Cultural depictions of spiders
Throughout history, there have been many cultural depictions of spiders in popular culture, mythology and in symbolism. From Greek mythology to African folklore, the spider has been used in human culture to represent many varied things, and endures into the present day with characters such as Shelob from The Lord of the Rings and Spider-Man from the eponymous comic series. The spider has symbolized patience and persistence due to its hunting technique of setting webs and waiting for its prey to become ensnared. It is also a symbol of mischief and malice for its toxic venom and the slow death it causes, which is often seen as a curse. In addition, the spider has inspired creations from an ancient geoglyph to a modern steam-punk spectacle.
Although not all spiders spin webs to hunt prey, numerous cultures attribute this ability with the origin of spinning, textile weaving, basketry, knotwork and net making. Web-spinning has also associated the spider with creation myths because they seemingly can secrete their own artistic worlds. Spiders have been the focus of fears, stories and mythologies of various cultures for centuries. Philosophers often use the spider's web as a metaphor or analogy; and today, terms such as the Internet or World Wide Web evoke the inter-connectivity of a spider web.
In folklore and mythology
In Ancient Egypt, the spider was associated with the goddess Neith in her aspect as spinner and weaver of destiny, this link continuing later through the Babylonian Ishtar and the Greek Athena, who was later equated as the Roman goddess Minerva.
The most notable ancient legend that explains the origin of the spider comes from the Greek story of the weaving competition between Athena the goddess, and Arachne, sometimes described as a princess. This story may have originated in Lydian mythology;[a] but the myth, briefly mentioned by Virgil in 29 BC,[b] is known from the later Greek mythos after Ovid wrote the poem Metamorphoses between the years AD 2 and 8. The Greek Arachne (αράχνη) means "spider", and is the origin of Arachnida, the spiders' Class in taxonomy.
This myth tells of Arachne, the daughter of a famous Tyrian purple wool dyer in Hypaepa of Lydia. Due to her father's skill with cloth dyeing, Arachne became adept in the art of weaving. Eventually, she began to consider herself to be a greater weaver than the goddess Athena herself, and challenged the goddess to a weaving contest to prove her superior skill. Athena wove the scene of her victory over Poseidon that had earned her the patronage of Athens, while Arachne wove a tapestry featuring many episodes of infidelity among the Gods of Olympus, which angered Athena. The goddess conceded that Arachne's weaving was flawless, but she was infuriated by the mortal's pride. In a final moment of anger, Athena destroyed Arachne's tapestry and loom with her shuttle and cursed Arachne to live with extreme guilt. Out of sadness, Arachne soon hanged herself. Taking pity on her, Athena brought her back to life transformed as a spider, using the poison aconite;[c] "—and ever since, Arachne, as a spider, weaves her web."
The scholar Robert Graves proposed Ovid's tale may have its roots in the commercial rivalry between the Athenian citizenry of Greece and that of Miletus on the isle of Crete in Asia Minor, which flourished around 2000 BC. In Miletus, the spider may have been an important figure; seals with spider emblems have been recovered there.
In African mythology, the spider is personified as a creation deity Anansi, and as a trickster character in African traditional folklore. There are many variations of the name including Kwaku Ananse of the Ashanti in West Africa(his original name) and anglicized as Aunt Nancy (or Sister Nancy) in the West Indies and some other parts of the Americas. Stories of Ananse became such a prominent and familiar part of Ashanti oral culture that the word Anansesem—"spider tales"—came to embrace all kinds of fables. This fed into the Anansi toree or "spider tales"; stories that were brought over from Africa and told to children of Maroon people and other Africans in the diaspora. These tales are allegorical stories that teach a moral lesson.
North American cultures have traditionally depicted spiders. The Native American Lakota people's oral tradition also includes a spider-trickster figure, which is known by several names. As chronicled in the legend of The "Wasna" (Pemmican) Man and the Unktomi (Spider), a man encounters a hungry spider family, and the hero Stone Boy is tricked out of his fancy clothes by Unktomi, a trickster spider figure. The spider is also present as the deity Iktomi, which is occasionally depicted in this form. In Native American mythology, the spider is also seen in the legend about the birth of the constellation Ursa Major. The constellation was seen as seven men transformed into stars and climbing to paradise by unrolling a spider's web. The Hopi have the creation myth of Spider Grandmother. In this story, Spider Grandmother thought the world into existence through the conscious weaving of her webs. Spider Grandmother also plays an important role in the creation mythology of the Navajo, and there are stories relating to Spider Woman in the heritage of many Southwestern native cultures as a powerful helper and teacher.
