Armenian cuisine

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Armenian cuisine includes the foods and cooking techniques of the Armenian people and traditional Armenian foods and dishes. The cuisine reflects the history and geography where Armenians have lived as well as sharing outside influences from European and Levantine cuisines. The cuisine also reflects the traditional crops and animals grown and raised in Armenian populated areas.

The preparation of meat, fish, and vegetable dishes in an Armenian kitchen often requires stuffing, frothing, and puréeing.[1] Lamb, eggplant, and bread (lavash) are basic features of Armenian cuisine. Armenians traditionally used cracked wheat (bulgur) in preference to maize and rice.[2] The flavor of the food relies on the quality and freshness of the ingredients rather than on excessive use of spices.[3]

Fresh herbs are used extensively, both in the food and as accompaniments. Dried herbs are used in the winter, when fresh herbs are not available.[4] Wheat is the primary grain and is found in a variety of forms, such as: whole wheat, shelled wheat, bulgur (parboiled cracked wheat), semolina, farina, and flour.[2] Historically, rice was used mostly in the cities and in certain rice-growing areas (e.g., Marash and the region around Yerevan). Legumes are used liberally, especially chick peas, lentils, white beans, and kidney beans. Nuts are used both for texture and to add nutrition to Lenten dishes. Of primary usage are walnuts, almonds, pine nuts, but also hazelnuts, pistachios (in Cilicia), and nuts from regional trees.[5][6]

Fresh and dried fruit are used both as main ingredients and as sour agents. As main ingredients, the following fruit are used: apricots (fresh and dried), quince, melons, and others.[7] As sour agents, the following fruits are used: sumac berries (in dried, powdered form), sour grapes, plums (either sour or dried), pomegranate, apricots, cherries (especially sour cherries), and lemons. In addition to grape leaves, cabbage leaves, chard, beet leaves, radish leaves, strawberry leaves, and others are also stuffed.[8]

Typical dishes[edit]

Armenian khash
Armenian dolma
Armenian kibbeh with cucumber/yoghurt soup

There are a few national dishes in Armenian cuisine.

  • Harissa is a porridge made of wheat and meat cooked together for a long time, originally in the tonir but nowadays over a stove. Traditionally, harissa was prepared on feast days in communal pots and served to all comers. The wheat used in harissa is typically shelled (pelted) wheat, though in Adana, harissa is made with կորկոտ (korkot; ground, par-boiled shelled wheat), similar to bulgur. Either lamb, beef, or chicken is used as the harissa meat.[9]
  • Khash, which started off as a laborer's meal, consists of beef or lamb feet that have been slow-cooked overnight in water. It is eaten at breakfast over crumbled dried lavash bread, with crushed garlic and liberal portions of vodka or spirits. Khash is typically eaten in winter. Variations of khash from the Van region supplement the beef feet with various organ meats, such as heart, tongue, etc., as well as chick peas or other legumes. A vegetarian version of khash replaces the meat with lentils. This version is also served over crumbled dry lavash but is topped with fried onions.[10]
  • Dolma is a traditional Armenian dish of minced meat wrapped by grape leaves.[11]

The "everyday" Armenian dish is the dzhash (Ճաշ). This is a brothy stew consisting of meat (or a legume, in the meatless version), a vegetable, and spices. The dzhash was typically cooked in the tonir. The dzhash is generally served over a pilaf of rice or bulgur, sometimes accompanied by bread, pickles or fresh vegetables or herbs. A specific variety of dzhash is the porani (պորանի), a stew made with yoghurt, of possibly Persian origin. Examples of dzhash are:

  • Meat and green beans or green peas (with tomato sauce, garlic, and mint or fresh dill)
  • Meat and summer squash (or zucchini). This is a signature dish from Ainteb, and is characterized by the liberal use of dried mint, tomatoes, and lemon juice.
  • Meat and pumpkin. This is a wedding dish from Marash made with meat, chick peas, pumpkin, tomato and pepper paste, and spices.
  • Meat and leeks in a yoghurt sauce.
  • Urfa-style porani, made with small meatballs, chickpeas, chard, and desert truffles.

