Cultural depictions of Joan of Arc

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Joan of Arc statue at Place des Pyramides, Paris by Emmanuel Frémiet, 1874

Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc in French) has inspired artistic and cultural works for nearly six centuries. The following lists cover various media to include items of historic interest, enduring works of high art, and recent representations in popular culture. The entries represent portrayals that a reader has a reasonable chance of encountering rather than a complete catalog. Lesser known works, particularly from early periods, are not included. In this article, many of the excluded items are derivative of better known representations. For instance, Schiller's play inspired at least 82 different dramatic works during the nineteenth century, and Verdi's and Tchaikovsky's operatic adaptations are still recorded and performed. Most of the others survive only in research libraries.[1] As another example, in 1894, Émile Huet listed over 400 plays and musical works about Joan of Arc. Despite a great deal of scholarly interest in Joan of Arc no complete list of artistic works about her exists, although a 1989 doctoral dissertation did identify all relevant films including ones for which no copy survives.[2]

Portrayals of Joan of Arc are numerous. For example, in 1979 the Bibliothèque Municipale in Rouen, France held a gallery containing over 500 images and other items related to Joan of Arc.[3] The story of Joan of Arc was a popular subject for dramatization in the 1940s. In addition to Maxwell Anderson's play Joan of Lorraine and the Ingrid Bergman film Joan of Arc, there was also the 1948 RKO film The Miracle of the Bells starring Fred MacMurray, Alida Valli, and Frank Sinatra, about a dying film actress whose first and last role is Joan of Arc. There were also three radio dramatizations of the story of Joan during those years, one of them specifically written with a World War II framework.

Organization of this article[edit]

For purposes of classification, popular culture music is a separate section from operas and oratorios. Films include made-for-television movies and miniseries. Television covers live action series.

Literature and theater[edit]

