Chinese cuisine

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"Chinese food" redirects here. For Chinese food in America, see American Chinese cuisine. For other uses, see Chinese food (disambiguation).
Chao fan, a popular Chinese dish.

Chinese cuisine includes styles originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world including most Asian nations. The history of Chinese cuisine in China stretches back for thousands of years and has changed from period to period and in each region according to climate, imperial fashions, and local preferences. Over time, techniques and ingredients from the cuisines of other cultures were integrated into the cuisine of the Chinese people due both to imperial expansion and from the trade with nearby regions in pre-modern times, and from Europe and the New World in the modern period.

The "Eight Cuisines" of China[1] are Anhui, Cantonese, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan, and Zhejiang cuisines.[2]

The staple foods of Chinese cooking include rice, noodles, and vegetables.


A chef slicing Peking duck[3]

Chinese society greatly valued gastronomy and developed an extensive study of the subject based on its traditional medical beliefs. Chinese culture initially centered around the North China Plain. The first domesticated crops seem to have been the foxtail and broomcorn varieties of millet, while rice was cultivated in the south. By 2000 BC, wheat had arrived from western Asia. However, these grains were typically served as warm noodle soups instead of baked into bread as in Europe. Nobles hunted various wild game and consumed mutton, pork, dog, and beef as these animals were domesticated. Grain was stored against famine and flood and meat was preserved with salt, vinegar, curing, and fermenting. The flavor of the meat was enhanced by cooking it in animal fats though this practice was mostly restricted to the wealthy.[4]

By the time of Confucius in the late Zhou, gastronomy was becoming a high art. He was recorded discussing one such picky eater: "For him, the rice could never be white enough. When it was not cooked right, he would not eat. When it was out of season, he would not eat. When the meat was not cut properly, he would not eat. When the food was not prepared with the right sauce, he would not eat."[citation needed] During Shi Huangdi's Qin dynasty, the empire expanded into the south. By the time of the Han Dynasty, the different regions and cuisines of China's peoples were linked by major canals and leading to greater complexity in the different regional cuisines. Not only is food seen as giving "qi", energy, but food is also about maintaining yin and yang.[5] The philosophy behind it was rooted in the I Ching and Chinese traditional medicine: food was judged for color, aroma, taste, and texture and a good meal was expected to balance the Four Natures ('hot', warm, cool, and 'cold') and the Five Tastes (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter, and salty). Salt was used as a preservative from early times, but in cooking was added in the form of soy sauce, and not at the table.[6] The predominance of chopsticks and spoons as eating utensils also necessitated that most food be prepared in bite-sized pieces or (as with fish) be so tender that it could be easily picked apart.

By the Later Han period (2nd century), writers[who?] frequently complained of lazy aristocrats who did nothing but sit around all day eating smoked meats and roasts.

During the Han dynasty, Chinese developed methods of food preservation for military rations during campaigns such as drying meat into jerky and cooking, roasting, and drying grain.[7] Chinese legends claim that the roasted, flat bread shaobing was brought back from the Xiyu (the Western Regions, a name for Central Asia) by the Han dynasty General Ban Chao, and that it was originally known as hubing (胡餅, lit. "barbarian pastry"). The shaobing is believed to be descended from the hubing.[8] Shaobing is believed to be related to the Persian and Central Asian naan and the Near Eastern pita.[9][10][11][12] Foreign westerners made and sold sesame cakes in China during the Tang dynasty.[13]

During the Southern and Northern Dynasties non-Han people like the Xianbei of Northern Wei introduced their cuisine to northern China, and these influences continued up to the Tang dynasty, popularizing meat like mutton and dairy products like goat milk, yogurts, and Kumis among even Han people. It was during the Song dynasty that Han Chinese developed an aversion to dairy products and abandoned the dairy foods introduced earlier.[14]

The Han Chinese rebel Wang Su who received asylum in the Xianbei Northern Wei after fleeing from Southern Qi, at first could not stand eating dairy products like goat's milk and meat like mutton and had to consume tea and fish instead, but after a few years he was able to eat yogurt and lamb, and the Xianbei Emperor asked him which of the foods of China (Zhongguo) he preferred, fish vs mutton and tea vs yogurt.[15][16][17][18]