Grilled meats are quite common as well and are omnipresent at market stalls, where they are eaten as fast food, as well as at barbecues and picnic. Also, in modern times, no Armenian banquet is considered complete without an entree of kabob. Kabobs vary from the simple (marinated meat on a skewer interspersed with vegetables) to the more elaborate. Certain regions in Western Armenia developed their local, specialized kabobs. For example, we have

  • Urfa kabob, spiced ground meat interspersed with eggplant slices.
  • Orukh and khanum budu, two Cilician specialties in which lean ground meat is kneaded with dough and spices and lined on a skewer.

Stuffed dishes are usually served on festive occasions, as they take quite a bit of time to prepare. Almost any vegetable or cut of meat is a candidate for stuffing. Examples are:[12]

  • Grape leaves, cabbage leaves, chard leaves, beet greens, strawberry leaves, or other edible large leaves
  • Tomatoes, peppers, squash/zucchini, eggplants, pumpkins, onions, potatoes
  • Melons, apples, quince, apricots, dates
  • Chicken legs
  • Lamb breast (or rack of lamb), lamb intestines (մումպար), lamb or beef lungs

Typically, the stuffing consists of rice or bulgur, mixed with ground meat, seasonings, and sometimes dried fruits and nuts.[2] Vegetarian stuffings follow the same pattern but replace the meat with a variety of pulses and legumes.[13]

A common dish of Armenian cuisine is pilaf (եղինց; yeghints). Pilaf is a seasoned rice, bulgur, or shelled wheat dish often served with meats such as lamb or beef. Many pilafs (especially in Western Armenian cuisine) are made with vermicelli in addition to the rice or wheat. Pilafs can also include meats, vegetables, and/or dried fruits to make them more substantial (similar to the Indian biryani). Rice pilaf with dried fruits is part of the Eastern Armenian Christmas Eve tradition. Pilaf made with bulgur and liver is a specialty of Zeitoun (Cilicia, Western Armenia).[14]

Spices and herbs[edit]

Armenian cuisine uses spices sparingly but instead relies on the use of fresh herbs.[3]

The primary spices used in Armenian cuisine are salt, garlic, red pepper (particularly Aleppo pepper, which is a spicier variety of paprika), dried mint (in Western Armenia), cumin, coriander, sumac (the powdered dried berry of the Mediterranean sumac bush), cinnamon, cloves, Mahleb (the powdered pit of the black cherry).

The types of herbs used in cuisine are strongly influenced by region. In Eastern Armenia, the following fresh herbs are used liberally: dill, Parsley, Tarragon, Basil, Oregano (particularly wild oregano), Thyme. In Western Armenia, the preferred herbs are: mint, Parsley, Basil, Tarragon, Thyme, and savory. Throughout the country, local herbs are used as well. Many of the herbs that Western Armenians have used have fallen out of use because of lack of availability. In the Republic of Armenia, and particularly in Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabagh), aveluk (Rumex crispus), chrchrok (a water grass similar to water cress), and other herbs are all used.

In addition to the above, various scents and attars commonly used in the Middle-East are also used in the making of sweets; for example, rose water and orange blossom water.

The introduction into Cilicia and Aleppo, in the late 18th Century, of tomato revolutionized the Armenian cuisine of Cilicia. Dishes that used to be prepared with dried fruits started being prepared with tomato. The spread of tomato into the region can be quite clearly traced: essential in the cuisine of Cilicia and many large cities, it is rarely used in the cuisine of Van and Vaspurakan. Other important imports are peppers and potatoes. The latter, according to tradition, was imported into Armenia from India by an Armenian Catholicos in the 18th Century. Other imports include spices, such as cinnamon and nutmeg.

Breakfast[edit]

The modern Armenian breakfast consists of coffee or tea, plus a spread of cheeses, jams, jellies, eggs, and breads. Armenians living in the Diaspora often adopt local customs. Thus, Armenians in Lebanon, Syria, and Egypt may include "fool" (stewed fava beans in olive oil).

Traditional Armenian breakfast dishes were hearty. They included:

  • Khash: which is still eaten on cold winter mornings in the Republic of Armenia.[10]
  • Kalagyosh: There are many variants of this dish. It can be a meat and yogurt stew or it can be a vegetarian stew made with lentils, fried onions, and matzoon. In either case, it was traditionally eaten by crumbling stale lavash bread over it and eating it with a spoon.