The South American Moche people of ancient Peru worshiped nature; they placed emphasis on animals and often depicted spiders in their art. The people of the Nazca culture created expansive geoglyphs, including a large depiction of a spider on the Nazca plain in southern Peru. The purpose or meaning of the so-called "Nazca lines" is still uncertain.
Spiders are depicted in Indigenous Australian art, in rock and bark paintings, and for clan totems. Spiders in their webs are associated with a sacred rock in central Arnhem Land on the Burnungku clan estate of the Rembarrnga/Kyne people. Their totem design is connected with a major regional ceremony, providing a connection with neighboring clans also having spider totems in their rituals. Nareau, the Lord Spider, created the universe, according to the traditional Cosmology of Oceania's Kiribati islanders of the Tungaru archipelago (Gilbert Islands); similarly, Areop-Enap ("Old Spider") plays an important part in the creation myth of the traditional Nauru islanders of Micronesia. In the Philippines, there is a Visayan folk tale version of The Spider and the Fly which explains why the spider hates the fly.
The Tsuchigumo (translated as "Earth spiders")[d] of Japan, is a mythical, supernatural creature faced by the legendary Minamoto no Raiko. Depending on the version of the story, the Tsuchigumo was able to take the visage of either a boy or a woman. In one version, while on a search for a mythical giant skull, Minamoto is lured to a house and placed in an illusion created by a Tsuchigumo in the guise of a young boy. However, after suspecting foul play, Minamoto breaks this illusion by striking out at him with his sword. Minamoto then discovers himself as actually being covered in a spider's web, and after tracking him down, learns that the boy is in reality, a giant spider Tsuchigumo.
Another Japanese mythological spider figure is the Jorōgumo ("prostitute spider") which is portrayed as being able to transform into a seductive woman. In some instances, the Jorōgumo attempts to seduce and perhaps marry passing samurai. In other instances she is venerated as a goddess dwelling in the Jōren Falls who saves people from drowning. Her name also refers to a golden orb-spider species Nephila clavata (Jorō-gumo, or Jorō spider).
An Islamic oral tradition holds that during the Hijra, the journey from Mecca to Medina, Muhammad and his companion Abu Bakr were being pursued by Quraysh soldiers, and they decided to take refuge in the Cave of Thawr. The tale goes on to say that Allah commanded a spider to weave a web across the opening of the cave. After seeing the spider's web, the Quraysh pass the cave by, since Muhammad's entry to the cave would have broken the web. Since then, it has been held in many Muslim traditions that a spider is, if not holy, then it is at least to be respected. A similar story occurs in the Jewish tradition, where it is David who is being chased by King Saul. David hides in a cave, and Saul and his men do not bother to search the cave because while David was hiding inside, a spider had spun a web over the mouth of the cave.[e]
The 10th Century Saint Conrad of Constance is sometimes represented as a bishop holding a chalice with a spider. According to this story, while he was celebrating Easter Mass, a spider fell into the chalice. Ignoring the commonly-held belief of the time that all or most spiders were poisonous; as a token of faith, Conrad nevertheless drank the wine with the spider in it.
For King Robert the Bruce of Scotland, the spider is depicted as an inspirational symbol, according to an early 14th century legend.[f] The legend tells of Robert the Bruce's encounter with a spider during the time of a series of military failures against the English. One version tells that while taking refuge in a cave on Rathlin Island, he witnesses a spider continuously failing to climb its silken thread to its web. However, due to perseverance the spider eventually succeeds, demonstrating that, "if at first you don't succeed, try, try and try again". Taking this as being symbolic of hope and perseverance, Bruce came out of hiding and eventually won Scotland's independence.
Imagine a multidimensional spider’s web
In the Vedic philosophy of India, the spider is depicted as hiding the ultimate reality with the veils of illusion. The Vedic god Indra is referred to as Śakra in Buddhism, or with the title Devānām Indra. Indra's net is used as a metaphor for the Buddhist concept of interpenetration, which holds that all phenomena are intimately connected. Indra's net has a multifaceted jewel at each vertex, and each jewel is reflected in all of the other jewels.