The great migration of Chinese people south during the invasions preceding and during the Song dynasty increased the relative importance of southern Chinese staples such as rice and congee. The Yuan and Qing dynasties introduced Mongolian and Manchu cuisine, warm northern dishes which popularized hot pot cooking. During the Yuan dynasty many Muslim communities emerged in China, who practiced a porkless cuisine now preserved by Hui restaurants throughout the country.[citation needed] Yunnan cuisine is unique in China for its cheeses like Rubing and Rushan cheese made by the Bai people, and its yogurt, the yogurt may have been due to a combination of Mongolian influence during the Yuan dynasty, the Central Asian settlement in Yunnan, and the proximity and influence of India and Tibet on Yunnan.[19]

As part of the last leg of the Columbian Exchange, Spanish and Portuguese traders began introducing foods from the New World to China through the port cities of Canton and Macao. Mexican chili peppers became essential ingredients in Sichuan cuisine and calorically-dense potatoes and corn became staple foods across the northern plains.

During the Qing Dynasty, Chinese gastronomes such as Yuan Mei focused upon a primary goal of extracting the maximum flavor of each ingredient. However, as noted in his culinary work the Suiyuan shidan, the fashions of cuisine at the time were quite varied and in some cases were flamboyantly ostentatious,[20] especially when the disply served also a formal ceremonial purpose, as in the case of the Manchu Han Imperial Feast.[21]

The People's Republic of China, amid numerous false starts, has largely industrialized food production. A side effect of this process was the introduction of American poultry-rearing techniques, which has greatly increased the relative consumption of eggs and chicken in various Chinese cuisines.[citation needed]

Crocodiles were eaten by Vietnamese while they were taboo and off limits for Chinese. Vietnamese women who married Chinese men adopted the Chinese taboo.[22]

Regional cuisines[edit]

Sauteed chicken with chili pepper of Sichuan style

A number of different styles contribute to Chinese cuisine but perhaps the best known and most influential are Cantonese cuisine, Shandong cuisine, Jiangsu cuisine (specifically Huaiyang cuisine) and Sichuan cuisine.[23][24][25] These styles are distinctive from one another due to factors such as availability of resources, climate, geography, history, cooking techniques and lifestyle.[26] One style may favour the use of garlic and shallots over chili and spices, while another may favour preparing seafood over other meats and fowl.

Jiangsu cuisine favours cooking techniques such as braising and stewing, while Sichuan cuisine employs baking.[23] Hairy crab is a highly sought-after local delicacy in Shanghai, as it can be found in lakes within the region. Peking duck and dim-sum are other popular dishes well known outside of China.[23]

Based on the raw materials and ingredients used, the method of preparation and cultural differences, a variety of foods with different flavors and textures are prepared in different regions of the country. Many traditional regional cuisines rely on basic methods of preservation such as drying, salting, pickling and fermentation.[27]

Staple foods[edit]


Rice is a major staple food for people from rice farming areas in southern China.[citation needed] Steamed rice, usually white rice, is the most commonly eaten form. Rice is also used to produce beers, wines and vinegars. Rice is one of the most popular foods in China and is used in many dishes. Glutinous rice ("sticky rice") is a variety of rice used in many specialty Chinese dishes.


Zhajiangmian (noodles with bean paste) is a traditional Beijing dish.
Main article: Chinese noodles

Chinese noodles come dry or fresh in a variety of sizes, shapes and textures and are often served in soups or fried as toppings. Some varieties, such as Shou Mian (寿面, literally noodles of longevity), are symbolic of long life and good health according to Chinese tradition.[23] Noodles can be served hot or cold with different toppings, with broth, and occasionally dry (as is the case with mi-fun). Noodles are commonly made with rice flour or wheat flour, but other flours such as soybean are also used.


Tofu is made of soybeans and is another popular food product that supplies protein.[27] Other products such as soy milk, soy paste, soy oil, and fermented soy sauce are also important in Chinese cooking.