Date Title Author Notes
1429 "Song in Honor of Joan of Arc" Christine de Pizan An elegiac poem written during Joan of Arc's own lifetime. The author's final work. English translation available: [4].
1450 story of the Siege of Orléans Anonymous (possibly Jacques Millet) First performed in Orléans four years after Joan of Arc's death. The surviving version appears to be a revision from around 1450. God and several saints play major roles in this sprawling drama of more than a hundred speaking parts.
1590 Henry VI, Part 1 William Shakespeare Joan la Pucelle is the principal villain. Drawn from English sources of the previous century, this Joan of Arc begins with the appearance of piety but soon proves to be a cunning witch justly executed. Project Gutenberg text: [5].
1756 The Maid of Oranges Voltaire A mock epic poem that explores typically Voltairean themes deriding mysticism as humbug. Wikisource text (in French): [6]
1796 Joan of Arc (poem) Robert Southey An epic poem
1801 The Maid of Orléans Friedrich Schiller In literary rebuttal to Voltaire, Schiller creates a sympathetic Joan of Arc as a Romantic heroine. A magic helmet renders her invincible until she falls in love, and she is killed in battle rather than being burned at the stake. This drama was the basis of Tchaikovsky's opera of the same name. Project Gutenberg text in English: [7].
1817 Histoire de Jeanne d`Arc (History of Joan of Arc) Tome1 Tome2 Tome3 Tome4 Philippe-Alexandre Le Brun de Charmettes (Paris, Ed. Artus Bertrand, 1817) Called the Maid of Orléans, drawn from her own declarations, of one hundred forty-four depositions of eyewitnesses, and of the manuscripts of the library of the King and the Tower of London.
1821 L'Orléanide Philippe-Alexandre Le Brun de Charmettes (Paris, Ed. Smith, audin, 1821) L'Orléanide, Poème national en vingt-huit chants.
1894 The Mission of Joan of Arc Thérèse of Lisieux The first of two 'pious recreations' written by the Saint; "small theatrical pieces performed by a few nuns for the rest of the community, on the occasion of certain feast days." Performed at the Carmel on January 21, 1894, it featured Thérèse herself in the title role. The script, which focuses more heavily upon Joan's interaction with her visions than most other pieces about her, has since been widely circulated with Saint Thérèse's writings, as has that of its sequel.
1895 Joan of Arc Accomplishes her Mission Thérèse of Lisieux The sequel to The Mission of Joan of Arc, this play was performed exactly one year later, on January 21, 1895. Again featuring Thérèse herself as Joan of Arc, its focus is upon her martyrdom. In the estimation of one of her biographers, Ida Görres, both of these plays "are scarcely veiled self-portraits."
1896 Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc Mark Twain This novel remains little remembered yet in his own opinion was his finest work. Twain spent months in France researching newly rediscovered documents. This reverent fictional biography is Twain's most uncharacteristic novel. Project Gutenberg text: Vol. 1 and Vol. 2. He published it under a different pseudonym: Jean Francois Alden.
1912 Tapestry of Saint Genevieve and Joan of Arc Charles Péguy Poetry. Péguy also wrote a play in three parts entitled Jeanne d'Arc, (1896).
1923 Gilles and Jeanne Georg Kaiser Expressionist drama explores Joan of Arc's association with the most notorious criminal of her era, Gilles de Rais.
1923 Saint Joan George Bernard Shaw This drama, widely esteemed as Shaw's masterpiece, draws heavily from trial records. Historians dismiss Shaw's contention that she was an early Protestant with impartial judges. Subsequent twentieth century plays often mirror Shaw's interest in her trial. ISBN 0-14-043791-6
1930 Saint Joan of the Stockyards Bertolt Brecht Transposes Joan of Arc into working-class Chicago and portrays her as a labor leader. Brecht made Joan of Arc the subject of two other plays, all three with Marxist themes; they are an adaptation of a radio play by Anna Seghers, The Trial of Joan of Arc of Proven, 1431 and The Visions of Simone Machard. ISBN 1-55970-420-9
1935 A Vida de Joana D'Arc (Life of Joan of Arc) Érico Veríssimo A Brazilian historical novel addressed to young people.
1937 Der Prozeß der Jeanne d'Arc zu Rouen 1431 Anna Seghers In German. Radio play based on the trial records.
1946 Joan of Lorraine Maxwell Anderson This play-within-a-play is chiefly memorable as the basis for Ingrid Bergman's screen portrayal. ASIN B0006YOM36
1953 L'Alouette (The Lark) Jean Anouilh An allegory of Vichy collaboration in the aftermath of World War II. Lillian Hellman's noteworthy English translation adds a critique of McCarthyism and included a score by Leonard Bernstein. ISBN 0-8222-0634-X
1955 Seraphic Dialogue Martha Graham Modern-dance work in one act with choreography by Graham, music by Norman Dello Joio, set by Isamu Noguchi, costumes by Graham, and lighting by Jean Rosenthal. It was originally choreographed as a solo (same music, 1950) under the title Triumph of St Joan. In this revised version, Joan looks back over her life in a series of danced dialogues with her guiding spirit, St Michael, and with three figures who represent different aspects of her nature: maid, warrior, and martyr. At the work's close, the transfigured Joan finally takes her place among the saints.[8]
1964 The Dead Lady of Clown Town Cordwainer Smith A far-future science fiction story with strong parallels to the history of Joan of Arc.
1968 The Image of the Beast Philip José Farmer Joan of Arc is portrayed as an alien sexual predator, still alive in the 20th century but with her body altered to enable the also-alien 15th-century serial killer Gilles de Rais to live within her vagina dentata as a fang-toothed venomous snake that bites and paralyses men during intercourse.
1972 "Jeanne d'Arc" (poem) Patti Smith From the book Seventh Heaven.
1974 Blood Red, Sister Rose Thomas Keneally The novel explores the imagined psychology of Joan and tells her story from Domrémy to the coronation of Charles VII. Significant secondary characters include Charles and Gilles de Rais. The novel enters into the minds of Joan and Charles but not of Gilles. A notable feature of the book is the conversations of Joan with her voices. ISBN 0-00-221087-8
1981 Joan of Arc: The Image of Female Heroism Marina Warner (University of California Press, 1981 ISBN 0-520-22464-7) The work is not so much a biography as a book about Joan of Arc or, more precisely, how she has been perceived by others over the centuries and how that perception has shaped her image.
1993 The Second Coming of Joan of Arc Carolyn Gage A one woman-lesbian play. Joan returns to share her story with contemporary women. She tells her experiences with the highest levels of church, state, and military, and unmasks the brutal misogyny behind male institutions. ISBN 0-939821-06-0
1997 An Army of Angels Pamela Marcantel A novel which depicts Joan of Arc according to the author's conception of her personality. ISBN 0-312-18042-X
1999 Jeanne d'Arc Michel Peyramaure A novel in two parts (in French). ISBN 2-221-08922-7 and ISBN 2-221-08923-5.
2003 Monstrous Regiment Terry Pratchett Part of the Discworld series, a fictional character styled after Joan of Arc dresses as a man to lead an army. ISBN 0-06-001316-8
2005 Hire, or the Anger of Jeanne Régine Deforges (In French). ISBN 2-213-62497-6
2006 Rogue Angel Series Alex Archer A series of action/adventure novels, the main character of which is the successor to Joan of Arc.
2006 Johanna (In German.) Felicitas Hoppe Postmodern novel rejecting any endeavor to fictionalize Joan of Arc. ISBN 978-3-596-16743-2
2008 "The Magician: Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel" Michael Scott Fantasy novel in which Joan of Arc features prominently. She is an immortal living in modern day Paris. It is explained that she was rescued from her execution by the warrior Scathach.
2013 Fate/Apocrypha Yuichiro Higashide Joan of Arc is summoned as a Ruler-class Servant by the Grail

Operas, oratorios, and vocal works[edit]