When Indra fashioned the world, he made it as a web, and at every knot in the web is tied a pearl. Everything that exists, or has ever existed, every idea that can be thought about, every datum that is true—every dharma, in the language of Indian philosophy—is a pearl in Indra's net. Not only is every pearl tied to every other pearl by virtue of the web on which they hang, but on the surface of every pearl is reflected every other jewel on the net. Everything that exists in Indra's web implies all else that exists.
The epic poem Metamorphoses, written by Ovid two millennia ago, includes the metamorphosis of Arachne. This was retold in Dante Alighieri's depiction as the half-spider Arachne in the 2nd book of his Divine Comedy, Purgatorio. In the 16th-century Chinese folk novel, Wu Cheng'en's Journey to the West, the buddhist monk Xuánzàng's odyssey includes being trapped in a spider's cave and bound by beautiful women and many children, who are transformations of spiders.
The spider gained an evil reputation from the 1842 Biedermeier novella by Jeremias Gotthelf, The Black Spider. In this allegorical tale which was adapted to various media, the spider symbolizes evil works and represents the moral consequences of making a pact with the devil.
Spiders recur in themes for works by J. R. R. Tolkien. [g] Tolkien included giant spiders in his 1937 book The Hobbit where they roamed Mirkwood attacking and sometimes capturing the main characters. The character of Ungoliant is featured as a spider-like entity, and as a personification of Night from his earliest writings. In The Lord of the Rings, the spider takes its form as the menacing giant spider Shelob, and was featured in the film adaption of the last book of the Lord of the Rings series. Although described as spiders, Tolkien gave them some attributes not seen in real spiders (apart from the obvious size issues), including compound eyes, beaks and spinning of black webs. He also resurrected the Old English words cob and lob for "spider".
More recently, giant spiders have featured in books such as the 1998 fantasy novel Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets by J. K. Rowling. This book was later followed by a motion picture of the same name, using the giant spider Aragog from the novel as a supporting character and pet of Hagrid, a grounds keeper in the book. In Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, a book accompanying the series that explains about many of the creatures within the Harry Potter universe, these giant spiders are also known as Acromantulas.
Atlach-Nacha is the creation of Clark Ashton Smith and first appeared in his short story "The Seven Geases" (1934). Atlach-Nacha resembles a huge spider with an almost-human face. In the story, Atlach-Nacha is the reluctant recipient of a human sacrifice given to it by the toad-god Tsathoggua.
The spider is also found in modern children's tales. The nursery rhymes Itsy Bitsy Spider and Little Miss Muffet have spiders as focal characters. The poem "The Spider and the Fly" (1829) by Mary Howitt is a cautionary tale of seduction and betrayal which later inspired a 1949 film and a 1965 Rolling Stones song, each sharing the same title, as well as a 1923 cartoon by Aesop Fables Studio.
A noiseless patient spider,
I mark'd where on a little promontory it stood isolated ;
Mark'd how to explore the vacant vast surrounding,
It launch'd forth filament, filament, filament, out of itself ;
Ever unreeling them—ever tirelessly speeding them.
And you O my soul where you stand,
Surrounded, detached, in measureless oceans of space,
Ceaselessly musing, venturing, throwing,—seeking the spheres to con-
nect them ;
Till the bridge you will need be form'd, till the ductile anchor hold ;
Till the gossamer thread you fling catch somewhere, O my soul.
In comics and manga
In graphic novels, spiders are often adapted by superheroes or villains as their symbols or alter egos due to the arachnid's strengths and weaknesses. One of the most notable characters in comic book history has taken his identity from the spider, the Marvel comic book hero Spider-Man. Peter Parker was accidentally bitten by a radioactive spider and then, as Spider-Man, was able to scale tall buildings and shoot web fluid from a device attached to his wrist. Along with these abilities, came super senses and instant reflexes. Writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko originated this franchise. Due to the character's popularity, Spider-Man appeared in movies and various other media. In addition to Spider-Man, the Marvel universe included several new characters using the spider as their patron; including Spider-Woman, Spider-Girl, the Scarlet Spider, Venom, Araña, Black Widow, and Tarantula. The DC Comics universe also include characters named Spider Girl and Tarantula.
