Cuisine of Odisha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Odia cuisine is the cuisine of the Indian state of Odisha. Compared to other regional Indian cuisines, Odia cuisine uses less oil and is less spicy while nonetheless remaining flavourful.[1][2] Rice is the staple food of this region. Mustard oil is used in some dishes as the cooking medium, but ghee (made of cow's milk) is preferred in temples.[2] In old times food was traditionally served on copper plates or disposable plates made of sal leaves.[3]

Odia cooks, particularly from the Puri region, were much sought after due to their ability to cook food in accordance with Hindu scriptures. During the 19th century, many Odia cooks were employed in Bengal and they took many Odia dishes with them.[4][5]

Yoghurt is used in dishes. Many sweets of the region are based on chhena (cheese).[6]

Ingredients and seasoning[edit]

Rice is a major crop of Odisha along with wheat.[7] Lentils such as pigeon peas and moong beans are another major ingredients.

Indigenous vegetables used in Odia cuisine are pumpkin, gourd , plantains, jackfruit, and papaya. Vegetables such as potatoes, cauliflowers, and cabbages are also used alongside local vegetables.

Pancha phutana is a blend of five spices that is widely used in Odia cuisine. It contains mustard, cumin, fenugreek, aniseed and kalonji(onion seeds). Garlic, onion and ginger are used in most of the food. Turmeric and jaggery are used regularly.[2]

Local variation[edit]

The food in the region around Puri-Cuttack is greatly influenced by the Jagannath Temple. On the other hand, kalonji and mustard paste are used mostly in every part of the state. In the region closer to Andhra Pradesh, curry tree leaves and tamarind are used more. The Brahmapur region has influences of South Indian cuisine.[8]

Temple food[edit]

Abadha, the afternoon meal of the Jagannath Temple served on a plantain leaf.

Temples in the region make offerings to the presiding deities. The prasada of the Jagannath Temple is well known and is specifically called Maha Prasad meaning greatest of all prasadas. It consists of 56 recipes, so it is called chhapan bhoga. It is based on the legend that Krishna missed his eight meals for seven days while trying to save a village from a storm holding up the Govardhan hill as a shelter.[6]

Fish and seafood[edit]

Fish and other seafood are eaten mainly in coastal areas. Several curries are prepared from crab, prawn and lobster with spices.[2][9] Freshwater fish is available from rivers and irrigation canals.[4]

List of dishes[edit]

Rice dishes and rotis[edit]

Pakhala served with wads of lemon, yoghurt and a slice of tomato.

Dal[edit]

Dalma
  • Dalma: A dish made from dal and vegetables.[18] It is generally made from toor dal and contains chopped vegetables like green papaya, plantain, eggplant, pumpkin, gourd, etc. It is garnished with turmeric, mustard seeds, and panch phutana. There are several variations of this dish.[4]
  • Dali: A dish made from one of the Dals like tur, horse gram chana, masur, mung or a combination of these.

Curries[edit]

  • Santula: A dish of finely chopped vegetables which are sauteed with garlic, green chilies, mustard and spices. It has several variations.[4][11]
  • Ghuguni : A popular dish made from overnight soaked peas, potato with some moulds of horse gram powder to thicken the curry. It's a popular curry in street food mostly eaten with bara in undivided districts of Puri and Cuttack.
  • Chhatu rai: A dish made from mushrooms and mustard.[18]
  • Alu potala rasa: Curry made from potato and pointed gourds.[12]
  • Kadali manja rai: A curry made from banana plant stem and mustard seeds. Manja refers to the stem which can be used in dalma.[11][19][20]
  • Mohura:
  • Besara: Assorted vegetables in mustard paste tempered with pancha phutan

Khattas and chutneys[edit]

Dhania-Patra Chutney

Khatta refers to a type of sour side dish or chutney usually served with Odia thalis.[21]

Shaag (salad greens)[edit]

In Odia cuisine, sāga is one of the most important leafy vegetables. It is popular all over the state. A list of the plants that are used as sāga is as below. Odias typically eat many cooked green leaves. They are prepared by adding "pancha phutan", with or without onion/garlic, and are best enjoyed with pakhala.