Appetizers[edit]

Meals in Armenia often start with a spread of appetizers served for "the table".[15]

  • Various cheeses, such as Chechil (tel panir) – braided and pickled string cheese, also chanakh, lori, yeghegnadzor and others made from sheep or cow's milk.
  • Topik or topig is a large vegetarian stuffed "meatball".
  • Countless stuffed vegetables, usually vegetarian.
  • Pickles: cabbage, cucumber, tomatoes (ripe and unripe), cauliflower, carrots, grapes, garlic, etc.
  • Fresh herbs
  • Grain and herb salads
  • Bread dough or phyllo dough pastries called byoreks (boereg). These are either baked or fried.

Bread is "de rigueur", particularly flat breads such as lavash.

Salads[edit]

Many, if not most, Armenian salads combine a grain or legume with fresh vegetables—often tomato, onions, and fresh herbs. Mayonnaise is used in Western or Russian-inspired salads (e.g., Salade Olivier). Examples of Armenian salads include:[16]

  • Eetch – cracked wheat salad, similar to the Middle Eastern tabouleh.
  • Lentil salad – brown lentils, tomatoes, onions, in a dressing of lemon juice, olive oil, and chopped parsley. This salad has many variations, with the lentils being replaced by chick peas, black-eyed peas, chopped raw or roasted eggplant, etc.
  • Jajukh – there are several varieties of this salad, which resembles a dip or cold soup. The cucumber jajukh is made with diced cucumbers in a matzoon/garlic sauce. The Swiss chard version is made with blanched, chopped chard in a thick "sauce" of drained matzoon and garlic. This salad is traditionally served on Easter Eve. The Lenten version of this (called "ajem jajukh") substitutes tahini, lemon juice, and a little tomato sauce for the drained yogurt.

Byorek[edit]

Typical homemade byorek, with meat, caramelized onion and bell pepper filling
  • Byoreks (Armenian: բյորեկ), are pies made with phyllo pastry and stuffed with cheese (panirov byorek, from Armenian: panir for cheese, Eastern Armenians refer to this as Khachapuri) or spinach (similar to spanakopita in Greek cuisine). They are a popular snack and fast food, often served as appetizer. Su byorek lit. 'water burek' is a lasagna-style dish with sheets of phyllo pastry briefly boiled in a large pan before being spread with fillings.[17] Msov byorek is a bread roll (not phyllo pastry) stuffed with ground meat (similar to Russian pirozhki).
  • Semsek, from the region of Urfa, is a fried open-faced meat byorek.
  • A specific Lenten byorek is made with spinach and tahini sauce.

Grilled meats[edit]

Khorovats

Grilling (barbecue) is very popular in Armenia, and grilled meats are often the main course in restaurants and at family gatherings. Grilled meat is also a fast food.

  • Khorovats (or khorovadz) (Armenian: խորոված xorovaç) – the Armenian word for barbecued or grilled meats (the generic kebab in English), the most representative dish of Armenian cuisine enjoyed in restaurants, family gatherings, and as fast food. A typical khorovats is chunks of meat grilled on a skewer (shashlik), although steaks or chops grilled without skewers may be also included. In Armenia itself, khorovats is often made with the bone still in the meat (as lamb or pork chops). Western Armenians outside Armenia generally cook the meat with bones taken out. In Armenia today, the most popular meat for khorovats is pork due to Soviet-era economic heritage. Armenians outside Armenia usually prefer lamb or beef depending on their background, and chicken is also popular.
  • Gharsi khorovats (Armenian: Ղարսի խորոված) – slivers of grilled meat rolled up in lavash this "shashlik Ghars style" takes its name from the city of Kars (Armenian: Ghars).

Soups[edit]

Harissa served with vegetables
Manti with sour cream: an essential component of mantapour

Armenian soups include spas, made from matzoon, hulled wheat and herbs (usually cilantro),[18] and aveluk, made from lentils, walnuts, and wild mountain sorrel (which gives the soup its name). Kiufta soup is made with large balls of strained boiled meat (kiufta) and greens.