Date Title Composer Genre Notes
1789 Giovanna d'Arco Gaetano Andreozzi opera Libretto by Antonio Simeone Sografi. Premiere given at the Teatro Nuovo Eretenio in Vicenza on 27 June 1789.
1790 Jeanne d'Arc à Orléans Rodolphe Kreutzer opéra comique Libretto by Pierre Jean Baptiste Choudard Desforges. Premiere given at the Comédie-Italienne in Paris on 10 May 1790.
1821 Giovanna d'Arco Salvatore Viganò ballet Plot influenced by Schiller. Premiered at La Scala on 3 March 1821.
1821 Jeanne d'Arc à Orléans Michele Carafa opéra comique Libretto by Emmanuel Théaulon and Armand Dartois after Schiller. Premiere given at the Théâtre Feydeau on 10 March 1821.
1825 Giovanna d'Arco Giuseppe Nicolini opera Libretto by Apostolo Zeno. Premiere given at the Teatro Regio di Torino on 22 January 1825.
1827 Giovanna d'Arco Nicola Vaccai opera Libretto by Gaetano Rossi. Premiere given at La Fenice on 17 February 1827.
1830 Giovanna d'Arco Giovanni Pacini opera Gaetano Barbieri after Schiller. Premiere given at La Scala on 14 March 1830.
1837 Joan of Arc Michael William Balfe opera London, 1837
1845 Giovanna d'Arco Giuseppe Verdi opera Libretto by Temistocle Solera after Schiller. Premiere given at La Scala on 15 February 1845.
1865 Jeanne d'Arc Gilbert Duprez opera Libretto by Joseph Méry after Schiller. Premiere given in Paris on 24 October 1865.
1873–1877 Jeanne d'Arc Text by Jules Barbier with music by Charles Gounod. drama in 5 acts (Incidental music for Barbier's play)
1878 The Maid of Orleans Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky opera Plot influenced by Schiller.
1913 Giovanna d'Arco, op.135 Marco Enrico Bossi oratorio Libretto by Luigi Orsini after Schiller.
1921 Giovanna d'Arco Alberto Pestalozza Marionette opera Libretto by the composer after Schiller. Premiered in Turin on 17 September 1921
1939 Jeanne d'Arc au Bûcher Text by Paul Claudel with music by Arthur Honegger dramatic oratorio This deeply religious portrayal ends with the founder of the Inquisition accusing Joan's judges of heresy. Performed by Marion Cotillard in 2005, 2012 and 2015.
1943 Szenen aus dem Leben der Heiligen Johanna Music and libretto by Walter Braunfels Opera The libretto is based on the actual French and Latin documents of the trial of Joan of Arc in their German translation.
1950 The Triumph of St. Joan An opera in 3 Acts by Norman Dello Joio Opera Later adapted by the composer into an opera for television (1956), a one-act opera (1959), and a symphony (1951).
1953 Ballade des Dames du temps jadis Musical adaptation by Georges Brassens of a poem by François Villon Art song Though little known outside France, Brassens set a number of complex poems to music and often performed them himself.
1956 Le triomphe de Jeanne Henri Tomasi opera-oratorio Libretto by the composer and Philippe Soupault after Schiller. Premiere given at the Théâtre-Cirque in Rouen on 23 June 1956.
1966 Choruses from The Lark, play by Jean Anouilh music by Leonard Bernstein set of choral pieces Part of Bernstein's incidental score for a production of the play in an adaptation by Lillian Hellman.
1971 The Survival of St. Joan Text by James Lineberger; music by Hank Ruffin and Gary Ruffin rock opera Deals with a legend of Joan escaping burning and kept in the home of a shepherd.
1989 Mistero e processo di Giovanna d'Arco Roberto De Simone Melodrama Libretto by the composer after Schiller. Premiered at the Teatro Verdi in Pisa on 26 October 1989.
1994 Voices of Light Richard Einhorn choral orchestral work Inspired by the 1928 film The Passion of Joan of Arc, frequently performed during screenings of the film; uses sacred texts as well as texts by various medieval mystics, including Hildegard of Bingen.
1997 Jeanne, the Joan of Arc Musical text by Vincent de Tourdonnet; music by Peter Sipos musical theatre Based on historical research. Translated into French by Antonine Maillet renamed "Jeanne la Pucelle".


Date Title Artist Location Notes Image
10 May 1429 untitled Clément de Fauquembergue Sketch in the margin of the register of the Parlement of Paris by Clément de Fauquembergue, 1429, drawn on the day that news arrived in Paris of the French victory at Orléans. Though Fauquembergue never saw her in person, this is the only extant depiction from her lifetime. Joan parliament of paris.jpg
c. 1450 Le Champion des Dames Martin Lefranc Miniature portrait in an illustrated manuscript in an anachronistic Biblical setting, with long hair, wearing armor and a long robe. Joan of arc miniature graded.jpg
c. 1460 Chronique de Charles VII Jean Chartier Miniature portrait in an illustrated manuscript, similar portrayal to Le Champion des Dames.
1484 Vigiles du Roi Charles VII Miniature portrait in an illuminated manuscript, similar portrayal to Le Champion des Dames.
late 15th century untitled Hermitage of Notre-Dame de Bermont, France Fresco of two young women: one a peasant girl at prayer, the other dressed in male attire: possible depictions of Joan of Arc rediscovered underneath a later work. Joan of Arc was known to pray often at the site. Joan Of Arc 2.jpg
1505 untitled Joan of Arc depicted on horseback in an illustration from a 1505 manuscript Joan of Arc on horseback.png
1557 Portrait of the Town Council of Orléans Joan of Arc wears a robe with slashed sleeves and a plume (symbolic of victory in war) and holds a sword. This became a model for many later portraits.
1620 Joan of Arc at Prayer Peter Paul Rubens North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, NC
1824 Jeanne d'Arc interrogated in prison by the cardinal of Winchester Paul Delaroche Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen oil on canvas 277 x 217 cm
1833 Jeanne d'Arc, in the presence of Charles VII, answers questions from churchmen about her visions and revelations Louvre, Paris Gillot Saint-Èvre 170 x 140 cm
1854 Jeanne at the coronation of Charles VII Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
1865 Joan of Arc at Prayer John Everett Millais Private collection
1879 Jeanne d'Arc Jules Bastien-Lepage Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York oil on canvas 100" x 110"
1886 Jeanne in adoration before the Virgin Eugène Grandin, based on a work by Momet Mehun-sur-Yèvre
1880–1890 Jeanne d'Arc hears her voices Eugène Carrière Musée d'Orsay, Paris
1886–1890 Jeanne d'Arc, shepherdess Jules-Eugène Lenepveu Panthéon, Paris
1886–1890 Jeanne d'Arc in armor before Orléans Jules-Eugène Lenepveu Panthéon, Paris
1886–1890 Jeanne d'Arc in Rheims at the time of king Charles VII's coronation Jules-Eugène Lenepveu Panthéon, Paris
1886–1890 Jeanne at the stake Jules-Eugène Lenepveu Panthéon, Paris
c. 1870 Jeanne d'Arc arriving at Orléans Jean-Jacques Scherrer Musée Jeanne-d'Arc, Rouen
 ? The departure of Jeanne d'Arc Jean-Jacques Scherrer Musée Jeanne-d'Arc, Vaucouleurs oil on canvas 430 x 320 cm
 ? Joan of Arc at Vaucouleurs C. R. Walter Musée Jeanne-d'Arc, Chinon


