account of Dub's death preserved by the chronicles of Andrew Wyntoun (died c. 1422)[59] and John Fordun also associate the king's fall with an eclipse.[60][note 5] If these sources are to be believed, Dub would seem to have fallen before the solar eclipse of 20 July 966.[63]

Photograph of an inscribed panel on Sueno's Stone
Detail of inscriptions upon Sueno's Stone which may represent Dub's demise. The visible arch could represent a bridge, and the framed head under the arch may represent Dub, whose body was traditionally said to have been hidden beneath a bridge.

There is reason to suspect that the inscriptions displayed upon Sueno's Stone, alongside the Kinloss road at Forres, commemorate the final defeat and death of Dub.[64] One of the panels of this remarkable monument appears to show corpses and heads lying under an arch which may well represent a bridge. One of the heads is framed which turn may be that of Dub himself.[65] Although the stone does not appear to make reference to an eclipse, it is possible that such an event was inserted into the traditional account as a means to improve the tale. If so, the aforesaid date recorded by the Annals of Ulster may well be correct.[58] The chronology of Dub's death could be evidence that his downfall came after Cuilén's consolidation of the kingship.[66] Although it is conceivable that Dub was slain in favour of his successor,[67] this may not necessarily have been the case[68]—certainly Cuilén is not stated to have been responsible for his death[39]—and it is possible that events transpired without Cuilén's interference.[68]

Reign and death[edit]

Refer to caption
The name of Cuilén's brother, Amlaíb mac Illuilb, as it appears on folio 15r of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 488 (the Annals of Tigernach): "Amlaim mac Illuilb".[69] Amlaíb seems to have held the kingship between 971/976–977.[70]

Cuilén's undisputed reign seems to have spanned from 966 to 971.[71] As far as surviving sources record, Cuilén's reign appears to have been rather uneventful.[8] His death in 971 is noted by several sources. According to the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, Cuilén and his brother, Eochaid (died 971), were killed by Britons.[72] The Annals of Ulster also reports that Cuilén fell in battle against Britons,[73] whilst Chronicon Scotorum specifies that Britons killed him within a burning house.[74] The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba locates Cuilén's fall to "Ybandonia".[75] Although this might refer to Abington in South Lanarkshire,[76] a more likely location may be preserved by the Chronicle of Melrose. This source states that Cuilén was killed at "Loinas",[77] a placename which seems to refer to either Lothian or the Lennox,[78] both plausible locations for an outbreak of hostilities between Scots and Britons.[79] In fact, "Ybandonia" itself could well refer to Lothian.[80] Whatever the case, the account of Cuilén's demise preserved by the Prophecy of Berchán is somewhat different. According to this source, Cuilén met his end whilst "seeking a foreign land", which could indicate that he was attempting to lift taxes from the Cumbrians.[81] The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba reports that Cuilén's killer was a certain Rhydderch ap Dyfnwal (fl. 971), a man who slew Cuilén for the sake of his own daughter.[82] The Chronicle of Melrose[83] and the chronicle of John Fordun likewise identify Cuilén's killer as Rhydderch, the father of an abducted daughter raped by the king.[84]

Refer to caption
The name of Cuilén's killer, Rhydderch ap Dyfnwal, as it appears on folio 8v of British Library MS Cotton Faustina B IX (the Chronicle of Melrose): "Radhardus".[85]