Another soup, khash, is considered an Armenian institution. Songs and poems have been written about this one dish, which is made from cow's feet and herbs made into a clear broth. Tradition holds that khash can only be cooked by men, who spend the entire night cooking, and can be eaten only in the early morning in the dead of winter, where it served with heaps of fresh garlic and dried lavash.[10]

T'ghit is a very special and old traditional food, made from t'tu lavash (fruit leather, thin roll-up sheets of sour plum purée),[19] which are cut into small pieces and boiled in water. Fried onions are added and the mixture is cooked into a purée. Pieces of lavash bread are placed on top of the mixture, and it is eaten hot with fresh lavash used to scoop up the mixture by hand.[20]

Karshm is a local soup made in the town of Vaik in the Vayots Dzor Province. This is a walnut based soup with red and green beans, chick peas and spices, served garnished with red pepper and fresh garlic.[21] Soups of Russian heritage include borscht, a beet root soup with meat and vegetables (served hot in Armenia, with fresh sour cream) and okroshka, a matzoon or kefir based soup with chopped cucumber, green onion, and garlic.[22]

Fish[edit]

Sevan trout

For a relatively land-locked country, Armenian cuisine includes a surprising number of fish dishes. Typically, fish is either broiled, fried, or sometimes poached. A few recipes direct the fish to be stuffed. Fish may have been used to stuff vegetables in ancient times, though that is not common anymore.

There are several varieties of fish in the Republic of Armenia:

Main courses[edit]

Ghapama made with butternut squash, instead of pumpkin
  • Fasulya (fassoulia) – a stew made with green beans, lamb and tomato broth or other ingredients
  • Ghapama (Armenian: ղափամա ġap’ama) – pumpkin stew[29]
  • Kchuch (Armenian: կճուճ kč̣uč̣) – a casserole of mixed vegetables with pieces of meat or fish on top, baked and served in a clay pot
  • Tjvjik (Armenian: տժվժիկ tžvžik) – a dish of fried liver and kidneys with onions

Meat products[edit]

Armenian basturma, or apukht

Dairy products[edit]

Dairies form an important part of the Armenian diet, especially in the cold winter months where, in past times, the only available vegetables were dried or pickled.[31]

Yogurt (մածուն) and yogurt-derived products are of particular importance in the cuisine. In past times, villagers made a distinction between different types of yogurt, such as the yogurt made with the first milk of spring, etc. From yogurt is made tahn, a refreshing drink made from yogurt, water, and salt. Yogurt is also strained (քամված մածուն) and, thus prepared, may be used as a dip or mixed with broth in soups or stews (since the strained yogurt does not curdle as easily as plain yogurt). As a mean of long-term preservation, yogurt was also strained, formed into balls that were allowed to dry in the sun. This preparation is known as չորթան ("dry" yogurt).

An interesting preparation is the use of yogurt and bulgur to make թարխանա (tarkhana). The bulgur is kneaded with yogurt (and sometimes dried mint), dried in the sun, then broken into pieces that are stored in jars (or, traditionally, cloth sacks that were hung from the rafters). The preserved product could then be used in the winter to make soup or stews.

Yogurt forms the base of many stews and sauces. Պորանի (porani) is a stew with many variants but with the common characteristic of using yogurt. Many Armenian soups are made with yogurt. Generally, rice, bulgur, or vermicelli is boiled, and yogurt, or strained yogurt, is mixed to make soup. There are of course many variants involving the addition of legumes, herbs, spices, etc. In Western Armenian cuisine, a common side dish or dip is սխտոր մածուն ("garlic yogurt"), made by beating raw mashed garlic and salt into yogurt.

In addition to yogurt, Armenians use all the typical dairy products, from milk itself, to milk cream, sour cream (թթվասեր, t'tvaser), etc. Clotted cream, known as սերուցք (serootsk), is a staple of Western Armenian sweets.

Bread[edit]

Choreg at an Armenian Easter celebration

Sweets[edit]

Ritual foods[edit]

  • Nshkhar (Armenian: նշխար nšxar) – bread used for Holy Communion
  • Mas (Armenian: մաս mas) – literally means "piece" a piece of leftover bread from the making of Nshkhar, given to worshippers after church service
  • Matagh (Armenian: մատաղ mataġ) – sacrificial meat. can be of any animal such as goat, lamb, or even bird.