Date Artist Location Notes
1852 François Rude Paris, Jardin du Luxembourg Standing figure.
1855 Denis Foyatier, with bas relief pedestal by Vital Dubray Orléans, place du Martroi Bronze equestrian statue.
1874 Emmanuel Frémiet Philadelphia, Fairmount Park Equestrian statue. Made from a plaster mold commissioned in 1874 by Napoleon III and originally located in Paris; a copy of the Paris statue was commissioned by Philadelphia, but Frémiet sent the original, as he had replaced the Paris statue with a revised one. [9]. [10], [11]
1882 Frederic Leroux Compiègne, France
1889 Paul DuBois Rheims, France Equestrian statue.
1891 Marius Mercié Domrémy-la-Pucelle, France
1892 Louis-Ernest Barrias Bonsecours, France Standing figure in white marble and gold leaf. In 1990 the original was moved to the church basilica and its gold leaf was removed. A copy in gold leaf now occupies the site where the original once stood.
1895 Paul DuBois Paris, Place St. Augustin Equestrian Statue located in front of the Eglise St. Augustin. Copies were placed in other cities in France, such as Rheims and Strasbourg.
1899 Emmanuel Frémiet Paris, Place des Pyramides Equestrian statue. Originally commissioned in 1874 by Napoleon III; this is a revised version of the statue Frémiet made at that time.
1900 Prosper d'Épinay Rheims, France Standing figure. Donated to Rheims cathedral in 1909.
1907 Emmanuel Frémiet State Library of Victoria, Australia Equestrian statue, replica of the Emmanuel Frémiet statue in Paris.
1915 Anna Hyatt Huntington New York City, Riverside Park at 93rd Street Equestrian statue. This was the first public statue in the city to be dedicated to a woman (as opposed to idealized concepts such as Liberty and Victory). Information from the New York Public Art Curriculum site: [12]. A replica of this statue can also be found in Gloucester, Massachusetts.[1] A reduced version is located at Longwood University in Farmville, Virginia.[2]
1915 Paul Manship Smithsonian American Art Museum Medal, showing an equestrian figure on the obverse and a figure at the stake on the reverse.
After 1921 Matane, Quebec, church of St. Joan of Arc Standing figure.
1922 Paul DuBois Washington, D.C., Meridian Hill Park Bronze copy of the statue by DuBois at Rheims Cathedral.
1920 St. Louis Cathedral, New Orleans, Louisiana Standing figure. It was donated to the Cathedral by "The Sodality of Saint Joan of Arc."
cast 1924 Emmanuel Frémiet Portland, Oregon, Laurelhurst neighborhood Equestrian statue. It was erected as a tribute to the fallen soldiers of World War I and is a replica of the Frémiet statue at Place des Pyramides in Paris. [13]
1947 Laval (Quebec) Standing figure.
? Lanson Jargeau, Franceplace du Martroy Standing figure
? ? Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica - Montreal, Quebec Standing figure, to the left of the altar.
1972 Emmanuel Frémiet Decatur Street, French Market - New Orleans, Louisiana Equestrian statue. It was a gift from the People of France to the City of New Orleans and is a replica of the Frémiet statue at Place des Pyramides in Paris.
? ? Eglise St-Pierre - Mont-St-Michel - France Standing figure, by the entrance to the church.