There is reason to suspect that Cuilén's killer was a son of Dyfnwal ab Owain, King of the Cumbrians (died 975).[86] Although there is no specific evidence that Rhydderch was himself a king,[87] the fact that Cuilén was involved with his daughter, coupled with the fact that his warband was evidently strong enough to overcome that of Cuilén, suggests that Rhydderch must have been a man of eminent standing.[88] At about the time of Cuilén's demise, a granddaughter of Dyfnwal may well have been in her teens or twenties, and it is possible that the recorded events refer to a visit by the King of Alba to the court of the King of the Cumbrians.[79] Such a visit may have taken place in the context of Cuilén exercising his lordship over the Britons. His dramatic death suggests that the Scots severely overstepped the bounds of hospitality,[89] and could indicate that Rhydderch was compelled to fire his own hall. Certainly, such killings are not unknown in Icelandic and Irish sources.[90] The Lothian placename of West Linton appears as Lyntun Ruderic in the twelfth century. The fact that the place name seems to refer to a man named Rhydderch could indicate that this was the place where Cuilén and Eochaid met their end.[91] Another way in which Cuilén may have met his end concerns the record of his father's earlier seizure of Edinburgh preserved by the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba. The fact that this conquest would have likely included at least part of Lothian,[92] coupled with the aforesaid evidence locating Cuilén's demise to the same area, could indicate that Cuilén was slain in the midst of exercising overlordship of this contested territory. If so, the records that link Rhydderch with the regicide could reveal that this wronged father exploited Cuilén's vulnerable position in the region, and that Rhydderch seized the opportunity to avenge his daughter.[8]

Refer to caption
The name of Cuilén's successor, Cináed mac Maíl Choluim, as it appears on folio 15r of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 488: "Cinaeth mac Mail Cholaim".[69]

Although the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba reports that Dub's brother, Cináed mac Maíl Choluim (died 995), was the next King of Alba,[93] Irish sources—such as royal genealogies,[94] the Annals of Tigernach,[95] and the Annals of Ulster—appear to reveal that Amlaíb possessed the kingship before his death at Cináed's hands.[96] Whilst Cináed may well have initially succeeded to the kingship,[97] it seems that Amlaíb was able to mount a successful—if only temporary—bid for the throne. Certainly, the aforesaid annal entries style Amlaíb a king and accord Cináed a mere patronymic name.[98][note 6] Amlaíb's tenure is not attested by any Scottish king list,[100] and it would appear that his reign was indeed brief, perhaps dating from 971/976–977.[70] One possibility is that the kingship had been shared between Amlaíb and Cináed until the former's death.[101]

This revolving succession within the Alpínid dynasty reveals that the inter-dynastic struggle between Cuilén and Dub was continued by their respective brothers.[102][note 7] As for Cuilén's other brother, Eochaid, this man's death with Cuilén seems to be evidence of his prominent position within the kingdom. The fact that Amlaíb reigned after his brother's death likewise appears to indicate that he too played an important part in Cuilén's regime.[103] One of Cináed's first acts as king was evidently an invasion of the kingdom of the Cumbrians.[104] Although this campaign could well have been a retaliatory response to Cuilén's killing,[105] it may be more likely that Cináed carried out this enterprise in the context of crushing a British affront to Scottish authority rather than as a means of avenging the death of his kinsman.[106][note 8] Whatever the case, Cináed's invasion ended in defeat,[107] a fact which coupled with Cuilén's killing reveals that the Cumbrian realm was indeed a power to be reckoned with.[108]

Interment and offspring[edit]

Refer to caption
The name of Cuilén's son, Custantín mac Cuiléin, as it appears on folio 15v of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 488: "Constantin mac Cuilindaín".[109]

Cuilén appears to have been buried at St Andrews, the site of his father's burial.[110] According to the Prophecy of Berchán, he was laid to rest "above the edge of the wave", a location which seems to refer to St Andrews.[111] In other sources, he is sometimes stated to have been buried on Iona.[112] After an apparent two decade lull in the aforesaid Alpínid kin-strife,[113] Cuilén's son, Custantín (died 997), eventually became king after Cináed's assassination in 995.[114][note 9]

