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Odia cuisine is the cuisine of the Indian state of Odisha. Compared to other regional Indian cuisines, Odia cuisine uses less oil and is less spicy while nonetheless remaining flavourful. Rice is the staple food of this region. Mustard oil is used in some dishes as the cooking medium, but ghee (made of cow's milk) is preferred in temples. In old times food was traditionally served on copper plates or disposable plates made of sal leaves.
Odia cooks, particularly from the Puri region, were much sought after due to their ability to cook food in accordance with Hindu scriptures. During the 19th century, many Odia cooks were employed in Bengal and they took many Odia dishes with them.
Yoghurt is used in dishes. Many sweets of the region are based on chhena (cheese).
Ingredients and seasoning
Rice is a major crop of Odisha along with wheat. Lentils such as pigeon peas and moong beans are another major ingredients.
Pancha phutana is a blend of five spices that is widely used in Odia cuisine. It contains mustard, cumin, fenugreek, aniseed and kalonji(onion seeds). Garlic, onion and ginger are used in most of the food. Turmeric and jaggery are used regularly.
The food in the region around Puri-Cuttack is greatly influenced by the Jagannath Temple. On the other hand, kalonji and mustard paste are used mostly in every part of the state. In the region closer to Andhra Pradesh, curry tree leaves and tamarind are used more. The Brahmapur region has influences of South Indian cuisine.
Temples in the region make offerings to the presiding deities. The prasada of the Jagannath Temple is well known and is specifically called Maha Prasad meaning greatest of all prasadas. It consists of 56 recipes, so it is called chhapan bhoga. It is based on the legend that Krishna missed his eight meals for seven days while trying to save a village from a storm holding up the Govardhan hill as a shelter.
Fish and seafood
Fish and other seafood are eaten mainly in coastal areas. Several curries are prepared from crab, prawn and lobster with spices. Freshwater fish is available from rivers and irrigation canals.
List of dishes
Rice dishes and rotis
- Pakhala is a rice dish made by adding water with curd to cooked rice. It may then be allowed to ferment overnight. This is called basi pakhala and dahi pakhala. The unfermented version of this is called saja pakhala. It is served with green chillies, onions, yoghurt, badi etc. It is primarily eaten in summer.
- Khechidi is a rice dish cooked with lentils. It is the Odia version of khichdi.
- Palau is a rice dish made from meat, vegetables and raisins. It is the Odia version of pilaf.
- Kanika is a sweet rice dish, garnished with raisins and nuts.
- Ghee rice is fried with ghee and cinnamon
- Dalma: A dish made from dal and vegetables. It is generally made from toor dal and contains chopped vegetables like green papaya, plantain, eggplant, pumpkin, gourd, etc. It is garnished with turmeric, mustard seeds, and panch phutana. There are several variations of this dish.
- Dali: A dish made from one of the Dals like tur, horse gram chana, masur, mung or a combination of these.
- Santula: A dish of finely chopped vegetables which are sauteed with garlic, green chilies, mustard and spices. It has several variations.
- Ghuguni : A popular dish made from overnight soaked peas, potato with some moulds of horse gram powder to thicken the curry. It's a popular curry in street food mostly eaten with bara in undivided districts of Puri and Cuttack.
- Chhatu rai: A dish made from mushrooms and mustard.
- Alu potala rasa: Curry made from potato and pointed gourds.
- Kadali manja rai: A curry made from banana plant stem and mustard seeds. Manja refers to the stem which can be used in dalma.
- Besara: Assorted vegetables in mustard paste tempered with pancha phutan
Khattas and chutneys
- Dahi baigana: A sour dish made from yoghurt and eggplants.
- Dahi bhendi: A sour dish made from yoghurt and ladies fingers.
- Khajuri khata: A sweet-and-sour dish made from tomato and dates.
- Amba khatta: A khatta made from raw mangoes.