Date Title Country Notes Ref
1898 Jeanne d'Arc France short film directed by Georges Hatot [14]
1899 Jeanne d'Arc France short film directed by George Méliès starring Jeanne d'Alcy [15]
1908 Jeanne d'Arc France directed by Albert Capellani, starring Léontine Massart [16]
1908 Giovanna d'Arco Italy directed by Mario Caserini starring Maria Gasperini, based on Schiller's play [17]
1913 Giovanna d'Arco Italy directed by Ubaldo Maria Del Colle starring Maria Jacobini [18]
1917 Joan the Woman USA directed by Cecil B. DeMille, starring Geraldine Farrar, with a framework set in the trenches of World War I [19]
1927 Saint Joan USA Directed by Widgey R. Newman, starring Sybil Thorndike. Based on a scene from Shaw's play. [20]
1928 The Passion of Joan of Arc France Directed by Carl Theodor Dreyer, starring Renée Jeanne Falconetti. Review for the 2002 DVD release:[21]. Widely regarded as one of the greatest films of the silent era, it was initially banned in Britain. [22]
1929 The Marvelous Life of Joan of Arc France directed by Marco de Gastines, starring Simone Genevois [23]
1935 Das Mädchen Johanna Germany directed by Gustav Ucicky, starring Angela Salloker [24]
1944 De Jeanne d'Arc à Philippe Pétain France documentary narrated by Sacha Guitry [25]
1948 Joan of Arc USA directed by Victor Fleming, starring Ingrid Bergman, based on the Maxwell Anderson play Joan of Lorraine [26]
1952 Joan of Arc (Hallmark) USA An episode of the Hallmark Hall of Fame [27]
1954 Giovanna d'Arco al rogo Italy directed by Roberto Rossellini, starring Ingrid Bergman, based on the oratorio by Paul Claudel and Arthur Honegger [28]
1954 Destinies France a film in sketches directed by Jean Delannoy, starring Michèle Morgan [29]
1956 Jehanne France short film directed by Robert Enrico [30]
1957 Saint Joan USA directed by Otto Preminger, starring Jean Seberg, based on the George Bernard Shaw play [31]
1957 The Story of Mankind USA directed by Irwin Allen, featuring Hedy Lamarr in one sequence as Joan of Arc. The film is based on a book by Hendrik Willem van Loon. [32]
1957 The Lark USA live TV production in English of L'Alouette, starring Julie Harris, who also played the role on Broadway [33]
1958 Saint Joan UK TV adaptation of Shaw's play, starring Siobhan McKenna [34]
1960 Jeanne D'Arc auf dem Scheiterhaufen Germany movie for television starring Margot Trooger, another version of the Honegger oratorio [35]
1961 Jeanne au Vitrail France short film directed by Claude Antoine
1962 Procès de Jeanne d'Arc France directed by Robert Bresson, starring Florence Delay [36]
1962 Histoire de Jeanne France short film directed by Francis Lacassin
1966 Fall Jeanne d'Arc, Der Germany TV movie directed by Paul Verhoeven, starring Kathrin Schmid [37]
1967 Saint Joan United States NBC television adaptation of Shaw's play, starring Geneviève Bujold
1968 St. Joan UK another television adaptation of Shaw's play, starring Janet Suzman
1970 Nachalo - The Début USSR directed by Gleb Panfilov, starring Inna Churikova, satiric comedy
1983 Joan of Arc UK directed by Gina Newson with commentary by Marina Warner
1989 Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure USA Jane Wiedlin portrayed Joan of Arc, one of many historic figures transported to late-1980s Southern California in this time travel comedy. Memorable lines include "Who was Joan of Arc?" "Noah's wife?" and "Welcome aboard, Miss of Arc!" [38]
1989 Giovanna d'Arco Italy Verdi's opera directed by Werner Herzog starring Susan Dunn, based on Schiller's play [39]
1989 Johanna D'Arc of Mongolia West Germany, France Sprawling epic directed by Ulrike Ottinger, entered into the 39th Berlin International Film Festival [40]
1990 Jeanne d'Ark - visjon gjennom eld Norway television movie written by Juni Dahr and John Morrow [41]
1993 Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher Japan TV movie of the Honegger-Claudel oratorio (in French), starring Marthe Keller [42]
1994 Jeanne la Pucelle France directed by Jacques Rivette, starring Sandrine Bonnaire [43]
1999 The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc USA directed by Luc Besson, starring Milla Jovovich [44]
1999 Joan of Arc USA television mini-series starring Leelee Sobieski [45]
1999 Wired Angel USA experimental feature directed by Sam Wells, music by Joe Renzetti [46]
2004 Jeanne d'Arc France television production in ballet directed by Laurent Preyale [47]
2011 Jeanne Germany experimental feature directed by Shahram Varza, premiere São Paulo International Film Festival 2011

In popular culture[edit]