Custantín had no known male offspring.[11] He was the last of Clann Áeda meic Cináeda to hold the kingship,[116] or even appear on record.[115] There is a possibility that Cuilén had another son, a certain Máel Coluim mac Cuiléin who appears in a note preserved in the Book of Deer detailing donors to the monastery of Deer.[117] Certainly, Cuilén was a relatively rare personal name. However, none of the names that precede his in the note can be linked to known historical personages, making such an identification questionable.[118] Nevertheless, the names that are recorded immediately after this man are certainly identifiable with known royal figures: Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (died 1034), Máel Coluim mac Maíl Brigte (died 1029), and Máel Snechta mac Lulaig (died 1085).[119][note 10] If Máel Coluim mac Cuiléin was indeed a son of Cuilén, this attestation could reveal that he represented Clann Áeda meic Cináeda for a time during the Cináed's reign (971–995).[118]

Clann Áeda meic Cináeda power centre[edit]

Refer to caption
The title accorded to Cuilén on folio 33r of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489.[1] Cuilén's patrilineal ancestor Áed mac Cináeda—eponym of Clann Áed meic Cináeda—is the last king to be accorded the Latin title rex Pictorum ("king of the Picts").[121] Scottish kings were afterwards styled in Gaelic rí Alban ("king of Alba").[122]

The remarkable rotating succession of the Alpínid dynasty was similar to that practiced in Ireland by the Cenél nEógain and Clann Cholmáin branches of the Uí Néill, a dominant Irish kindred that monopolised the kingship of Tara between the eighth- and tenth centuries.[123] This alternation amongst the Uí Néill was facilitated by the considerable distance between the two segments. The inability of either branch to dominate the other, and therefore reduce their rivals from key resources, enabled such a rotating scheme to succeed.[124]

Photograph of a hogback sculpted tombstone
A hogback grave slab on display in Glasgow. Such monuments may be indicative of Scandinavian settlement in Perthshire and Fife. The aforesaid evidence of Scandinavian influence upon Cuilén's immediate family could indicate that his kindred was involved with such immigration.[31]

The similarities between the regulated Irish and Scottish successions suggest that the power centres of the two Alpínid branches were also separated.[125] By the early eleventh century, after the final fall of Clann Áeda meic Cináeda, the opposing Clann Custantín meic Cináeda branch faced challenges to the kingship from the Moravian-based Clann Ruaidrí.[126][note 11] This could indicate that Clann Áeda meic Cináeda was similarly seated north of the Mounth in Moray, with the power base of Clann Custantín meic Cináeda situated in the south.[130] Evidence that the latter kindred was hostile to the men of the north may be evidenced by the record of Máel Coluim mac Domnaill's invasion of Moray preserved by the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba.[131] Furthermore, both this dynast and his son, Dub, are stated by the chronicle of John Fordun to have been killed by Moravians.[132] In contrast to these records of conflict, there is no evidence of hostility between Clann Áeda meic Cináeda and the men of Moray.[133]