  • Kalama sāga (କଳମ ଶାଗ) Ipomoea aquatica (Water Spinach)
  • Kosalā/Khadā sāga (କୋସଳା ଶାଗ/ଖଡା ଶାଗ): prepared from amaranth leaves.
  • Bajji sāga (ବଜ୍ଜୀ ଶାଗ): Prepared from Amaranthus dubius leaves.
  • Leutiā sāga (ଲେଉଟିଆ ଶାଗ)Amaranthus viridis leaves and tender stems.
  • Pālanga sāga (ପାଳଙ୍ଗ ଶାଗ) spinach
  • Poi sāga (ପୋଈ ଶାଗ): prepared from basella leaves and tender stems.
  • Bāramāsi/Sajanā sāga (ବାରମାସି/ ସଜନା ଶାଗ): prepared from leaves of the drumstick tree. Cooked with lentils or alone with fried onions.
  • Sunusuniā sāga (ସୁନୁସୁନିଆ ଶାଗ) Marsilea polycarpa leaves.
  • Pitāgama sāga (ପିତାଗମା ଶାଗ)
  • Pidanga sāga (ପିଡଙ୍ଗ ଶାଗ)
  • Kakhāru sāga (କଖାରୁ ଶାଗ): Prepared from leaves of the pumpkin plant.
  • Madarangā sāga (ମଦରଙ୍ଗା ଶାଗ): prepared from leaves of Alternanthera sessilis.
  • Sorisa saga (ଶୋରିସ ଶାଗ) : Mustard greens
  • Methi sāga (ମେଥୀ ଶାଗ): prepared from methi or Fenugreek leaves and besara (mustard paste) cooked with vegetable.[26]
  • Matara sāga (ମଟର ଶାଗ): The inner coating of peas is removed and then chopped to make the saga.

One of the most popular is lali koshala saaga made from green leaves with red stems. Other saagas that are eaten are pita gahama, khada, poi, koshala, and sajana. Some items are as follows:

  • Saaga Bhaja[11]
  • Saaga Muga
  • Saaga Badi[21]
  • Saaga Rai
  • Saru patra tarkari

Pithas (sweet cakes)[edit]

Kakara Pitha

Pithas and sweets are types of traditional Odia dishes.[27][28]

Egg, chicken and mutton[edit]

Fish and other sea food[edit]

Hilsa Fish Curry
Ilishi maachha tarkari

Smoked Dry sardine after cleaning mix with garlic,green chilly, salt using moter & pistel or mixture grinder. Dry White bait fish (ଚାଉଳି ଶୁଖୁଆ ), dry shrimp (ଚିଙ୍ଗୁଡ଼ି ଶୁଖୁଆ, ତାଂପେଡା ) etc. also prepared like this Flake/powdered.

  • seer fish (କଣି ମାଛ )/ mackerel (କାନାଗୁର୍ତ୍ଆ, ମରୁଆ) curry, chilly
  • Bitter dry fish fry (ପିତା ଶୁଖୁଆ ଭଜା )- small freshwater nutrient fish dried in sun ray in hygienic manner and eaten fried or smocked.
  • ପୋହଳା ମାଛ ତରକାରୀ (minor /small carp fish curry). Fried small carp in onion or mustard based gravy.
  • Mola fry/ chips/ boild grind. ମହୁରାଳୀ ମାଛ ଭଜା / ଛଣା / ଚକଟା. Very nutriuos. After Cleaning wash, boil in less water, add salt and turmeric. Mix with mustard oil, green chilly, garlic, onion and grind.

Fritters and fries[edit]