Date Title Artist/Group Notes
1917 Joan of Arc Henry Burr Performed by Henry Burr on Columbia's label.
1917 Joan of Arc's Answer Song J. L. Lavoy The sheet music cover has an illustration of Joan of Arc on horseback with outstretched sword with soldiers of various nations charging underneath.
1917 Joan of Arc They Are Calling You Jack Wells The cover illustration for the sheet music to this song depicts Joan of Arc leading an attack.
1970 Songs of Love and Hate (album) Leonard Cohen Contains a song (released as a single in 1971) titled "Joan of Arc", and lyrics in the song "Last Year's Man" that refer to her: "I met a lady, she was playing with her soldiers in the dark, oh one by one she had to tell them that her name was Joan of Arc."
1975 "Kimberly" (song) Patti Smith From the album Horses, includes the lyrics, "The sea rushes up my knees like flame/ And I feel like just some misplaced Joan Of Arc."
1981 Architecture & Morality (album) Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark Contains two songs about Joan of Arc titled "Joan of Arc" and "Joan of Arc (Maid of Orleans)", both were released as singles.
1984 "Eu Não Matei Joana d'Arc" (song) Camisa de Vênus Name of song means "I did not kill Joan of Arc". Humorous song where a man says that he never had an affair with Joan of Arc and is innocent in her death.
1986 "Bigmouth Strikes Again" (song) The Smiths Includes the lyrics, "And now I know how Joan of Arc felt, as the flames rose to her Roman nose and her Walkman started to melt," and "And now I know how Joan of Arc felt, as the flames rose to her Roman nose and her hearing aid started to melt."
1993 Houdini (album) The Melvins Contains a song titled "Joan of Arc".
1994 Voices of Light (album) Richard Einhorn An oratorio inspired by the silent film The Passion of Joan of Arc. The libretto is based on excerpts from a variety of ancient writings, most of it from Medieval female mystics.
formed 1995 Joan of Arc The name of an indie rock band from Chicago
1995 "Vow" (song) Garbage Includes the lyrics, "You burned me out but I'm back at your door/ Like Joan of Arc coming back for more."
1998 "Joan of Arc (7")" (single) Low (band) Released on Tugboat Records
1998 "Siren" (album) Heather Nova Contains the song I'm the Girl, in which Heather sings: "I'm a Joan of Arc, I'm the girl next door."
first release 1998 Janne Da Arc Japanese rock band named after the character in the manga Devilman by Go Nagai
1999 "She’s So High" (song) Tal Bachman Includes the lyrics, "She's so high/ like Cleopatra, Joan of Arc, or Aphrodite", which speaks of the focus woman as being as smart as Cleopatra, as brave as Joan of Arc, and as beautiful as Aphrodite.
1999 "Right on Time" (song) Red Hot Chili Peppers From the album Californication, includes the lyrics, "Joan of Arc reincarnated/ Maybe we could be related/ So much blood to circulate/ And so much space to decorate."
2000 "The Hall of the Olden Dreams"(Album) Dark Moor An album released from a Spanish power metal band. The album contains a song titled "Maid of Orleans", which is about life of Joan of Arc.
2002 "Did Anybody Sleep With Joan of Arc?" (song) Elton John (music), Bernie Taupin (lyrics) A summary of Joan of Arc's life.
2002 "Free & Easy" (song) Ayumi Hamasaki Japanese singer and songwriter, based the lyrics and music video for her single on her interpretation of Joan of Arc’s feelings. She also produced a photobook entitled "Hamasaki Republic - Free & Easy" where she was dressed as a warrior, a nun, and a knight.
2003 "Cadence" (song) Anberlin Includes the lyrics "Burning like Joan of Arc to See You", appearing on the band's debut album Blueprints for the Black Market.
2004 A Lifetime of Temporary Relief (album) Low (band) Minnesota-based indie rock band released two versions of their song "Joan of Arc."
2005 Plague Angel (album) Marduk Black metal band from Sweden, have a song entitled "Everything Bleeds", which is about Jeanne d'Arc.
2005 Aerial (album) Kate Bush Sings about Joan of Arc in "Joanni."
2005 Jeanne d'Arc (album) Thy Majestie Concept album about Joan of Arc by a power metal band from Italy.
2005 Jeanne d'Arc (album) Tangerine Dream Musical tribute to Joan of Arc performed on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of the French Cathedral in Berlin.
2006 "World of Stone" (song) Blackmore's Night The song is about Joan of Arc, appearing on their 5th studio album, The Village Lanterne.
2006 Joan of Arc (album) Tony Conrad Joan of Arc is a 2006 album by mimimalist composer Tony Conrad. The piece, which lasts unbroken for over an hour, was originally written by Conrad as a soundtrack to accompany Piero Heliczer's eponymousshort film.
2006 "The Martyr's Lounge" (song) Ellis Paul Includes the lyrics, "JFK, Joan of Arc / sit in the corner, kissing in the dark".
2008 The Historical Conquests of Josh Ritter (album) Josh Ritter The song "To the Dogs or Whoever" (the album's opening track) mentions Joan of Arc and other historical women
2008 Godspeed on the Devil's Thunder (album) Cradle of Filth A concept album about the life of Joan of Arc's companion-in-arms Gilles de Rais, in which she is a central character.
2008 "Joan" (song) Heather Dale The fifth track on her fourth studio album, The Gabriel Hounds. Joan sings the story of her own life and crusade.
2008 "Lenders In The Temple" (song) Conor Oberst Includes the lyrics "So watch your back, the Ides of March, Cut your hair like Joan of Arc"
2010 Teenage Dream (album) Katy Perry Includes the lyrics "She could be a Joan of Arc"
2013 "Joan of Arc" (song) Arcade Fire The seventh track in Arcade Fire's fourth studio album Reflektor.
2013 "Miley Cyrus vs Joan of Arc" (song) Epic Rap Battles of History Singer and actress Miley Cyrus (Michelle Glavan) battles French folk heroine Joan of Arc (Jessi Smiles).[5][6]
2015 "Joan of Arc" (song) Madonna The eight song on the album Rebel Heart by Madonna.[7]


Date Series Notes Ref
1972–1978 Maude The theme song includes the line 'Joan of Arc with the Lord to guide her/she was a sister who really cooked.' [48]
1979 M*A*S*H in "Are You Now, Margaret?", Hawkeye references Joan of Arc
1995–1998 Wishbone episode "Bone of Arc" is based on Mark Twain's Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc [49]
1998 Histeria! episode "Great Heroes of France", voiced by Laraine Newman [50]
1999 Buffy the Vampire Slayer episode "Fear, Itself", in this Halloween-themed episode, Willow chose to dress up like Joan of Arc, because she was also (almost) burned at the stake in an earlier episode "Gingerbread".
2001 Witchblade in "Parallax", Sara learns Joan of Arc wielded the Witchblade [51]
2002 The Simpsons "Tales from the Public Domain" features Lisa as Joan of Arc
2002–2003 Clone High Joan of Arc was a character [52]
2003–2005 Joan of Arcadia a girl speaks with God and uses His influence to do good [53] [54]
2004 Wonderfalls series theme inspired by Joan of Arc [55]
2006–2007 Heroes features a character named St. Joan
2011 Deadliest Warrior episode "Joan of Arc vs. William the Conqueror [56] [57]
2013 Horrible Histories (TV series) Series 5 features a song about Joan of Arc

Video games[edit]