Many other comic book, manga and anime characters have taken the guise of a spider, such as Black Spider from the Batman universe; in the Pokémon franchise, Spinarak and Ariados are similar to spiders in shape. In the Static Shock series, Anansi the Spider takes his name and techniques from the African trickster god. In the second season of the anime based on the manga Kuroshitsuji, one main antagonist, the demon butler Claude Faustus, has spider-like qualities and powers. He is also capable of transforming into a spider and making webs.
In The Saga of Darren Shan, Darren Shan, the character, is fascinated by spiders. He kept them as pets until he killed one that he got when he was nine years old. He used to let them go into his mouth and he'd imagine them eating him from the inside out. Normally, the spiders would stay with him for about a day or two, but some lasted longer. Later on, we find out that he can communicate with spiders.
In film and television
Spiders have been present for many decades both in film and on television, predominantly in the horror genre. Those who suffer from arachnophobia, an acute fear of spiders, become particularly horrified. The spider web is used as a motif to adorn dark passageways, depicting the recesses of the unknown. Many horror films have featured the spider, including 1955's Tarantula, exploiting America's fear of atomic radiation during the nuclear arms race,  the 1975 low-budget cult film The Giant Spider Invasion, and Kingdom of the Spiders, a 1977 film starring William Shatner, depicting the consequence of hungry spiders deprived of their natural food supply due to pesticides. The fear of spiders culminates in Arachnophobia, a 1990 movie in which spiders multiply in large numbers.
On the other hand, a person who admires spiders is referred to as an "arachnophile"; such as Virginia, an orphan who likes to play spider games in the black comedy horror B movie, Spider Baby.
The 1999 film Wild Wild West features a giant mechanical spider. Experiments with spiders in space tend to go horribly wrong, as with a DNA experiment on board a NASA space shuttle in the 2000 film Spiders, or mutant spiders from a derelict Soviet space station in the 2013 film Spiders 3D. Before there were Snakes on a Plane (2006), there were spiders on a plane in Tarantulas: The Deadly Cargo (1977). Radiation and spiders once again combine to wreak havoc in the 2002 film Eight Legged Freaks, this time due to nuclear waste.
Several books featuring spiders have been adapted to film, including The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King featuring Shelob and Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets with Aragog the Acromantula. Charlotte's positive portrayal of a spider character can be seen in two full-length feature versions of Charlotte's Web. The first Charlotte's Web was a Hanna-Barbera musical animation released in 1973, followed by a live-action 2006 film version of the original story. Furthermore, spider characters have crawled out of the pages of comic books and onto the big screen, most notably the Spider-Man film adaptations.
In Ingmar Bergman's 1961 Swedish film adaptation Through a Glass Darkly, the psychotic Karin believes she has an encounter with God as a spider. Surreal spider imagery, symbolism and themes are featured prominently in the 2013 psychological thriller Enemy; director Denis Villeneuve's film adaptation of the novel The Double by José Saramago.
On television, the 1990 miniseries Stephen King's It is based on his novel It, where the true form of Pennywise the Dancing Clown resembles a monstrous spider. The character Kamen Rider Leangle from the 2004 Japanese TV show Kamen Rider Blade has a motif based on the onigumo spider.
Spider themes are also featured in early film history. Fritz Lang's 1919 and 1920 The Spiders series were considered lost films, until these two parts of the action-adventure serial episodes were restored in 1978 from rediscovered original prints. In this adventure, a spider was the calling-card for "The Spiders" criminal organization. Pan Si Dong (1927), 盘丝洞, (The Cave of the Silken Web) was a film adaptation of the classic tale of Xuánzàng's encounter from a chapter of the 16th century Great Classical Novel, Journey to the West, and was remade as a 1967 Hong Kong cinema production.
The Ghost in The Shell manga by Masamune Shirow prominently features spider-like, AI-equipped, multi-legged combat vehicles called Fuchikoma (evolving into the Tachikoma, Uchikoma and Logicoma in subsequent anime versions of the series). These mobile weapons platforms are used by the members of Section 9 to aid in their various missions. In real life, Shirow is known to keep numerous spiders as pets.
The Rolling Stones adapted themes from Mary Howitt's poem in their 1965 song "The Spider and the Fly". Released in 1966, "Boris the Spider" was the first song written by John Entwistle for The Who, and became a staple of their live concerts. "Spiderwebs" became a hit for No Doubt in 1995.[h] Alice Cooper's 2008 concept album, Along Came a Spider is about a fictitious serial killer known as 'Spider', who wraps his victims in silk and cuts off one of their legs in order to create his own eight-legged arachnoid. The Spiders from Mars was a backing band with Mick Ronson, actually from Hull, for David Bowie.