In wheat-farming areas in Northern China, people largely rely on flour-based food, such as noodles, breads, jiaozi (a kind of Chinese dumplings), and mantou (a type of steamed buns).[23]


Cooked bok choy

Some common vegetables used in Chinese cuisine include Chinese leaves, bok choy (Chinese cabbage), dao-mieu (Chinese spinach), on choy, yu choy, bitter melon, and Chinese broccoli or gailan (guy-lahn). Other vegetables include bean sprouts, pea vine tips, watercress, celery.

A variety of dried or pickled vegetables are also eaten, especially in drier or colder regions where fresh vegetables traditionally were hard to get out of season.

Herbs and seasonings[edit]

Seasonings such as fresh ginger root, garlic, scallion, white pepper, and sesame oil are widely used in many regional cuisines. Sichuan peppercorns, star anise, cinnamon, fennel, cilantro, parsley, and cloves are also used.[28][29]

To add extra flavors to dishes, many Chinese cuisines also contain dried Chinese mushrooms, dried baby shrimps, dried tangerine peel,[30] and dried Sichuan chillies.

When it comes to sauces, China is home to soy sauce, which is made from fermented soy beans and wheat. Oyster sauce, clear rice vinegar, chili, Chinkiang black rice vinegar, fish sauce and fermented tofu (furu) are also widely used. A number of sauces are also based on fermented soybeans, including Hoisin sauce, ground bean sauce and yellow bean sauce.


Main article: Chinese desserts
Egg custard tarts, an originally Portuguese popular dessert and pastry in Hong Kong.

Generally, seasonal fruits serve as the most common form of dessert consumed after dinner.[31]

Chinese desserts are sweet foods and dishes that are served with tea, along with meals,[32] or at the end of meals in Chinese cuisine.[citation needed]

In larger cities, a wide variety of Chinese bakery products are available, including baked, steamed, boiled, or deep-fried sweet or savory snacks. Bings are baked wheat flour based confections, and include moon cake, red bean paste pancake, and sun cake (Beijing and Taiwan varieties). Chinese candies and sweets, called táng[32] are usually made with cane sugar, malt sugar, honey, nuts and fruit. Gao or Guo are rice based snacks that are typically steamed[32] and may be made from glutinous or normal rice.

Ice cream is commonly available throughout China.[32] Another cold dessert is called baobing, which is shaved ice with sweet syrup.[32] Chinese jellies are known collectively in the language as ices. Many jelly desserts are traditionally set with agar and are flavored with fruits, though gelatin based jellies are also common in contemporary desserts.

Chinese dessert soups typically consist of sweet and usually hot soups[32] and custards.


Cold dishes[edit]

Cold dishes, especially appetizers, can range from jelly, beancurd, noodle dishes, pork or chicken, to jellyfish to cold soups.


Main article: Chinese soup
Dōngguā xiārén fěnsī (shrimp, winter melon, and cellophane noodle soup)

Chinese pickles[edit]

Main article: Chinese pickles

Chinese sausage[edit]

Chinese sausages vary from region to region. The most common sausage is made of pork and pork fat. Flavor is generally salty-sweet. Chinese sausage is prepared in many different ways, including oven-roasting, stir-fry, and steaming.[33]

Tofu products[edit]

Stinky tofu is a fermented tofu. Like blue cheese or durian, it has a very distinct, potent smell, and is an acquired taste. It is often paired with soy sauce or something salty and spicy.

Doufulu is another type of fermented tofu which has a red skin and salty taste. This is more of a pickled type of tofu and is not as strongly scented as stinky tofu. Doufulu has the consistency of slightly soft blue cheese, and a taste similar to Japanese miso paste, but less salty. Doufulu is frequently pickled together with soy beans and chili, and paired with rice congee.


Baozi are steamed buns containing savory or (less commonly) sweet combinations of meat, vegetables, mushrooms, traditionally associated with breakfast.

It is common to eat noodles, especially soup-noodles between regular meals or in the evening, and many types of street foods, which vary from region to region. Prawn crackers are an often-consumed snack in Southeast China.