Drinks[edit]

Jermuk is a bottled mineral water originating from the town of Jermuk in Armenia, and bottled since 1951

Alcoholic drinks[edit]

Beer[edit]

A bottle of Kotayk Gold

Beer (Armenian: գարեջուր gareǰur)

Armenian produced beer is considered to be one of the favorite drinks of Armenian men. The beer industry is developing barley malt and producing beer from it. The preparation of beer in Armenia was known from ancient times. According to the Greek historian Xenophon the manufacture of beer in Armenia has begun from BC V-IV centuries. Armenians used beer grains for brewing (barley, millet, hops).[40]

In 1913 there were 3 factories of beer, there was produced 54 thousand deciliters of beer. In 1952-78 there were built new factories in Yerevan, Goris, Alaverdi, Abovyan, existing factories expanded and technically equipped. For providing raw materials for beer production in Gyumri was launched large malt plant, based in the production of barley melt of Shirak valley farms (with the capacity of 10 thousand tons of production). In 1985 was produced 6 million deciliters of beer.

Popular Brands

Brandy[edit]

Armenian brandy (Armenian: կոնյակ konyak), known locally as konyak is perhaps Armenia's most popular exported alcoholic drink. It has a long history of production. Armenian brandy made by Yerevan Wine & Brandy Factory was said to be the favorite drink of British statesman Winston Churchill. It was the favorite alcoholic drink of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Churchill at the Yalta conference at 1945.[41]

The history of Armenian brandy begins in 1887, in the winery of Armenian merchant N. Tairov (Yerevan). By 1890-1900 Yerevan was becoming a center for the production of brandy, numbering a number of factories owned by Gyozalov (1892), Saradjev (1894), Ter-Mkrtchian (1899), and others. In 1899, N. Tairov sold his factory to Nikolay Shustov’s well-known brand in Russia. In 1914, there were 15 factories in the province of Yerevan (the largest the one now owned by Shustov) produced 210,010 deciliters of brandy. In 1921, the Soviet state took over Shustov’s factory, and it was renamed to “Ararat”. This became the main factory for wine manufacturing.[42]

Despite the fact that only brandies produced in the Cognac region of France have the copyright to be called “cognac” according to Western trade rules, Armenian brandy is called cognac inside Armenia. Yerevan Brandy Factory is now negotiating to obtain an official privilege to market its brandy as cognac.[43]

Armenian brandy is categorized by its age and method of aging. The rated stars indicate the age of brandy since its fermentation starting from 3 stars. The most expensive cognacs have passed additional vintage for more that 6 years and have special names. The brandy is aged in oak barrels and is made from selected local white grapes grown in the Ararat Valley which is giving it a shade of caramel brown.[43]

Popular Brands

Oghi[edit]

Armenian wine

Oghi (Armenian: օղի òġi) – an Armenian alcoholic beverage usually distilled from fruit;[44] also called aragh.[45] Artsakh is a well-known brand name of Armenian mulberry vodka (tuti oghi) produced in Nagorno-Karabakh from local fruit.[46] In the Armenian Diaspora, where fruit vodka is not distilled, oghi refers to the aniseed-flavored distilled alcoholic drink called arak in the Middle East, raki in Turkey, or ouzo in Greece.[47][48]

Wine[edit]

The alcoholic drink with the longest history in Armenia is wine. One of the oldest wineries in the world was discovered in Armenia. Historically, wineries in Armenia were concentrated along the Ararat valley. Of particular note was the district of Koghtn (Գողթն, current Nakhichevan area). Today, Armenian wineries are concentrated in the Areni region (district of Vayots Dzor).[49][50]

Armenian wine is mostly made from local varietals, such as Areni, Lalvari, Kakhet, etc., though some wineries mix in better known European varietals such as Chardonnay and Cabernet. Winemaking took a downward plunge in the years following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but is undergoing a revival, with the addition of world-class labels such as Zorah Wines. A yearly wine festival, held in Areni, is popular with the locals and features wines from official wineries as well as homemade hooch of varying quality. Armenian wines are predominantly red and are sweet, semi-sweet (Vernashen, Ijevan), or dry (Areni).

Armenian Highland engaged in winemaking since ancient times. It has achieved considerable development of Urartu times (IX - VI centuries. BC). During excavations in the castle of Teyshebaini have been found around 480, and in Toprakkale, Manazkert, Red Hill and Ererbunium 200 pot.

The evidences of high-level and large-scale wine production in Armenia are as foreign (Herodotus, Strabo, Xenophon and others) and Armenian historians of V-XVIII centuries, as well as sculptures of architectural monuments and protocols. Armenia's current area began wine production in the 2nd half of XIX century. At the end of XIX century, next to the small businesses in Yerevan, Ghamarlu (Artashat), Ashtarak, Echmiadzin (Vagharshapat ), there were 4 mill.

