Cultural impact of Madonna

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Madonna, seen here on the Rebel Heart Tour (2015), has had a social-cultural impact on the world through her artistic endeavors.

Since the beginning of her career in the early 1980s, American singer and songwriter Madonna has had a social-cultural impact on the world through her recordings, attitude, clothing and lifestyle. Called the "Queen of Pop", Madonna is labeled by international authors as the greatest woman in music, as well as the most influential and iconic female recording artist of all time.

A global cultural icon, Madonna has built a legacy that goes beyond music and has been studied by sociologists, historians and other social scientists.[1] Her impact is often compared with that of The Beatles and Elvis Presley; they are the best selling acts of all time in the general, solo male and female category respectively.[2] Madonna is a key figure in popular music; critics have retrospectively credited her presence, success and contributions with paving the way for every female artist and changing forever the music scene for women in the music history, as well as for today's pop stars. Even reviews of her work have served as a roadmap for scrutinizing women at each stage in their music career.[3]

Madonna is the first multimedia pop icon in history and professionals agree that she has become the world's biggest and most socially significant pop icon, as well as the most controversial. However, some intellectuals, like the Frenchman Georges Claude Guilbert, felt that she has greater cultural importance, like a myth, that has apparent universality and timelessness. References to Madonna in popular culture are found in the arts, food, science and each branch of entertainment. In a general sense, journalist Peter Robinson noted that "Madonna invented contemporary pop fame so there is a little bit of her in the DNA of every modern pop thing."[4]

However, she is not only an omnipresent figure, but also a polarizing one. During her career, Madonna has attracted contradictory cultural social attention from family organizations, feminist "anti-porn" and religious groups worldwide with boycott and protests. Although this attracted unprecedented world media attention, the reviews have been negative, resulting sometimes in censorships.

Cultural and social impact[edit]

Madonna has been described as an "omnipresent" character and one of the most recognizable names and faces in the world.[5][6][7] Tetzlaff felt that "the power of the omnipresent Madonna has to do with hyperreality, but an infinite accumulation of simulacra, an overabundance of information".[8] Journalist Quico Alsedo from El Mundo in Spain felt that Madonna has built a nation, landless but densely populated.[9] Music critic T. Cole Rachel, stated in 2015, that "there’s an approximate 100% probability that any living human over the age of, say, 25 has some sort of specific Madonna-related memory... Even if you aren’t a super fan—or even a fan at all—there’s no escaping Madonna. She is everywhere."[10]

In his book Madonna As Postmodern Myth (2002), French academic Georges Claude Guilbert explains how Madonna reflects today's society,[11] while William Langley from The Daily Telegraph feels that "Madonna has changed the world's social history, has done more things as more different people than anyone else is ever likely to."[12] American poet Jane Miller compares her functions as an archetype directly inside contemporary culture with the Black Madonna.[13] Professor John R. May concludes that Madonna is a contemporary "gesamtkunstwerk",[14] and academic Sergio Fajardo labels her "a very powerful symbol".[15] Scholar Belén González Morales of the Autonomous University of Barcelona comments, "'The infinite dissection' of Madonna is like a body paradigmatic of the global age that emanating a tremendous amount of meanings ... Madonna has been become a cultural artifact.[16] Strawberry Saroyan states that she's a storyteller and a cultural pioneer, and emphasizes the important thing is her message: "And all of those things have been brilliantly of a piece. Madonna's ability to take her message beyond music and impact women's lives has been her legacy".[17]

Authors note that Madonna has proved a master of cultural appropriation.[18] She is also considered "a barometer of culture that directs the attention to cultural shifts, struggles and changes."[19] The American Library Association, in a review of music journalist Adam Sexton's book Desperately Seeking Madonna: In Search of the Meaning of the World's Most Famous Woman, remarks: "Love her or hate her, Madonna is an inescapable figure in the contemporary cultural landscape".[20] Musicologist Susan McClary suggests that Madonna is engaged in rewriting some very fundamental levels of Western thought.[21] One academic from Lehigh University expressed that she stands behind all people and helps them fight against being ostracized in society.[22] Contributor from company Spin Media felt that "Madonna has changed society through her fiery ambition and unwillingness to compromise".[23] Professor Karlene Faith asserted Madonna's peculiarity is that she has cruised so freely through so many cultural terrains. She has been a 'cult' figure within self-propelling subcultures just as she became a major". She also concluded that as fans, moral critics, media journalists, or university scholars, we mediate what Madonna means to our society.[24] In general, academic radicals turned Madonna into the "cottage industry", most notable in the 1990s.[25]

In United States[edit]

Madonna is part of the Culture of United States and an American icon. Authors in American Icons (2006) felt that "like Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley or Coca-Cola, Madonna image is immediately recognizable around the world and instantly communicates many of the values of U.S. culture".[26] Rodrigo Fresán commented: "saying that Madonna just is a pop star is as inappropriate as saying that Coca-Cola is just a soda. Madonna is one of the classic symbols of Made in USA".[27] She was included in the book 100 Entertainers Who Changed America: An Encyclopedia of Pop Culture of Greenwood Publishing Group. Historian professor Glen Jeansonne, said that "Madonna freed Americans from their inhibitions and made them feel good about having fun".[28] Editor Erin Skarda from Time felt that essentially redefined what it meant to be famous in America.[29] Author in Shaded Lives: African-American Women and Television (2002), said that only Madonna rivaled the space Oprah Winfrey occupied in the late twentieth century and in the psyche of national culture.[30] Karen Lac in her Madonna's biography concluded that she is one of those rare people who have become a part of American culture itself.[31] Jim Cullen wrote in Restless in the Promised Land: Catholics and the American Dream (2001) "few figures in American life have manage to exert as much control over their destinies as she has, and the fact that se has done so as a woman is all the more remarkable. That Madonna has done this is indisputable".[32]