- Ou khatta: Elephant apple khatta
- Tomato khata: A sweet-and-sour dish made from tomato and jaggery
- Dhania-patra chutney: A chutney made from coriander leaves.
Shaag (salad greens)
In Odia cuisine, sāga is one of the most important leafy vegetables. It is popular all over the state. A list of the plants that are used as sāga is as below. Odias typically eat many cooked green leaves. They are prepared by adding "pancha phutan", with or without onion/garlic, and are best enjoyed with pakhala.
- Kalama sāga (କଳମ ଶାଗ) Ipomoea aquatica (Water Spinach)
- Kosalā/Khadā sāga (କୋସଳା ଶାଗ/ଖଡା ଶାଗ): prepared from amaranth leaves.
- Bajji sāga (ବଜ୍ଜୀ ଶାଗ): Prepared from Amaranthus dubius leaves.
- Leutiā sāga (ଲେଉଟିଆ ଶାଗ)Amaranthus viridis leaves and tender stems.
- Pālanga sāga (ପାଳଙ୍ଗ ଶାଗ) spinach
- Poi sāga (ପୋଈ ଶାଗ): prepared from basella leaves and tender stems.
- Bāramāsi/Sajanā sāga (ବାରମାସି/ ସଜନା ଶାଗ): prepared from leaves of the drumstick tree. Cooked with lentils or alone with fried onions.
- Sunusuniā sāga (ସୁନୁସୁନିଆ ଶାଗ) Marsilea polycarpa leaves.
- Pitāgama sāga (ପିତାଗମା ଶାଗ)
- Pidanga sāga (ପିଡଙ୍ଗ ଶାଗ)
- Kakhāru sāga (କଖାରୁ ଶାଗ): Prepared from leaves of the pumpkin plant.
- Madarangā sāga (ମଦରଙ୍ଗା ଶାଗ): prepared from leaves of Alternanthera sessilis.
- Sorisa saga (ଶୋରିସ ଶାଗ) : Mustard greens
- Methi sāga (ମେଥୀ ଶାଗ): prepared from methi or Fenugreek leaves and besara (mustard paste) cooked with vegetable.
- Matara sāga (ମଟର ଶାଗ): The inner coating of peas is removed and then chopped to make the saga.
One of the most popular is lali koshala saaga made from green leaves with red stems. Other saagas that are eaten are pita gahama, khada, poi, koshala, and sajana. Some items are as follows:
Pithas (sweet cakes)
- Podo pitha
- Enduri Pitha
- Arisa Pitha
- Kakara Pitha
- Manda Pitha
- Chakuli Pitha
- Dudura Pitha (Mostly prepared in Sambalpur and offered to Maa Samalei)
Egg, chicken and mutton
- Anda tarkari: An egg curry prepared with onion and tomato paste
- Chicken tarkari: A chicken curry
- Chicken kasa
- Saru Patra Poda Chicken
- Mangsaw tarkari
- Mangsaw kasa
- Mangsaw besara
- Baunsaw Poda Mangsaw : Mutton or Chicken roasted inside bamboo.
- Patra Poda Mangsaw : Mutton or Chicken wrapped in leaves then roasted .
- Mati Handi Mangsaw : Mutton or Chicken cooked in earthen utensils.
Fish and other sea food
- lauda: A fish curry prepared with mustard paste.
- Machha Mahura: A curry prepared with lauda and lassan.
- Machha Jhola
- goton ka Jhola
- Dahi gotte
- Machha chhencheda : Fish mashed with a vegetable curry prepared in a ghee rich gravy.
- Chunna Machha Jhola: A fish curry, similar to Machha Jhola, but prepared with small smelt fish.