Giant spider sculptures (11 feet tall and 22 feet across) described as "looming and powerful protectresses, yet are nurturing, delicate, and vulnerable" and a "favorite with children" have been found in Washington DC, Denver CO, and elsewhere. Even larger sculptures are found in places like Ottawa and Zürich. These sculptures, two series of six by Louise Bourgeois, can be seen at the National Gallery of Art, Denver Art Museum, London's Tate Modern and in a few other select sculpture gardens. The larger series is titled Maman and the other simply titled Spider. One Spider sold at a Christie's auction house for over $10 million.
A four-day performance art spectacle in Liverpool (September 2008) featured La Princesse by the French performance art company La Machine. This giant steam-punk spider climbed walls, stalked the streets and sprayed unwary citizens while in search of a nest.
Games and toys
Giant spiders appear in several role-playing video games, such as Lolth, the Spider Queen of Dungeons & Dragons, and the first edition of Warcraft, where spiders are described as being "of staggering size—perhaps 15 feet around—with great furred body." In the Metroid series of video games, spider-shaped foes are common, with the trilogy's antagonist, Metroid Prime, having a spider-like Metroid as her primary physical form. The trilogy also includes the Ing, antagonists of Echoes, whose warrior forms resemble spiders, albeit with five legs rather than eight. Atlach-Nacha is an H-game centered on a spider demon disguising herself as a human. In The Legend of Zelda series, giant spiders are a frequent foe. In particular, Ocarina of Time features large spiders named Skulltulas, and Twilight Princess has an enormous spider boss.
In the LEGO toyline Bionicle series, the Visorak horde is a species consisting of six spider-like breeds. They are created by the Brotherhood of Makuta to conquer islands; they possess mutagenic venom and spin sticky green webs. In the Transformers franchise, Tarantulas and Blackarachnia are both Predacons that turn into giant spiders. Blackarachnia, being part biological, has venom that paralyzes other Transformers and she is capable of spinning webs.
Notable athletes with spider nicknames include Olympic skier "Spider" Sabich, so named by his father due to his long, thin arms and legs as a baby, and UFC Middleweight Champion Anderson "The Spider" Silva who was dubbed "Brazil's Spiderman" by an announcer who thought he looked like a superhero in the ring. Spider mascots are associated with the Cleveland Spiders baseball team and the San Francisco Spiders hockey team.
Modern myths and urban legends
Huntsman spiders are large and swift, often eliciting arachnophobic reactions from susceptible people, and are the subject of many superstitions, exaggerations and myths. The banana spider myth claims that the Huntsman spider lays its eggs in banana flower blossoms, resulting in spiders inside the tip of bananas, waiting to terrorize an unsuspecting consumer. This is supposed to explain why monkeys allegedly peel bananas from the "wrong" end. Another example is the clock spider urban legend from around 2002. A discussion was started on an Internet message board based on pictures of an allegedly "clock-sized" Sparassid (Huntsman) spider on a wall. That discussion, and its derivatives, lasted for several months.
According to another urban legend, daddy long legs (Pholcidae) have very potent venom, but their fangs are too short to deliver the poison. This myth might have arisen due to its similarity in appearance with the Brown recluse spider. In a 2004 episode of Discovery Channel's Mythbusters, it was shown that host Adam Savage survived a bite from the spider.
The Spider Bite legend emerged in Europe in the late 1970s. In most versions of this tale, a young vacationing female sunbather is bitten on the cheek by a spider. After seeking medical attention for the resultant swelling, hundreds of tiny spiders are discovered emerging from her lanced wound, which causes the victim to go insane.
An email hoax describes the attacks by the South American Blush Spider in public toilets. The alleged spider's scientific name is Arachnius gluteus, where "gluteus" is supposed to mean "buttocks" (since there are muscles in the buttocks called gluteus maximus), and "arachnius" is a made-up word intended to mean "spider".[i] The hoax spider shares some characteristics with the two-striped telamonia (Telamonia dimidiata), and there is an updated version of the hoax using that name for the spider's species, with the rest of the text left unchanged.