On the other hand, the fact that king lists locate Dub's demise to Forres might indicate that Clann Custantín meic Cináeda was instead based in the north.[134] Moreover, the fact that the Prophecy of Berchán records that Custantín mac Áeda retired to St Andrews,[135] a site where his descendants, Illulb and Cuilén, are also said to have been buried,[136] coupled with the location of Cuilén's death in the south against the Cumbrians, could reveal that Clann Áeda meic Cináeda was centred south of the Mounth.[134] Such a location may also be evidenced by the aforesaid deaths of the Abbot of Dunkeld and the satrap of Atholl, men who seem to have fallen supporting the cause of Cuilén against Dub.[137]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Since the 1990s, academics have accorded Cuilén various patronymic names in English secondary sources: Cuilén mac Iduilb,[2] Cuilén mac Iduilf,[3] Cuilén mac Ilduilb,[4] Cuilén mac Illduilb,[5] Cuilén mac Illuilb,[6] Cuilén Ring mac Illuilb,[7] Culen mac Idulb,[8] Culén mac Illduilb,[9] and Culén mac Illuilb.[10] Likewise, since 2004 academics have accorded Cuilén various epithets in English secondary sources: Cuilén Hringr.[11] Cuilén Ring mac Illuilb,[12] and Culen Hringr,[13]
  2. ^ These two branches of the Alpínid dynasty are not attested by contemporary records, but rather deduced as a result of the succession itself.[36]
  3. ^ Dub is the eponymous ancestor of the mediaeval Clann Duib earls of Fife.[42]
  4. ^ The account of Dub and Cuilén identifies these men as Niger and Caniculus respectively. These are literal Latinisations of their names which in turn meaning "black" and "little dog".[49] The chronicler's employment of such Latinisations, including the term satrap, seems to be an example of pride in his volubility with Latin.[50] The latter term appears to refer to a mormaer.[51] The Prophecy of Berchán identifies Cuilén and Dub in Gaelic as fionn and dubh, meaning "white" and black".[52]
  5. ^ The account preserved by the chronicle of John Fordun relates that Dub was murdered in his bed,[61] and is seemingly the inspiration behind the fictive murder of Duncan by Macbeth, portrayed in the second act of Macbeth, an early modern tragedy composed by the English playwright William Shakespeare (died 1616).[62]
  6. ^ The Annals of Ulster misidentifies Cináed's father as Domnall,[99] a name which is that of his grandfather.
  7. ^ If Sueno's Stone indeed commemorates Dub, it is likely that its erection dates to Cináed's reign.[58]
  8. ^ Cináed's strike into Cumbrian territory could have been the last conflict of Dyfnwal's reign.[79]
  9. ^ Custantín is the first Scottish king for which a pedigree survives. This genealogy stretches back to Cináed mac Ailpín and beyond, revealing that the dynasty claimed to be patrilineally descended from the kings of Dál Riata. Whether this was indeed the case is uncertain. The pedigree certainly reveals that the Alpínids wished to be regarded as Gaels by the end of the tenth century.[115]
  10. ^ Máel Coluim mac Cináeda was a member of the Clann Custantín meic Cináeda branch of the Alpínids. Máel Coluim mac Maíl Brigte and Máel Snechta were members of Clann Ruaidrí, a kindred that contested the kingship with the Alpínids after the extinction of the Clann Áeda meic Cináeda branch.[120]
  11. ^ It is possible that Clann Ruaidrí possessed a matrilineal link with Clann Áeda meic Cináeda, a familial connection with the Alpínids that may have enabled members of Clann Ruaidrí to launch bids for the kingship.[127] The first certain member of the this kindred to appear on record is Findláech mac Ruaidrí in 1020.[128] It is possible that this man's father—the eponymous Ruaidrí—or grandfather married a member of Clann Áeda meic Cináeda.[129]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 971.1; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 971.1; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 489 (n.d.).