Date Game Notes
1989 Joan of Arc - Siege and the Sword / Jeanne d'Arc Historically based war strategy and action game by Brøderbund for Amiga, ST and PC.
1992 World Heroes series NeoGeo fighting game. The character Janne D'Arc, a beautiful French swordwoman with pyrokinetic powers, is very much inspired by Joan of Arc.
1995 Soul Edge Fighting game released by Namco about a sword full of evil spirits. The character Sophitia Alexandra shares a similar story to Joan of Arc. Although they both eventually met and bonds each other in Warriors Orochi 3 Ultimate
1999 Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings The central character in one of the major campaigns in which she is depicted as a peasant at first but follows a historically driven plot leading to her capture and death.
2000 Perfect Dark Nintendo 64 game. Whilst in no way is the game about Joan, the central character Joanna Dark's name is a play on Jeanne d'Arc.[8]
2001 Civilization III The Leader of France's civilization is Joan of Arc.
2002 La Pucelle: Tactics PlayStation game. The title is an allusion to Joan of Arc. Most of the character and place names within the game are French, but the game scenario is unrelated fantasy.
2004 Wars and Warriors: Joan of Arc PC game, title character.
2006 Age of Empires: The Age of Kings Nintendo DS game major playable character.
2006 Jeanne d'Arc PSP game, title character in a fantasy universe loosely based on the historical story.
2006, 2008 Yggdra Union Game Boy Advance/PSP game. Minor character Monica, a peasant girl who receives divine inspiration and rises up to defend her country from invasion, is based on Joan of Arc.
2007 Bladestorm: The Hundred Years' War PS3 game, Xbox 360 game, major character and leader of the French troops.
2008 Atlantica Online PC MMORPG, Hero Mercenary, evolved form of "Lady Knight" Mercenary
2009 Assassin's Creed II PS3/Xbox 360/PC action game. It is revealed that she had the 25th Piece of Eden, the Sword, and the Templars burned her alive to gain possession of it.
2010 Bayonetta PS3/Xbox 360 game contains a character named Jeanne who acts as Bayonetta's rival. She also possesses some references to the real life Joan of Arc, with her trademark red outfit being the product of the fictional Italian fashion brand D'arc.
2011 Deadliest Warrior: Legends PS3/Xbox 360 game. Historical warriors engage in one-on-one fighting; Joan of Arc is playable through downloadable content.
2012 Warriors Orochi 3 PS3/Xbox 360 hack and slash game, Joan's Bladestorm: The Hundred Years' War incarnation appears as a special guest character and is involved in the plot to save the world from destruction. In Ultimate update game, this is where Joan and Sophitia met and shares their bonds each other.
2013 Angel Master (エンジェルマスター Enjeru Masutā?) This iOS and Android card action game contains a character named Jeanne d'Arc (ジャンヌ・ダルク Jan'nu Daruku?), who is one of the game's three main characters.

Comics and animation[edit]

Date Title Format Notes Ref
1973 Belladonna Feature film Portrays Jeanne as a witch, as she was portrayed by her detractors, but sympathetically so.
1995 Jeanne Comic Three volume work set in the Hundred Years' War whose central character's life parallels that of Joan of Arc. By Yoshikazu Yasuhiko, based on story by Chōjun Ōtani
1995–1996 D'arc: Histoire de Jeanne D'arc Comic Two volume fantasy retelling the story of Joan of Arc. Art by Katsuya Kondō and story by Ken'ichi Sakemi.
1995–present Witchblade Comic, TV series Joan of Arc is a blade wielder. [58]
1998–2000 Kamikaze Kaito Jeanne Comic and Animation The reincarnation of Joan of Arc, the gymnastic champion Maron Kusakabe, is the main character. She uses her God-given powers and arsenal of push-pins to trap demons who hide in works of art. Arina Tanemura, writer (comic edition). [59][60][61]
1998–2000 Histeria! Animation WB animated series that parodies a variety of figures from history. Joan of Arc is a regular character, voiced by Laraine Newman. She constantly extinguishes fires that spring up around her. She talks with a Valley Girl accent and introduces herself as "like, I'm Joan, Joan of Arc". [62]
1998–2004 Shaman King Animation The leader of the group X-Laws, Iron Maiden Jeanne, is a French girl who receives a divine revelation while praying in church that she must purge an evil force or the world will be destroyed.
March 17, 2002 The Simpsons Animation In episode "Tales from the Public Domain," Lisa Simpson plays Joan of Arc and Milhouse plays the Dauphin, after Homer reads about her in a children's book. However, when Homer gets to the part where she was burned at the stake, Lisa says, "Was she killed?" and Marge runs in and says, "Just then, Sir Lancelot rode up on his white horse and saved Joan of Arc! They got married and lived in a spaceship!" She then tore the page out, ate it, and says, "Easier to chew than that Bambi video!" Episode synopsis: [63]. [64]
2002–2003 Clone High Animation Joan of Arc's clone appeared in the traditionally animated show. [65]
2003 Digimon Animation The seventh movie of the Digimon series features a Digimon named d'Arcmon who is a female angel and soldier leading the "human-type" Digimon on Wondering Island. She uses a special sword attack called "La Pucelle." She later is revealed only to be a disguised form of Murmuxmon. [66]
2003 Yu-Gi-Oh! Animation, TCG In the Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card game there is a monster card named St. Joan (Saint Jeanne in Japan). It is summoned by fusing The Forgiving Maiden (Compassionate Nun) and Marie the Fallen One (Fallen Angel Marie).

In the anime Yu-Gi-Oh Serenity Wheeler (Shizuka Kawai) used it when she, Tristan Taylor (Hiroto Honda), and Duke Devlin (Ryuji Otogi) were forced to face Nesbitt (Soichiro Ota). With power ups from other cards it was able to destroy Nesbitt's last monster, the Perfect Machine King, and win the duel in episode 107 "Mechanical Mayhem Part 2" ("Saint Jeanne's Trinity Attack").