  • Alloo piaji:[32] A savory snack, similar to pakora or fritters, made with potatoes and onions, long-sliced, mixed and dipped in a batter of gram-flour, and then deep-fried
  • Bhendi baigana bhaja:[12] okra (ladies' fingers) and eggplant, sliced and deep-fried
  • Badi Chura:[33] A coarse crushed mixture of sun-dried lentil dumplings (Badi), onion, garlic, green chillies and mustard oil
  • Pampad : flat savory snack like deep-friend or roasted appetizer, which looks very similar to a roti, usually eaten during lunch time
  • Phula badi: Bigger and inflated versions of the normal Badi - a sun-dried lentil dumpling
  • Sajana Chhuin Bhaja: Drumsticks sliced into 3 to 3 inch long pieces and deep/shallow fried in oil
  • Desi Kankada bhaja (ଦେଶୀ କାଙ୍କଡ଼ ଭଜା )- A vegetable found in hilly area and fried with oil, onion, dried chilli flake, cumin powder
  • country potato fry (ଦେଶି ଆଳୁ/ଖମ୍ବ ଆଳୁ ଭଜା )- first slice into small pieces and half boil it with turmeric and salt. Then fry using oil in high flame. Add fried and powdered mustard, cumin red chilli to taste.
  • Banana fry (କଞ୍ଚା କଦଳୀ ଭଜା )- As country potato fry
  • Bamboo stem (ବାଉଁଶ କରଡି ) recipe - usually done by people of hilli area/ Tribal people in dried form (ହେଂଡୁଅ)for flavour or raw as curry, fry, chips.
  • ନଡ଼ିଆ ବରା coconut vada
  • ପିଠଉ ଦିଆ ଭଜା (Fry with rice and urad dal mix batter)- different Vegetable/ vegetables slice with rice batter (added cumin, salt, dalcchini, ginger, garlic, onion, green chilli paste)

For example- jack fruit pithau fry, Brinjal pithau fry, Gourd pithau fry, Kaddu/kakharu flower pithou fry Etc.

Snacks[edit]

Desserts and sweets[edit]

Chenna Poda

Drinks[edit]

Bela Pana

There are many traditional alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks which are unique to Odisha. Some are made during specific festivals or as an offering to gods and others are made all year. The drinks which have a thick consistency are usually called paṇa and the ones with have a watery consistency are usually known as sarbat.[39][40][41] Many of the ethnic tribes[42] of Odisha have their own indigenous drinks made from forest produce. Any drink that contains alcohol is usually called madya[43][44]

Alcoholic[edit]

  • Aamba mada - mango-based alcoholic beverage
  • Aakhu mada - sugarcane-based alcoholic beverage
  • Amrutabhanda mada - papaya-based alcoholic beverage
  • Anlaa mada - Indian gooseberry-based alcoholic beverage
  • Dimiri tadi - juice of Indian fig-based alcoholic beverage
  • Dimiri mada - pulp of Indian fig-based alcoholic beverage
  • Handia - traditional rice beer popular among the tribes of Odisha
  • Kadali mada - banana-based alcoholic beverage
  • Guda mada - jaggery-based alcoholic beverage
  • Pijuli mada - guava-based alcoholic beverage
  • Jamukoli mada - Malabar plum-based alcoholic beverage
  • Jana mada - maize-based alcoholic beverage
  • Tala mada - palm-based alcoholic beverage
  • Kumuda mada - squash-based alcoholic beverage
  • Landa - rice-based alcoholic beverage
  • Mahulu mada or mahuli - mahua flower-based alcoholic beverage
  • Panasa mada - jackfruit-based alcoholic beverage
  • Pendum - rice-based alcoholic beverage consumed by the Bonda tribe
  • Rasi - a type of rice beer related to handia; popular among the tribes of Odisha[45]
  • Sagur - alcoholic beverage made from different fruit nuts, mahua flowers or fruits using the process of distillation known as sagur by the Bonda tribe
  • Salapi - palm-based alcoholic beverage
  • Sapung - sago palm-based alcoholic beverage consumed by the Bonda tribe
  • Sindi mada - date palm-based alcoholic beverage
  • Tamati mada - tomato-based alcoholic beverage
  • Tetel mada - tamarind-based alcoholic beverage

Cannabis-based[edit]