  2. ^ Hudson, BT (1998a); Hudson, BT (1996); Hudson, BT (1994).
  3. ^ Hudson, BT (1994).
  4. ^ McGuigan (2015).
  5. ^ Thornton (2001).
  6. ^ Broun (2004b); Woolf (2000); Broun (1999).
  7. ^ Busse (2006b); Busse (2006c).
  8. ^ a b c Walker (2013).
  9. ^ Charles-Edwards (2013).
  10. ^ Lynch (2001).
  11. ^ a b Broun (2004b).
  12. ^ Busse (2006b); Busse (2006c).
  13. ^ Oram (2011).
  14. ^ a b Lynch (2001); Woolf (2000) p. 146 tab. 1; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 169.
  15. ^ Woolf (2000) p. 146 tab. 1.
  16. ^ Busse (2006b); Broun (2004b); Broun (2004d); Hudson, BT (1994) pp. 91, 164, 169.
  17. ^ Broun (2004b); Broun (2004d); Hudson, BT (1994) pp. 91, 164, 169.
  18. ^ Broun (2004a); Broun (2004d); Driscoll (1998) p. 113.
  19. ^ Broun (2004d); Woolf (2001); Driscoll (1998) p. 113.
  20. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 6; Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2007) p. 192; Dumville (2000) p. 81; Hudson, BT (1998b) p. 159 n. 56; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 89.
  21. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 6; Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2009) p. 258; Woolf (2007) p. 192; Busse (2006b); Dumville (2000) p. 81; Driscoll (1998) p. 113 n. 55; Hudson, BT (1998b) p. 159 n. 56; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 89; Anderson (1922) pp. 475 n. 6, 484–485 n. 3.
  22. ^ Broun (2015e); Downham (2007) p. 155.
  23. ^ Hudson, BT (1994) p. 94.
  24. ^ Woolf (2009) p. 258; Woolf (2007) p. 206; Dumville (2000) p. 81; Driscoll (1998) p. 113 n. 55; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 94.
  25. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Woolf (2009) p. 258; Woolf (2001); Williams (1997) p. 96 n. 33.
  26. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 206.
  27. ^ Busse (2006b); Dumville (2000) p. 81; Driscoll (1998) p. 113 n. 55; Hudson, BT (1998a) p. 66.
  28. ^ Woolf (2007) pp. 199, 203; Duncan (2002) pp. 20–21; Hudson, BT (1998a) p. 66; Hudson, BT (1998b) p. 151; Skene (1867) p. 10.
  29. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 203.
  30. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 203; Busse (2006b); Duncan (2002) p. 20; Driscoll (1998) p. 113 n. 55; Hudson, BT (1998a) p. 66; Hudson, BT (1998b) p. 151 n. 34.
  31. ^ a b Broun (2015c).
  32. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 203; Duncan (2002) pp. 20–21; Hudson, BT (1998a) p. 66; Hudson, BT (1998b) pp. 141, 151 n. 34.
  33. ^ Hudson, BT (1998b) p. 151; Lat. 4126 (n.d.) fol. 29v.
  34. ^ Broun (2001).
  35. ^ Clancy (2006a); Broun (2001); Woolf (2001); Woolf (2000) p. 152.
  36. ^ McGuigan (2015) p. 274.
  37. ^ Broun (2015e); Broun (2004d); Duncan (2002) p. 20; Broun (2001).
  38. ^ Duncan (2002) p. 20; Dumville (2000) p. 81.
  39. ^ a b Duncan (2002) p. 20.
  40. ^ The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 967.1; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 967.1; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 489 (n.d.).
  41. ^ Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2009) p. 258; Broun (2004c); Broun (2004d).
  42. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 257; Broun (2004c); Lynch (2001); Bannerman (1998).
  43. ^ Hudson, BT (1994) pp. 91, 174 n. 10; Skene (1872) pp. 160–161; Skene (1871) pp. 168–169.
  44. ^ Hudson, BT (1996) p. 88; Hudson, BT (1994) pp. 91–92; Anderson (1922) p. 474; Skene (1867) p. 95.