2003 Ashita no Nadja Animation Nadja, Kennosuke, and Georg are treasure hunting for Joan of Arc's treasure. It turns out to be a seed that she planted that bloomed and spread into a field of flowers. She is briefly shown planting it in a flashback. [67]
2003–2009 Hetalia: Axis Powers Comic and Animation In a brief flashback to the Hundred Years' War, Joan of Arc (often known only as あのこ or "that kid" in-story) looks on in confusion while the anthropomorphic personification of England teases the anthropomorphic personification of France for "relying on a girl". Several centuries later, her supposed reincarnation is given a private tour of Mont Saint-Michel by France. [68]
2005 Top 10: The Forty-Niners Comic One of the officers, named Joanna Dark, dresses in chainmail and uses holy powers.
2006 Aflame Inferno manhwa Joan of Arc appears as a character in the series.
2007-09 Code Geass: Nightmare of Nunally manga Joan of Arc appears as the "Witch of Orleans" and gives C.C. her Geass. Her personality is different from real life.

Portions of this page were translated from the French Wikipedia.

2008-ongoing Aria the Scarlet Ammo manga A character of the series is Jeanne d'Arc 30th who is a descendent of the original Joan of Arc.
2009-ongoing Drifters Comic Joan of Arc appears as an "Ends", a villainous group of fallen historical figures who wish to destroy the world and exterminate humankind. In the series, Joan is an insane warrior who has exchanged her humanity for the supernatural ability to manipulate fire.
2009-ongoing Afterschool Charisma Comic Currently at four volumes, this series takes place at an exclusive school called St. Kleio Academy that is mostly attended by clones of famous people. Joan of Arc's clone appears along with clones of other important people such as Napoleon Bonaparte, Queen Elizabeth I, Florence Nightingale, Marie Curie, Ikkyu, Sigmund Freud and others.
2009-ongoing Makai Ouji: Devils and Realist Comic and Animation Portrayed as the former lover of Gilles de Rais and as an angel, having been purified, suggesting that she was once evil.
2010–present Times Like This webcomic In this time-travel series, Joan is rescued during her execution and brought to modern Texas to live out her full life as a secondary character in the series.
2011 Puella Magi Madoka Magica Anime In Episode 11 it is revealed that she was a magical girl, along with Cleopatra and other famous women in history.
2012 Family Guy Animation In the Season 10 Episode 19 "Mr. and Mrs. Stewie", Joan of Arc is depicted as obnoxious and annoying in a cutaway after Stewie notes that women always turn out to be nightmares.
2013 Rooster Teeth Productions RWBY Animation In the series, the leader of Team JNPR, Jaune Arc (voiced by Miles Luna), wielder of the Crocea Mors, is derived of the legend of Joan of Arc. His characterization and history is not very like Joan of Arc. Other than his name's similarity, his rival is Cardin Winchester, an allusion to the Cardinal of Winchester who presided over Joan of Arc's trial.
2013 Makai Ouji: Devils and Realist Animation Portrayed as the former lover of Gilles de Rais and as an angel, having been purified, suggesting that she was once evil.
2013 Rage of Bahamut: Genesis Animation In the series, she's the "chosen one" by the gods to destroy Bahamut; a giant dragon.

In philately[edit]

Date Country Yvert[9]
1929 France 257
1946 France 768
1968 France 1579
1979 France 2051
1996 France 3002
2012 France 4654

Other representations[edit]

Joan of Arc's short haircut had a profound effect on women's hairstyles in the twentieth century. In 1909, the Paris hairdresser Antoine took Joan of Arc as the inspiration for the bob, which ended centuries of taboo against women who cut their hair. The style became popular in the 1920s and was associated with liberated women. Nearly all subsequent Western hair fashions are designed for women who cut their hair at least occasionally. Such haircut is still known in French as coupe à la Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc's haircut).

During the Cristero War in 1927, a group of female Cristeros named themselves after Joan of Arc. They obtained money, supplies, and intelligence for the male combatants. They often smuggled weapons into war zones and cared for the wounded. By the end of the war they had 35,000 participants.

Several people have been seen as modern versions of Joan of Arc:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pernoud 1999, p. 243.
  2. ^ Pernoud 1999, p. 239.
  3. ^ Pernoud 1999, pp. 240, 246.


  1. ^
  2. ^ "Joanie on the Pony – Home at Last". Retrieved September 13, 2015. 
  3. ^ "Benetton Group: Evolution of Communication Strategy" 21 February 2010
  4. ^ "Whoopi Goldberg as Joan of Arc" 23 April 2010
  5. ^ Miley Cyrus vs Joan of Arc videoclip on YouTube
  6. ^ Leslie Kaufman (October 29, 2013). "Making Silly Showdowns for YouTube". New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Madonna Just Surprise Released Six New Songs on iTunes". Spin (Spin Media LLC). December 20, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014. 
  8. ^ Darran Jones (29 March 2010). "Interview: Martin Hollis". NowGamer. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  9. ^ "Yvert et Tellier, matériel pour toutes collections (philatélie, numismatique) - Timbres - Monnaies". 
  10. ^ "Ehrungen". Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  • Nadia Margolis, Joan of Arc in History, Literature, and Film (New York: Garland, 1990).
  • Régine Pernoud and Marie-Véronique Clin, Joan of Arc: Her Story, trans. Jeremy Duquesnay Adams (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1999).

External links[edit]