Non-alcoholic[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The coastal edge". The Telegraph (India). 27 March 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e "From the land of Jagannath". The Hindu. 28 July 2004. Archived from the original on 11 September 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  3. ^ "Not a stereotyped holiday". The Hindu. 10 March 2002. Archived from the original on 22 September 2002. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Charmaine O' Brien (15 December 2013). "Orissa". The Penguin Food Guide to India. Penguin Books Limited. p. 188. ISBN 978-93-5118-575-8. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  5. ^ Utsa Ray (30 November 2014). Culinary Culture in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-107-04281-0.
  6. ^ a b Rocky Singh; Mayur Sharma (25 July 2014). Highway on my Plate-II: the Indian guide to roadside eating. Random House India. p. 370. ISBN 978-81-8400-642-1.
  7. ^ "Agriculture & Irrigation - Odisha - States and Union Territories - Know India: National Portal of India". Archived from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  8. ^ "New cookery show on TV soon". The Hindu. 23 December 2010.
  9. ^ "Inside Delhi". The Hindu. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2014. While savouring Chingudi malai curry (prawns with rich Oriya spices) and kukuda jhola (chicken cooked with spices and egg), the friend soaked in the atmosphere and was transported back to the sight and smell of his native place.
  10. ^ "Pakhala, a hot favourite in Odisha's summer menu". Zee News. 11 April 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Oriya cuisine spices up syllabus". The Telegraph (India). 23 February 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h "Yummy fare at Odia food fest". The Hindu. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  13. ^ a b "Women vie for kitchen queen title — Contestants cook up mouth-watering dishes at cookery contest". The Telegraph (India). 9 August 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2014. Oriya dishes like khiri, khichdi, kasha mansa were also prepared by the contestants.
  14. ^ "Khechidi". Oriya Kitchen. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  15. ^ a b "Potpouri". No. The Telegraph (India). 29 July 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  16. ^ "Palau (pulao)". Oriya Kitchen. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  17. ^ "Kanika". Destination Orissa. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  18. ^ a b "Rahul savours 'dalma' and 'khir'". The Hindu. 14 May 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  19. ^ Bijoylaxmi Hota; Kabita Pattanaik (2007). Healthy Oriya Cuisine. Rupa & Company. p. 29. ISBN 978-81-291-1118-0.
  20. ^ "Kadali Manja Rai". eOdisha. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  21. ^ a b c d "Tasty treat of tangy khatta & spicy tadka". The Telegraph (India). 12 August 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2014. The Odia thali consists of tangy khatta and proceeds further with traditional dishes such as the green and healthy spinach item saga badi.
  22. ^ "कच्‍चे आम की रसीली चटनी: अंबा खट्टा". Boldshy (in Hindi). 15 June 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  23. ^ "Recipe: Tomato-khajuri khatta". The Times of India. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  24. ^ a b "It's time to pamper your tastebuds". The Telegraph (India). 16 June 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  25. ^ "Coriander Chutney". FullOdisha. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  26. ^ Lokesh Dash. "Recipes Methi Saga Recipes". OrissaSpider.com. Archived from the original on 15 September 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  27. ^ "Poda pithas take the cake". The Telegraph (India). 16 June 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  28. ^ "Traditional 'pitha' undergoes a sea change". The Hindu. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  29. ^ "Machha Besara (A spicy dish of Rohu fish)". Five Tastes. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  30. ^ "Machha Mahura (Fish with Mixed Vegetable Curry)". Bewarchi. Archived from the original on 22 November 2016.
  31. ^ "Traditional Odia Recipe - Kokali Sukhua". odiarecipes.com.
  32. ^ a b c d "Good response to Odiya food festival". The Hindu. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  33. ^ "Badi chura". Odia Recipes. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  34. ^ "Matar Ghugni aur Murmure". Mamta's Kitchen. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  35. ^ "Youths from Bihar and UP rule the 'golgappa' market". The Hindu. 13 November 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  36. ^ "A cook-off in the lord's name". The Telegraph (India). 19 July 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  37. ^ "Several good reasons to loiter". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 September 2014. Mouth-watering malpua, rasagulla, rasamalei, gulab jamun and other Oriya sweetmeats are served here.
  38. ^ "Attakali". Odia Recipes. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  39. ^ "Pana Pani Katha : Tales of Summer Drink". Medium. 14 April 2018.
  40. ^ a b c "Beat the heat in Odisha with these traditional summer drinks | Sambad English". 6 February 2018.
  41. ^ "10 most popular Drink and Beverage in odisha". 4 September 2019. Archived from the original on 24 January 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  42. ^ List of Scheduled Tribes in Odisha
  43. ^ "Indigenous Alcoholic Beverages Of Rayagada District, Odisha, India".
  44. ^ "Intoxicating Beverages of The Bonda Highlanders". www.etribaltribune.com.
  45. ^ "The popular adivasi food and drink". www.downtoearth.org.in.
  46. ^ "Raise a toast to beer the heat - Demand soars as tipplers get high on alcoholic drink". www.telegraphindia.com.
  47. ^ a b "Beating The Heat: A Sneak Peek Into Exotic Drinks Of Odisha". outlookindia.com.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]