  45. ^ Broun (2004c).
  46. ^ Broun (2015d); Broun (2004c); Hudson, BT (1994) pp. 91–92.
  47. ^ Woolf (2000) p. 157.
  48. ^ Clarkson (2012) ch. 10; Walker (2013) ch. 4; Charles-Edwards (2008) p. 183; Woolf (2007) pp. 199, 201–202; Duncan (2002) p. 20; Dumville (2000) p. 77; Woolf (2000) pp. 260–261; Hudson, BT (1998b) pp. 145, 151, 159; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 92; Anderson (1922) pp. 472–473; Skene (1867) p. 10.
  49. ^ Woolf (2007) pp. 92, 199–200, 202; Duncan (2002) p. 20; Anderson (1922) pp. 472–473, 472 nn. 5–6; Skene (1867) p. 10.
  50. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 202.
  51. ^ Clarkson (2012) ch. 9; Charles-Edwards (2006) vol. 1 p. 212 n. 3; Woolf (2000) pp. 260–261.
  52. ^ Hudson, BT (1998a) p. 66; Hudson, BT (1996) p. 88; Anderson (1922) p. 474; Skene (1867) p. 95.
  53. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 202; Broun (2004b); Broun (2004c); Hudson, BT (1994) p. 92.
  54. ^ Clarkson (2012) ch. 1; Woolf (2007) p. 202; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 92.
  55. ^ Walker (2013) ch. 4; The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 965.4; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 965.4; Woolf (2007) p. 202; Dumville (2000) p. 77; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 92; Anderson (1922) p. 471.
  56. ^ McGuigan (2015) p. 275; Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2007) pp. 199, 202; Duncan (2002) p. 20; Dumville (2000) p. 77; Hudson, BT (1998b) pp. 151, 159; Hudson, BT (1996) p. 88 n. 99; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 92; Anderson (1922) pp. 472–473; Skene (1867) p. 10.
  57. ^ McGuigan (2015) p. 275; The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 967.1; Walker (2013) ch. 4; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 967.1; Woolf (2007) pp. 196, 200, 202; Duncan (2002) p. 21; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 92; Anderson (1922) p. 472.
  58. ^ a b c Duncan (2002) p. 21.
  59. ^ Hudson, BT (1998b) pp. 159–160 n. 64; Amours (1906) pp. 192–195; Laing (1872) pp. 92–93.
  60. ^ Hudson, BT (1998b) pp. 159–160 n. 64; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 92; Skene (1872) pp. 160–161; Skene (1871) pp. 168–169.
  61. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 203; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 92; Anderson (1922) p. 473 n. 3; Skene (1872) pp. 160–161; Skene (1871) pp. 168–169.
  62. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 203, 203 n. 38.
  63. ^ Duncan (2002) p. 21; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 92; Anderson (1922) p. 473 n. 3.
  64. ^ Hudson, B (2014) pp. 177–178; Clarkson (2012) ch. 9; Broun (2004c); Sellar (1993) pp. 112–114.
  65. ^ Duncan (2002) p. 21; Sellar (1993) pp. 112–113.
  66. ^ Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2007) p. 200.
  67. ^ Woolf (2009) p. 258; Koch (2006); Duncan (2002) p. 21; Bannerman (1998) p. 21.
  68. ^ a b Broun (2015d); Hudson, BT (1994) p. 92.
  69. ^ a b The Annals of Tigernach (2010) § 977.4; Annals of Tigernach (2005) § 977.4; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 488 (n.d.).
  70. ^ a b Duncan (2002) pp. 21–22; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 93.
  71. ^ Walker (2013); Busse (2006b); Hudson, BT (1994) p. 163 tab. 1.
  72. ^ Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; Woolf (2007) pp. 199, 204; Hudson, BT (1998b) pp. 151, 160; Hudson, BT (1996) p. 88 n. 100; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 93; Anderson (1922) p. 475; Skene (1867) p. 10.