- Chunna Machha Tarkari: Small fried smelt fishes
- Chingudi Malai Tarkari: A prawn curry
- Kankada Jhola: Crab curry
- Chingudi chadchadi
- Kokali sukhua rai
- Mullet curry (ଖଅଙ୍ଗା ମାଛ ତରକାରୀ )
- Milkfish Curry ( ସେବା ଖଙ୍ଗା ମାଛ ତରକାରୀ )
- smoked oil sardine (dryfish) with garlic- କୋକଲି ଶୁଖୁଆ ସେକା /ପୋଡା
Smoked Dry sardine after cleaning mix with garlic,green chilly, salt using moter & pistel or mixture grinder. Dry White bait fish (ଚାଉଳି ଶୁଖୁଆ ), dry shrimp (ଚିଙ୍ଗୁଡ଼ି ଶୁଖୁଆ, ତାଂପେଡା ) etc. also prepared like this Flake/powdered.
- seer fish (କଣି ମାଛ )/ mackerel (କାନାଗୁର୍ତ୍ଆ, ମରୁଆ) curry, chilly
- Bitter dry fish fry (ପିତା ଶୁଖୁଆ ଭଜା )- small freshwater nutrient fish dried in sun ray in hygienic manner and eaten fried or smocked.
- ପୋହଳା ମାଛ ତରକାରୀ (minor /small carp fish curry). Fried small carp in onion or mustard based gravy.
- Mola fry/ chips/ boild grind. ମହୁରାଳୀ ମାଛ ଭଜା / ଛଣା / ଚକଟା. Very nutriuos. After Cleaning wash, boil in less water, add salt and turmeric. Mix with mustard oil, green chilly, garlic, onion and grind.
Fritters and fries
- Alloo piaji: A savory snack, similar to pakora or fritters, made with potatoes and onions, long-sliced, mixed and dipped in a batter of gram-flour, and then deep-fried
- Bhendi baigana bhaja: okra (ladies' fingers) and eggplant, sliced and deep-fried
- Badi Chura: A coarse crushed mixture of sun-dried lentil dumplings (Badi), onion, garlic, green chillies and mustard oil
- Pampad : flat savory snack like deep-friend or roasted appetizer, which looks very similar to a roti, usually eaten during lunch time
- Phula badi: Bigger and inflated versions of the normal Badi - a sun-dried lentil dumpling
- Sajana Chhuin Bhaja: Drumsticks sliced into 3 to 3 inch long pieces and deep/shallow fried in oil
- Desi Kankada bhaja (ଦେଶୀ କାଙ୍କଡ଼ ଭଜା )- A vegetable found in hilly area and fried with oil, onion, dried chilli flake, cumin powder
- country potato fry (ଦେଶି ଆଳୁ/ଖମ୍ବ ଆଳୁ ଭଜା )- first slice into small pieces and half boil it with turmeric and salt. Then fry using oil in high flame. Add fried and powdered mustard, cumin red chilli to taste.
- Banana fry (କଞ୍ଚା କଦଳୀ ଭଜା )- As country potato fry
- Bamboo stem (ବାଉଁଶ କରଡି ) recipe - usually done by people of hilli area/ Tribal people in dried form (ହେଂଡୁଅ)for flavour or raw as curry, fry, chips.
- ନଡ଼ିଆ ବରା coconut vada
- ପିଠଉ ଦିଆ ଭଜା (Fry with rice and urad dal mix batter)- different Vegetable/ vegetables slice with rice batter (added cumin, salt, dalcchini, ginger, garlic, onion, green chilli paste)
For example- jack fruit pithau fry, Brinjal pithau fry, Gourd pithau fry, Kaddu/kakharu flower pithou fry Etc.
- Ghugni: A spicy dish made from peas, can be served with pooris.
- Dahibara Aludam
- Chanachura or Baramaza
- Chuda (Poha) Bhaja
- Chuda (Poha) Dahi as breakfast
- Mudhi (Mur mura) as breakfast or evening snacks
- Chauhla bhaja
- Checha Piaji
- Kachodi chaat
- Suji Bara
- Aloo chop
- Singada (samosa)
Desserts and sweets
- Kheeri: Kheeri is the Odia word for kheer, predominantly made of rice.