Longjing tea, also known as Dragon Well tea, is a variety of roasted green tea from Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, where it is produced mostly by hand and has been renowned for its high quality, earning the China Famous Tea title.
Main article: Chinese tea

As well as with dim sum, many Chinese drink their tea with snacks such as nuts, plums, dried fruit (in particular jujube), small sweets, melon seeds, and waxberry.[23] China was the earliest country to cultivate and drink tea which is enjoyed by people from all social classes.[34] Tea processing began after the Qin and Han Dynasties.[34]

Chinese tea is often classified into several different categories according to the species of plant from which it is sourced, the region in which it is grown, and the method of production used. Some of these types are green tea, oolong tea, black tea, scented tea, white tea, and compressed tea. There are four major tea plantation regions: Jiangbei, Jiangnan, Huanan and the southwestern region.[34] Well known types of green tea include Longjing, Huangshan, Mao Feng, Bilochun, Putuofeng Cha, and Liu'an Guapian.[35] China is the world’s largest exporter of green tea.[35]

One of the most ubiquitous accessories in modern China, after a wallet or purse and an umbrella, is a double-walled insulated glass thermos with tea leaves in the top behind a strainer.


The importance of baijiu (lit. "white liquor") in China (99.5% of its alcoholic market) makes it the most-consumed alcoholic spirit in the world.[36] It dates back to the introduction of distilling during the Song dynasty;[23] can be made from wheat, corn, or rice; and is usually around 120 proof (60% ABV). The most ubiquitous brand is the cheap Er guo tou, but Mao Tai is the premium baijiu. Other popular brands Kang, Lu Zhou Te Qu, and Wu Liang Ye.[23]

Huangjiu (lit. "yellow liquor") is not distilled and is a strong rice wine (10–15% ABV).[23] Popular brands include Shaoxing Lao Jiu, Shaoxing Hua Diao, and Te Jia Fan.[23]

Herbal drinks[edit]

Main article: Chinese herb tea

Chinese herb tea, also known as medicinal herbal tea, is a kind of tea-soup made from purely Chinese medicinal herbs.[citation needed]


Chinese in earlier dynasties evidently drank milk and ate dairy products, although not necessarily from cows, but perhaps koumiss (fermented mare's milk) or goat's milk.

Most Chinese until recently have avoided milk, partly because pasturage for milk producers in a monsoon rice ecology is not economic.[37]

Recent trends[edit]

In imperial China, the consumption of meat and animal products was strikingly low by comparison with other cultures. Most meals consisted of a starch – rice in the south and dumplings or noodles in the north – and green vegetables, with peanuts and soy products providing additional protein. Fats and sugars were luxuries not available to most of the population on a regular basis.[citation needed]

The initial attempts of the People's Republic of China to modernize Mainland China's productive but labor-intensive agricultural practices led to a series of debacles: the worst, the Great Leap Forward, produced such widespread famines from 1958 to 1961 that the 1963 Chinese census remained a state secret and whose existence was not acknowledged until the 1980s. Practices and technology were slowly modernized, however, and from the introduction of economic reform by Deng Xiaoping in the late '70s, Chinese diets have steadily become richer over time and include more meats, fats, and sugar than before.[38] According to the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization, China's per capita food consumption has increased from less than 1700 kcal in 1960 to 2570 kcal per day in 1995.[39]

Chinese cuisine in other parts of the world[edit]

Where there are historical immigrant Chinese populations, the style of food has evolved and been adapted to local tastes and ingredients, and modified by the local cuisine, to greater or lesser extents. This has resulted in a number of forms of fusion cuisine, often popular in the country in question; some, such as ramen (Japanese Chinese) have become popular internationally.

The large Chinese population in the United States operates many restaurants, has developed distinctive dishes (such as chop suey) based originally on Cantonese cuisine.[40][41]

Dining etiquette[edit]

The Chinese dining etiquette has that youths should not sit at the table before the elders. In addition to this, youths should not start eating before the elders start eating. When eating with a bowl, one should not hold it with its bottom part, because it resembles the act of begging. Also, when taking a break from eating at the table, one should not put the chopstick into the rice vertically, because it resembles the Chinese traditional funeral tribute, which involves putting chopstick inside a bowl of rice vertically.