  73. ^ McGuigan (2015) p. 275; Charles-Edwards (2013) p. 544 n. 42; Walker (2013); The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 971.1; Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 971.1; Woolf (2007) pp. 196, 204; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 93; Anderson (1922) p. 475.
  74. ^ Chronicon Scotorum (2012) § 971; Chronicon Scotorum (2010) § 971; Woolf (2009) p. 258; Woolf (2007) p. 204; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 93; Anderson (1922) p. 475.
  75. ^ McGuigan (2015) p. 148, 148 n. 488; Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; Macquarrie (1998) p. 16, 16 n. 3; Barrow (1973) p. 152; Anderson (1922) p. 476; Skene (1867) p. 151.
  76. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; Macquarrie (1998) p. 16 n. 3; Anderson (1922) p. 476 n. 2.
  77. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Anderson (1922) p. 476, 476 n. 4; Stevenson (1835) p. 226.
  78. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Clarkson (2010) ch. 9.
  79. ^ a b c Clarkson (2010) ch. 9.
  80. ^ McGuigan (2015) p. 148 n. 488; Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Macquarrie (1998) p. 16 n. 3; Barrow (1973) p. 152, 152 n. 33.
  81. ^ Hudson, BT (1998b) p. 160 n. 71; Macquarrie (1998) p. 16; Hudson, BT (1996) p. 88; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 93; Anderson (1922) p. 477; Skene (1867) pp. 95–96.
  82. ^ Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; Macquarrie (1998) p. 16; Anderson (1922) p. 476, 476 n. 1; Skene (1867) p. 151.
  83. ^ Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; Woolf (2007) p. 204; Macquarrie (2004); Anderson (1922) p. 476; Stevenson (1835) p. 226.
  84. ^ Hudson, BT (1994) p. 93; Skene (1872) pp. 161–162; Skene (1871) pp. 169–170.
  85. ^ Anderson (1922) p. 476; Stevenson (1835) p. 226; Cotton MS Faustina B IX (n.d.).
  86. ^ Broun (2015c); Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Clarkson (2012) ch. 9; Oram (2011) chs. 2, 5; Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; Busse (2006c); Broun (2004f) p. 135; Macquarrie (2004); Macquarrie (1998) pp. 6, 16.
  87. ^ Macquarrie (2004); Thornton (2001) p. 67 n. 66.
  88. ^ Macquarrie (2004).
  89. ^ Woolf (2009) p. 258; Woolf (2007) p. 205.
  90. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 205.
  91. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 205 n. 40.
  92. ^ Walker (2013); Hudson, BT (1998b) pp. 151, 159; Anderson (1922) p. 468; Skene (1867) p. 10.
  93. ^ Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2009) p. 258; Woolf (2007) p. 205; Hudson, BT (1998b) pp. 151, 161; Anderson (1922) pp. 512–513; Skene (1867) p. 10.
  94. ^ Book of Leinster (2015) § Genelach rig Alban; Duncan (2002) p. 21; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 94.
  95. ^ The Annals of Tigernach (2010) § 977.4; Annals of Tigernach (2005) § 977.4; Duncan (2002) p. 21; Anderson (1922) p. 484.
  96. ^ Walker (2013) ch. 4; The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 977.4; Dumville (2000) p. 77; Woolf (2009) p. 258; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 977.4; Woolf (2007) pp. 196, 205; Duncan (2002) p. 21; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 93; Anderson (1922) pp. 484–485 n. 3, 485 n. 4.
  97. ^ Broun (2015f); Walker (2013) ch. 4; Broun (2004b); Broun (2004e); Duncan (2002) p. 21.
  98. ^ Walker (2013) ch. 4; Duncan (2002) p. 21.
  99. ^ The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 977.4; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 977.4; Duncan (2002) p. 21 n. 45; Anderson (1922) p. 485 n. 4.
  100. ^ Duncan (2002) p. 22.
  101. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 7.