- Cobweb painting
- Cultural entomology
- Dreamcatcher — Native American cultural object, styled after a spider's web
- Earth vs. the Spider — 1958 science-fiction/horror film; — Earth vs. the Spider (2001 film), an homage to the original
- Jba Fofi — Giant cryptozoological spider
- Las Hilanderas (Velázquez) — Baroque painting, c. 1657; (a.k.a. The Fable of Arachne)
- Spider! (TV series) — UK children's musical show from 1991
- Great Goddess of Teotihuacan — Teotihuacan Spider Woman
- "Legend of the Christmas Spider"
- Lydian mythology is virtually unknown, therefore myths involving Lydia are mainly from Greek mythology.
- "Or spider, victim of Minerva's spite, Athwart the doorway hangs her swaying net. The more impoverished they, the keenlier all To mend the fallen fortunes of their race." Virgil (ca. 029 B.C.) The Georgics (IV; lines 246—247)
- Ovid describes the poison as "extract of herbs of Hecate"; Hecate being the Greek goddess and sorceress said to have invented aconite (Aconitum napellus)
- The term Tsuchigumo also refers to a mythical ethnic group said to live in caverns beneath the mountains in the Japanese Alps until at least the Asuka period; also loosely used for bandits and thieves
- The story of David hiding in a cave from Saul appears in the Bible (Book of Samuel, Ch.24), but without the reference to the spiderweb
- There are many versions of the story, and historians are unsure of the legend's truth and suggest that it is apocryphal.
- Tolkien's use of giant spiders as foes was predated by Lord Dunsany, from two stories written in 1907 and 1910.
- 39 weeks on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, peak position: #18
- From the common root arachno- in compound words, from Greek ἀράχνη, arachnē; the Latin word for "spider" is "aranea" (plural: Araneae), a name for a taxon which is an order, not a genus.
- Garai, Jana (1973). The Book of Symbols. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-21773-0.
- De Laguna, Frederica; et al. (2002). American Anthropology: Papers from the American Anthropologist. University of Nebraska Press. p. 455. ISBN 0-8032-8280-X. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- De Vos, Gail (1996). Tales, Rumors, and Gossip: Exploring Contemporary Folk Literature in Grades 7–12. Libraries Unlimited. p. 186. ISBN 1-56308-190-3. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- Dale, Nell; John Lewis (2006). Computer Science Illuminated. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 505. ISBN 0-7637-4149-3. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- Cooper, J. C. (1992). Symbolic and Mythological Animals. London: Aquarian Press. pp. 214–15. ISBN 1-85538-118-4.
- Georgics/IV on Wikisource
- Jones, C. J. "Arachne – Arachne, Then and Now". Mythology in Greek Literature, Spring 2000. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- Ovid Metamorphoses (vi.5–54 and 129-145), also mentioned in Virgil's Georgics, iv, 246.
- Evans, C.; Anne Millard (1985). Usbourne Illustrated Guide to Greek Myths and Legends. Usbourne Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 0-86020-946-6.
- Mills, A. (2003). Mythology: Myths, Legends & Fantasies. Australia: Global Book Publishing Pty Ltd. pp. 62–64. ISBN 0-7336-1499-X.
- Kraemer, Elizabeth Wallis. "A / arachnid". An Etymological Dictionary of Classical Mythology. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
[NL Arachnida, fr. Gk arachne spider, assoc. with the myth of Arachne, a Greek maiden who was turned into a spider after pridefully defeating Athena in a weaving contest] : any of a class (Arachnida) of arthropods comprising chiefly invertebrates, including spiders, scorpions, mites, etc.
- More, Brookes (1922). "P. Ovidius Naso : Metamorphoses; Book 6, lines 87–145". Perseus Digital Library Project. Boston: Cornhill Publishing Co.
- Leyel, Mrs. M. Grieve ; with an introduction by the editor, Mrs. C.F. (1982). "Aconite", in: A Modern Herbal (Botanical.com; online ed.). New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0486227987.
- Graves, R (1955). "Athene's Nature and Deeds". Greek Myths. London: Penguin. p. 100. ISBN 0-14-001026-2.
- Stanton], [chief consultant, Alice Mills ; editors, Janet Parker, Julie (2003). Mythology : Myths, Legends, & Fantasies. Willoughby, NSW: Global Book Pub. p. 317. ISBN 1740480910.
- Counter, S. Allen; Evans, David L. (1981). "Met dank aan Albert Buys". I Sought my Brother : An Afro-American Reunion. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-03079-9.