Relation to Chinese art[edit]

Chinese dishes stress the three main points of appearance, smell, and taste. A really well-cooked Chinese food would need to achieve all three of them. Also, there is teaching of food carving in Chinese culture, typically using vegetables as materials to carve the sculpture for animals and spiritual beings.

Relation to Chinese philosophy[edit]

In Chinese philosophy, food is frequently used as the message that the author is trying to convey. A Chinese philosophy, I Ching (Chinese: 《易》), says, “Gentlemen use eating as a way to attain happiness. They should be aware of what they say, and refrain from eating too much." (《易》曰:君子以飲食宴樂。 又曰:君子慎言語,節飲食。; Yì” yuē: Jūnzǐ yǐ yǐnshí yàn lè. Yòu yuē: Jūnzǐ shèn yányǔ, jié yǐnshí.)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Eight Cuisines of China - Shandong & Guangdong". 
  2. ^ "Fujian Cuisine. Accessed June 2011.
  3. ^ "Beijing cuisine and Peking roasted duck." ChinaTour.Net. Accessed Dec 2011.
  4. ^ Wertz, Richard R. "The Cultural Heritage of China :: Food & Drink :: Cuisine :: Introduction". Retrieved 2016-05-02. 
  5. ^ "China to Chinatown". University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 2015-12-10. 
  6. ^ Anderson (1988), p. 267.
  7. ^ Anderson (1988), p. 52.
  8. ^ Huang, H. T. (2000). Fermentations and Food Science, Volume 6. Cambridge University Press. p. 474. ISBN 0521652707. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  9. ^ Anderson (1988), p. 143, 144, 218.
  10. ^ Simoons, Frederick J. (1990). Food in China: A Cultural and Historical Inquiry. CRC Press. p. 89. ISBN 084938804X. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  11. ^ Free China Review, Volume 45, Issues 7-12. W.Y. Tsao. 1995. p. 66. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  12. ^ Charles Holcombe (January 2001). The Genesis of East Asia: 221 B.C. - A.D. 907. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 129–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2465-5. 
  13. ^ Schafer, Edward H. (1963). The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A Study of Tʻang Exotics (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). University of California Press. p. 29. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  14. ^ Anderson (1988), p. 80.
  15. ^ Pearce, Scott; Spiro, Audrey G.; Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, eds. (2001). Culture and Power in the Reconstitution of the Chinese Realm, 200-600. Volume 200 of Harvard East Asian monographs (illustrated ed.). Harvard Univ Asia Center. p. 22. ISBN 0674005236. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  16. ^ Lewis, Mark Edward (2009). China Between Empires. Harvard University Press. p. 126. ISBN 0674026055. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  17. ^ Huang, H. T. (2000). Fermentations and Food Science, Volume 6. Cambridge University Press. p. 511. ISBN 0521652707. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  18. ^ Swartz, Wendy; Campany, Robert Ford; Lu, Yang; Choo, Jessey J. C., eds. (2013). Early Medieval China: A Sourcebook (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231531001. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  19. ^ Anderson (1988), p. 91, 178.
  20. ^ "Things to Avoid 3: Meals for the Ears (戒耳餐)". Translating the Suiyuan Shidan. Retrieved 8 Mar 2015. 
  21. ^ "Things to Avoid 12: Cliché (戒落套)". Translating the Suiyuan Shidan. Retrieved 8 Mar 2015. 
  22. ^ Erica J. Peters (2012). Appetites and Aspirations in Vietnam: Food and Drink in the Long Nineteenth Century. Rowman Altamira. pp. 142–. ISBN 978-0-7591-2075-4. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Yao, Zhang. China Everyday!. Page One Pub. 2007. ISBN 978-981-245-330-3
  24. ^ "Regions of Chinese food-styles/flavors of cooking." University of Kansas, Kansas Asia Scholars. Accessed June 2011.
  25. ^ "Eight Cuisines of China - Shandong & Guangdong." Travel China Guide. Accessed June 2011.
  26. ^ "China's Culinary Diversity in One Map"
  27. ^ a b J. Li & Y. Hsieh. Traditional Chinese Food Technology and Cuisine. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004;13(2): 147–155.
  28. ^ "Top 10 basic ingredients for Chinese cooking." at the Wayback Machine (archived 30 May 2010)‹The template Wayback is being considered for merging.›  [The Times]. Accessed June 2011.
  29. ^ Yan, Martin. "Chinese Cooking For Dummies". Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
  30. ^ Chinese Restaurants Are Adding Herbs for Flavor and HealthThe New York Times
  31. ^ Lin, Kathy. "Chinese Food Cultural Profile". Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f "Chinese Desserts." Kaleidoscope - Cultural China. Accessed June 2011.
  33. ^ Parkinson, Rhonda. "How To Cook Chinese Sausage". Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
  34. ^ a b c Q. Hong & F. Chunjian. Origins of Chinese Tea and Wine. Asiapac Books Pte Ltd. 2005.ISBN 9812293698.
  35. ^ a b Zonglin Chang Xukui Li. Aspect of Chinese Culture. 2006.ISBN 7302126321, ISBN 978-7-302-12632-4.
  36. ^ The Economist. "Daily Chart: High Spirits". 17 June 2013. Accessed 9 August 2013.
  37. ^ Jack Goody, Cooking, Cuisine, and Class: A Study in Comparative Sociology (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982), p. 107; Chang, ed., Food in Chinese Culture: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives, 7, 25, 105-06.
  38. ^ Hsu Y.N., Vera & al. "Modern China: North", in Food in China, pp. 302 & 311–313. Yale Univ. Press (New Haven), 1978.
  39. ^ UN FAO. "Poverty Alleviation and Food Security in Asia: Lessons and Challenges": "Annex 3: Agricultural Policy and Food Security in China". Dec. 1998. Accessed 5 June 2012.
  40. ^ Andrew Coe, Chop Suey: A Cultural History of Chinese Food in the United States (2009)
  41. ^ Yong Chen, Chop Suey, USA: The Story of Chinese Food in America (2014)