  102. ^ Walker (2013) ch. 4; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 93.
  103. ^ Woolf (2007) pp. 205–206.
  104. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2009) p. 259; Busse (2006a); Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; Broun (2004e).
  105. ^ Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2009) p. 259.
  106. ^ Walker (2013) ch. 4.
  107. ^ Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; Broun (2004e).
  108. ^ McGuigan (2015) p. 140; Clarkson (2012) ch. 9; Clarkson (2010) ch. 9.
  109. ^ The Annals of Tigernach (2010) § 997.1; Annals of Tigernach (2005) § 997.1; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 488 (n.d.).
  110. ^ Hudson, BT (1994) p. 91.
  111. ^ Hudson, BT (1996) p. 88, 88 n. 100; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 93; Anderson (1922) p. 477; Skene (1867) p. 95.
  112. ^ Broun (2004b); Skene (1872) pp. 161–162; Skene (1871) pp. 169–170.
  113. ^ Broun (2004e).
  114. ^ Broun (2015b); Oram (2011) ch. 5; Woolf (2009) p. 260; Busse (2006a); Broun (2004b); Hudson, BT (1994) pp. 104–105.
  115. ^ a b Woolf (2009) p. 260.
  116. ^ Broun (2015b); Broun (2015g); McGuigan (2015) pp. 160, 274; Clancy (2006b); Broun (2004b); Hudson, BT (1994) pp. 104–105.
  117. ^ Broun (2015h) p. 50 n. 193; Woolf (2000) p. 158; Jackson (1972) pp. 33–34, 49–50.
  118. ^ a b Woolf (2000) p. 158.
  119. ^ Woolf (2000) p. 158; Jackson (1972) pp. 33–34.
  120. ^ McGuigan (2015) p. 275; Woolf (2000) pp. 146 tab. 1, 158.
  121. ^ Woolf (2009) pp. 251–252; Broun (2007) p. 72; Woolf (2007) p. 340.
  122. ^ Broun (2015a) pp. 120, 122–123; Woolf (2009) p. 252.
  123. ^ McGuigan (2015) p. 274; Woolf (2009) p. 258; Broun (2001); Woolf (2007) pp. 223–224; Woolf (2000) pp. 152–154.
  124. ^ McGuigan (2015) p. 274; Woolf (2007) pp. 223–224; Woolf (2000) pp. 153–154.
  125. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 224; Woolf (2000) p. 154.
  126. ^ McGuigan (2015) pp. 274–275; Woolf (2007) p. 224; Woolf (2000) pp. 154–157.
  127. ^ Charles-Edwards (2008) p. 183; Woolf (2007) pp. 240–241; Woolf (2000) pp. 154–155.
  128. ^ Woolf (2000) p. 154.
  129. ^ Woolf (2000) p. 155.
  130. ^ McGuigan (2015) pp. 274–275; Ross (2008); Woolf (2007) p. 224; Woolf (2000) pp. 154–157.
  131. ^ Woolf (2000) p. 157; Hudson, BT (1994) pp. 150–158; Anderson (1922) p. 452; Skene (1867) p. 10.
  132. ^ Woolf (2000) p. 157; Skene (1872) pp. 159–161; Skene (1871) pp. 167–169.
  133. ^ Charles-Edwards (2008) p. 183; Woolf (2000) p. 157.
  134. ^ a b McGuigan (2015) pp. 256, 275–276.
  135. ^ McGuigan (2015) pp. 256, 275–276; Charles-Edwards (2008) p. 183; Hudson, BT (1996) p. 87, 87 n. 95; Anderson (1922) p. 448; Skene (1867) pp. 92–93.
  136. ^ Charles-Edwards (2008) p. 183; Hudson, BT (1996) p. 88, 88 n. 98, 88 n. 100; Anderson (1922) pp. 471, 477; Skene (1867) pp. 94–95.
  137. ^ Charles-Edwards (2008) p. 183; Hudson, BT (1998b) pp. 151, 159; Anderson (1922) pp. 472–473; Skene (1867) p. 10.

References[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

Secondary sources[edit]

Media related to Cuilén mac Illuilb at Wikimedia Commons

Cuilén mac Illuilb
Clann Áeda meic Cináeda
Cadet branch of the Alpínid dynasty
Died: 971
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Dub mac Maíl Choluim1
King of Alba
966–971
Succeeded by
Amlaíb mac Illuilb2
Cináed mac Maíl Choluim
Notes and references
1. It is uncertain if Dub reigned alone, or if he and Cuilén shared the kingship before Dub's expulsion and death.
2. The succession after Cuilén's death is uncertain. Whilst Cináed may have succeeded and faced a later challenge from Amlaíb, it is also possible that Cináed and Amlaíb shared the kingship before the latter's death.