- Chhena Poda: A sweet made from soft cheese dipped in sugar syrup and baked. It may contain dry fruits.
- Chhena Gaja
- Khira sagara
- Chhena kheeri
- Suji kheeri
- Chhena Jhili
- Magaj Ladu
- Gajja : a light savory snack
- Rabidi : a sweet curd like dish
- Mudki: A famous savory snack which resembles a jalebi but the only difference being that jalebi are on the sweet palette where as mudki are light and more savoury
- Chenna Mudki
- Mathapuli: a dessert made out of urad dal and sugar syrup. Found in Khurda District, particularly in places such as Tangi, Chandapur, Banapur.
There are many traditional alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks which are unique to Odisha. Some are made during specific festivals or as an offering to gods and others are made all year. The drinks which have a thick consistency are usually called paṇa and the ones with have a watery consistency are usually known as sarbat. Many of the ethnic tribes of Odisha have their own indigenous drinks made from forest produce. Any drink that contains alcohol is usually called madya
- Aamba mada - mango-based alcoholic beverage
- Aakhu mada - sugarcane-based alcoholic beverage
- Amrutabhanda mada - papaya-based alcoholic beverage
- Anlaa mada - Indian gooseberry-based alcoholic beverage
- Dimiri tadi - juice of Indian fig-based alcoholic beverage
- Dimiri mada - pulp of Indian fig-based alcoholic beverage
- Handia - traditional rice beer popular among the tribes of Odisha
- Kadali mada - banana-based alcoholic beverage
- Guda mada - jaggery-based alcoholic beverage
- Pijuli mada - guava-based alcoholic beverage
- Jamukoli mada - Malabar plum-based alcoholic beverage
- Jana mada - maize-based alcoholic beverage
- Tala mada - palm-based alcoholic beverage
- Kumuda mada - squash-based alcoholic beverage
- Landa - rice-based alcoholic beverage
- Mahulu mada or mahuli - mahua flower-based alcoholic beverage
- Panasa mada - jackfruit-based alcoholic beverage
- Pendum - rice-based alcoholic beverage consumed by the Bonda tribe
- Rasi - a type of rice beer related to handia; popular among the tribes of Odisha
- Sagur - alcoholic beverage made from different fruit nuts, mahua flowers or fruits using the process of distillation known as sagur by the Bonda tribe
- Salapi - palm-based alcoholic beverage
- Sapung - sago palm-based alcoholic beverage consumed by the Bonda tribe
- Sindi mada - date palm-based alcoholic beverage
- Tamati mada - tomato-based alcoholic beverage
- Tetel mada - tamarind-based alcoholic beverage
- Adhara paṇa - a milk and chhena-based drink offered to the trinity at the end of Ratha Yatra
- Amba paṇa - a mango-based summer drink
- Bela paṇa - a drink made from wood or stone apple during Pana Sankranti festival
- Dahi pudina sarbat - a summer drink made using curd and mint leaves
- Ghola dahi - buttermilk with spices
- Landa bagula dahi sarbat - a drink made from curd and sweet basil seeds
- Lemonade - summer drink made from water, lemon, sugar and salt
- Khajuri misri - summer drinks made from date palm misri, lemon and sweet basil seeds
- Mandia peja - a millet-based summer drink
- Jhara Paṇa - a summer drink made from arrowroot and jaggery in southern Odisha
- Tanka toraṇi - a rice-water based drink prepared in Jagannath Temple
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While savouring Chingudi malai curry (prawns with rich Oriya spices) and kukuda jhola (chicken cooked with spices and egg), the friend soaked in the atmosphere and was transported back to the sight and smell of his native place.
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Oriya dishes like khiri, khichdi, kasha mansa were also prepared by the contestants.
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The Odia thali consists of tangy khatta and proceeds further with traditional dishes such as the green and healthy spinach item saga badi.
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Mouth-watering malpua, rasagulla, rasamalei, gulab jamun and other Oriya sweetmeats are served here.
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