In addition to grapes, wines have been made with other fruit, notably pomegranate (Armenian: նռան գինի nran kini), apricot, quince, etc. In some cases, these fruit wines are fortified.[51]

Mineral waters[edit]

Among the soft drinks Armenian mineral water is known for its healing specialty and is recommended by doctors. This spring water is originating from the depth of earth and flowing from ancient mountains in the city of Jermuk.[39]

Armenia has rich reserves of mineral water. After the establishment of the Soviet Union the study and development of multilateral disciplines in these waters have begun. First industrial bottling was organized in Arzni, at 1927. In 1949, were put into operation Dilijan and Jermuk mineral water factories. In 1960-1980 were launched “Sevan”, “Hankavan”, “Lichk”, “Bjni”, “Lori”, “Arpi”, “Ararat”, mineral water bottling plants and factories, which are involved in the production unit “mineral water of Armenia”. ASSR in 1985 produced 295 million bottles of mineral water.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pokhlebkin, V. V. (1978). Russian Delight: A Cookbook of the Soviet People. London: Pan Books.
  2. ^ a b c Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 58.
  3. ^ a b Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 154.
  4. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 149-151.
  5. ^ Uvezian 1996, p. 455.
  6. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 169.
  7. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 138.
  8. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 83.
  9. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 63.
  10. ^ a b c Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 87-93.
  11. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 80-84.
  12. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 218.
  13. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 121.
  14. ^ Zeytun - Foods
  15. ^ Davidson, Alan (1999). The Oxford Companion to Food, Oxford University Press, p. 35.
  16. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 108, 153.
  17. ^ Sou boereg recipe, ChowHound.
  18. ^ Petrosian, Irina; Underwood, David (2006). Armenian food: Fact, fiction & folklore, Bloomington, IN: Yerkir, p. 60. ISBN 1-4116-9865-7.
  19. ^ T'tu lavash described here.
  20. ^ The Armenian Cuisine
  21. ^ "Karshm" soup, Travel Guide to Shirak.
  22. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 107, 108.
  23. ^ Blghourapour recipe on Gnozis.info (Russian)
  24. ^ Bozbash in Uvezian, Sonia, The Cuisine of Armenia, Siamanto Press, Northbrook, IL, 2001 (parts accessible through Amazon Online Reader).
  25. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 115.
  26. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 116.
  27. ^ Karmrakhayt in Marmarik River
  28. ^ Karmrakhayt in Mantash Reservoir Archived 18 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 120.
  30. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 111-114.
  31. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 44.
  32. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 26.
  33. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 35.
  34. ^ "Armenian Sweet Bread". Heghineh. 
  35. ^ Bread recipes in Adventures in Armenian Cooking
  36. ^ Desserts on Adventures in Armenian Cooking Archived 27 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  37. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 231.
  38. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 49.
  39. ^ a b Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 160.
  40. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 230.
  41. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 160-161.
  42. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 161.
  43. ^ a b Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 158.
  44. ^ Oghi, an Armenian fruit vodka
  45. ^ Aragh, Armenian moonshine
  46. ^ Artsakh mulberry vodka
  47. ^ Hacikyan, Agop Jack; Basmajian, Gabriel; Franchuk, Edward S.; Nourhan Ouzounian (2000). The Heritage of Armenian Literature. Wayne State University Press. p. 815. ISBN 0-8143-3221-8. 
  48. ^ Sherman, Chris (26 July 2006). "The spirit of relaxation", St Petersburg Times, Florida.
  49. ^ "'Oldest known wine-making facility' found in Armenia.". BBC. January 11, 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-11. 
  50. ^ Maugh II, Thomas H. (January 11, 2011). "Ancient winery found in Armenia". Los Angeles Times. 
  51. ^ Petrosian & Underwood 2006, p. 219-220.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Uvezian, Sonia (1996). Cuisine of Armenia. Hippocrene Cookbooks Series. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 9780781804172. 
  • Petrosian, Irina; Underwood, David (2006). Armenian Food: Fact, Fiction & Folklore. Bloomington, Indiana: Yerkir Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4116-9865-9. 

External links[edit]