- Thruston, Gates Phillips (1890). The Antiquities of Tennessee and the Adjacent States, and the state of aboriginal society in the scale of Civilization Represented by Them. The R. Clarke company, 1890. pp. 335–336.
- McLaughlin, Marie L (1974). "The 'Wasna' (Pemmican Man) and the Unktomi (Spider)". Myths and Legends of the Sioux (Reprint of the c1916 ed. published by Bismarck Tribune Company, Bismarck, N.D ed.). Bismarck, N.D.: Tumbleweed Press.
- "1999 NEA National Heritage Fellow: Mary Louise Defender Wilson, Dakotah-Hidatsa Traditionalist/Storyteller". Lifetime Honors. National Endowment for the Arts. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- "The Spider Woman". American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
- Benson, Elizabeth (1972). The Mochica: A Culture of Peru. New York, NY: Praeger Press.
- Brown, Cynthia Stokes (2007). Big History. New York: The New Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-59558-196-9.
- Evans, Ondine. "Spiders in Australian indigenous art". Australian Museum. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- Reid, Marilyn (2007). Mythical Star Signs (illustrated ed.). Lulu.com. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-84753-623-5.
- Knappert, Jan (1992). Pacific Mythology. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 1855381338.
- Alexandra Brewis; Sandra Crismon. "Kiribati". Countries and Their Cultures. Advameg, Inc. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- Bartlett, Sarah (2009). The mythology bible : the definitive guide to legendary tales. New York: Sterling. p. 176. ISBN 1402770022.
- Cole, Mabel Cook (1916). "The Spider and the Fly". Philippine Folk Tales (The Project Gutenberg EBook [#12814] ed.). Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co. p. 214. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Hudson, Mark (1999). Ruins of Identity: Ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands. University of Hawaii Press. p. 201. ISBN 0-8248-2156-4.
- Hugh Chisholm, ed. (1910). The Encyclopaedia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 7 (11 ed.). The Encyclopaedia britannica company. p. 855.
According to a late Rabbinical story, David, like Bruce of Scotland, was once saved by a spider which spun its web over the cave wherein he was concealed.
- Thomas, revised by Sarah Fawcett (1997). Butler's lives of the saints. (New full ed.). London: Burns & Oates. p. 204. ISBN 0860122603.
- "The Spider Legend". Bruce Rathlin 700. The Ulster-Scots Agency. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Bruce's Cave". Bruce Rathlin 700. The Ulster-Scots Agency. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
Verifying Rathlin Island's connections with King Robert the Bruce
- Farndon, J. (2001). 1000 Facts On Modern History. Essex: Miles Kelly Publishing Ltd. pp. 18–19. ISBN 1-84236-054-X.
- Watts, Alan, (Podcast: Following The Middle Way #3, Jul 25, 2010) "—And so ad infinitum. That is the Buddhist conception of the universe in an image."
- Cicchetti, Jane (2003). Dreams, Symbols, and Homeopathy: Archetypal Dimensions of Healing. North Atlantic Books. p. 50. ISBN 1-55643-436-7. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- Watson, Gay, ed. (2000). The Psychology of Awakening : Buddhism, Science, and Our Day-to-day Lives (1st ed.). York Beach, Me: S. Weiser. p. 225. ISBN 1578631726.
- Brook, Timothy (2009). Vermeer's Hat the Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World. London: Profile Books. p. 22. ISBN 1847652549. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
- Alighieri, Dante. "Purgatorio, Canto XII". Divine Comedy. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- "Personages in 'The Journey To The West'". News 97, Noteworthy Book. The Supreme Master Ching Hai International Association. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- Day, D. (2002). A Tolkien Beastiary. London: Chancellor Press. pp. 220–221. ISBN 0-7537-0459-5.
- Rateliff, John D. (2007). The History of The Hobbit: Mr Baggins. Hammersmith: HarperCollins. pp. 326–33. ISBN 0-00-723555-0.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1974). The Hobbit. London: Unwin Books. ISBN 0-04-823070-7.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1994). The Lord of the Rings. London: Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-261-10320-2.
- Rowling, J. K. (1998). Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. ISBN 0-7475-3848-4.