Further reading[edit]

  • Anderson, Eugene N. (1988). The Food of China. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300047398. 
  • Chang, Kwang-chih (1977). Food in Chinese Culture: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300019386. 
  • David R. Knechtges, "A Literary Feast: Food in Early Chinese Literature," Journal of the American Oriental Society 106.1 (1986): 49-63.
  • Newman, Jacqueline M. (2004). Food Culture in China. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313325812. 
  • Roberts, J. A. G. (2002). China to Chinatown: Chinese Food in the West. London: Reaktion. ISBN 1861891334. 
  • Swislocki, Mark (2009). Culinary Nostalgia: Regional Food Culture and the Urban Experience in Shanghai. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804760126. 
  • Waley-Cohen, Joanna (2007). "Celebrated Cooks of China's Past". Flavor & Fortune. 14 (4): 5–7, 24. 
  • Endymion Wilkinson, "Chinese Culinary History (Feature Review)," China Review International 8.2 (Fall 2001): 285-302.
  • Wu, David Y. H.; Cheung, Sidney C. H. (2002). The Globalization of Chinese Food. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 0700714030. 
  • Buwei Yang Chao. How to Cook and Eat in Chinese. (New York: John Day, 1945; revisions and reprints).
  • Fuchsia Dunlop. Land of Plenty : A Treasury of Authentic Sichuan Cooking. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2003). ISBN 0393051773.
  • Fuchsia Dunlop. Revolutionary Chinese Cookbook: Recipes from Hunan Province. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2007). ISBN 0393062228.
  • Fuchsia Dunlop. Shark's Fin and Sichuan Pepper: A Sweet-Sour Memoir of Eating in China. (New York: Norton, 2008). ISBN 9780393066579.
  • Emily Hahn, Recipes, The Cooking of China. (Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, Foods of the World, 1981).
  • Hsiang-Ju Lin and Tsuifeng Lin. Chinese Gastronomy. (London: Nelson, 1969; rpr.). ISBN 0171470575.
  • Yan-Kit So. Classic Food of China. (London: Macmillan, rpr 1994, 1992). ISBN 9780333576717.
  • Martin Yan. Martin Yan's Chinatown Cooking: 200 Traditional Recipes from 11 Chinatowns around the World. (New York: Morrow, 2002). ISBN 0060084758.

External links[edit]