- Scholastic Inc. (2002). Bridge to Terabithia. Scholastic. p. 18. ISBN 0-439-41129-7. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- Boga, Steven (1995). Camping and Backpacking With Children. Stackpole Books. p. 154. ISBN 0-8117-2522-7. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- "The Fable of the Spider and the Fly". IMDb. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- Whitman, Walt; Leaves of Grass (Philadelphia: David McKay, 1891–92): 343. PS 3201 1891 Robarts Library. Publication Notes: Broadway Magazine (Oct. 1868)
- Whitman, Walt. "A Noiseless Patient Spider". RPO, University of Toronto Libraries. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- Moench; Jones & Beatty (May 1995). Batman #518. DC Comics.
- O'Gaea, Ashleen (2004). Celebrating the Seasons of Life: Samhain to Ostara : Lore, Rituals, Activities, and Symbols. Career Press. ISBN 1-56414-731-2.
- Searles, B. (1988). Films of Science Fiction and Fantasy. New York: Harry N. Abrams. pp. 109–10. ISBN 0-8109-0922-7.
- Munns, Roger Harris, Peter Hutchison ; illustrations Oliver Whalley ; maps Alan Whitaker, Steve (2007). Amazon : the Bradt travel guide (3rd ed.). Chalfont St. Peter: Bradt Travel Guides. p. 146. ISBN 1841621730.
- McGrath, Rick. "Ojo Reviews Spider Baby". Film Court. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Gore, Lucius. "Horror Movie Review of Spiders (Gary Jones)". Esplatter.com. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "Spiders (2000)". IMDb. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Liebman, Martin (April 8, 2013). "Spiders 3D Blu-ray Review". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- Marley, Adele. "Movie Review : Eight Legged Freaks". Baltimore City Paper. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- Cupryn, Isabel. "Enemy – Review". Canadian Film Review. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Lewis, Hilary. "'Enemy's' Sarah Gadon on Working With Two Jake Gyllenhaals and the Meaning of That Final Scene". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Wickman, Forrest. "What Should We Make of Enemy's Shocking Ending?". Slate. The Slate Group. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Debruge, Peter. "Toronto Film Review: ‘Enemy’". Variety. Variety Media. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "《The Cave of the Silken Web》(1927)". A Journal of Chinese Film History. The Chinese Mirror. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- "A Quick One". The Who. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
The very first song that John wrote for The Who endured as a live favourite while he was alive. The band even played it on their 25th anniversary reunion tour in 1989.
- "No Doubt : Chart history". Billboard Artist 100. Billboard. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Graff, Gary (24 July 2008). "Alice Cooper Unleashing 'Killer' New Album". Billboard. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Sculpture Garden". National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- MacMillan, Kyle (5 October 2006). "Not all the art is within the walls". The Denver Post. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Sale 2480 / Lot 29". Christie's LLC. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
Price Realized: $10,722,500
- "Attack of the Steampunk Spider Princess". Neatorama. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "La Machine – Liverpool 5/6/7 September 2008". Artichoke. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Gygax, Gary (1977). Monster Manual. TSR, Inc.
- Skip Williams, Jonathan Tweet, and Monte Cook Monster Manual (Wizards of the Coast, 2000)
- Borgstrom, R. Sean; et al. (2003). Manual of Monsters. White Wolf, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58846-070-7.
- Tribute to Spider Sabich – by Bob Burns, 20th anniversary (March 1996)
- "Anderson Silva explains the reason behind "The Spider" nickname". UFC/MMA News In One Place. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Crawford, Rod. "Spider Myths: How'd those eggs get in there?". The Spider Myths Site. Burke Museum of Natural History & Culture. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- Taylor, Jacqui (2005). A baobab is big & other verses from Africa. Struik. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-86872-718-6. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
- Holt, David (1999). "The Belle at Biloni". Spiders in the Hairdo: Modern Urban Legends. august house. p. 70. ISBN 0-87483-525-9. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- "Arachnius gluteus – the South American Blush Spider". Iowa State University of Science and Technology. 2005. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- Snopes: Urban Legends Reference Pages: Two-Striped Telamonia Spider. Retrieved 2007-02-25.
- Snow, Justine T. (June 2002). "The Spider's Web. Goddess of Light and Loom: Evidence for the Indo-European Origin of Two Ancient Chinese Deities" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers (118). ISSN 2157-9687. OCLC 78771783.
- Katarzyna; Michalski, Sergiusz (2010). Spider. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 1861898886.