In American society, she is often referenced by her sexual feminist political movement. For example, Sara Marcus from Salon.com felt that with the height of her career, Madonna brought the changes to American culture and expressed that "her revelatory spreading of sexual liberation to Middle America, changed this country for the better. And that's not old news; we're still living it.... as we can see in everything from the ubiquity of pop stars to Rihanna's career. She ends saying that "the woman [Madonna] remade American culture".[33] Andrew O'Hagan felt that "Madonna is like a heroic opponent of cultural and political authoritarianism of the American "establishment".[34] Cultural critic Annalee Newitz commented that Madonna has given to American culture, and culture throughout the world, is not a collection of songs; rather, it is a collection of images.[35] USA Today dubbed her as "our lady of constant makeovers".[25] And Lynn Spigel wrote that Madonna intervened "America's notions of sex, gender and power. Madonna publicized her appropriation of the unspoken and taboo areas of America's moralist rhetoric and capitalized on it through the scandalization and titillation of the consumer".[36]

In Russia[edit]

Number of Madonna songs radio spins in Russia, 2004-2019.[37]

In North Korea, Madonna is periodically credited for collapsing the Soviet Union by making people listen to "the most rubbishy aspects of bourgeois imperialist pop culture".[38] The similar narrative was used in 2012 by Russian deputy Vitaly Milonov. He's called Madonna "rubbish from the hell kitchen of evil empire" (Russian: помои адской кухни империи зла, tr. pomoi adskoy kukhni imperii zla), considering her MDNA Tour performance in support of minorities, including LGBTQ.[39][40] Soviet censors preferred "European Madonna" German singer Sandra a lot more but they didn't ban the original Madonna officially because of glasnost.[note 1][41][42] Unlike traditional major music markets, where her 1980s hits are still the most popular ones, it's not the case in Russia where Ray of Light was her first officially released album and "Masterpiece" was her most spun radio hit.[37] However, even considering the Soviet restrictions, Madonna has managed to compete in a music business that was traditionally female-dominated after World War II, huge difference from her competition against sexist stereotypes in the US: singers like Lyubov Orlova (1902-1975), Klavdiya Shulzhenko (1906-1984), Edita Piekha (b. 1937), Anna German (1936-1982), and later Alla Pugacheva (b. 1949) and Sofia Rotaru (b. 1947), combined with a star pop composer Aleksandra Pakhmutova (b. 1929), were perceived as reigning divas of show business (estrada) while male performers were rare and, as a result, the competition for groups like The Beatles or Deep Purple was a lot less brutal.[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][excessive citations]

Madonna's dress designed by Stella McCartney at Hermitage Museum exhibition. February, 2019

All Russian opponents of Madonna were using a false statement about ex-porn star born Louise Ciccone who took a pseudonym 'Madonna' to mock Virgin Mary in order to offend religious people,[56] to prove their point, partly because Russia didn't experience latinisation of names (where "Madonna Louise" is Latin: Maria Ludovica, the first part was sometimes partly used in Italy[57]), and the sophisticated details of the Marian titles, however Aleksander Pushkin's poem Madona about his wife Natalia (both of them had House of Rurik ancestry, see Pushkins [ru]), the later known as "the most hated woman in the history of Russian literature",[58] is taught to be inspired by Rafael's Sistine Madonna. It's an axiom despite the fact of poet never being abroad and his previous namedropping of Hermitage's Madonna with partridges [ru] (1632) (Dutch: Rust op de Vlucht naar Egypte) by Anthony van Dyck in his title character's first sight negative impression about the thin, blond, blue eyed, round faced, sixteen-year-old chess lover Olga Larina[59] (although, Renaissance painter Jan van Eyck and barocco period painter Anthony van Dyck are often confused in Russia, because of their names spelling and pronouncing being more similar in Russian: Эйк, romanizedeyk и Russian: Дейк, romanizeddeyk,[60][61] shallow education of Onegin as a novel character is generally neglected as he's associated with the writer in Russia). Olga is a secondary character in Eugene Onegin, a novel with significance of "Russian Hamlet" translated to English more than forty times[62][63] She is ubiquitously perceived and taught in Russia as an example of "stupid beauty" Russian: пустая красотка, tr. pustaya krasotka, by citing Onegin's first impression ("In her features, Olga has no life, / Just like the Van Dyck's Madonna" - Russian: В чертах у Ольги жизни нет, / Точь-в-точь в Вандиковой Мадонне), and is vilified for not saving her childhood friend and sweetheart Vladimir Lensky, University of Göttingen alumni, two weeks before their wedding, by not feeling her 18-year-old fiancé is up for a duel with his 24-year-old friend Onegin, after watching his public attempt to harass her during the ball (and thus, not really loving him). The poem Madonna was a compulsory item for learning by heart since the beginning of "Pushkin as Christ figure"[64] cult in Soviet Union,[65] on his 100th death anniversary in the 1930s, because before that, according to Pyotr Vyazemsky: "It's a bitter khowledge that high society (at least some of the members) not only tortured his heart with hostility, but also became embittered against his corpse".[66][67][68][69]

Madonna's book Lotsa de Casha with its antropomorphic characters has multiple references to Van Dyck paintings, including Portrait of Elena Cattaneo (National Gallery of Art)[70] In Russian folklore, trickster's place, a-la French Reynard,[note 2] has been historically occupied by a female fox named Fox, Patrickey's daughter (Russian: Лиса Патрикеевна, tr. Lisa Patrikeevna). "Patrickey" is identical to the name Patrick (through Greek: Πατρίκιος from Latin: Patricius).[71][72] The red fox's name "Alice" was adapted in Russian translation as "Alisa" (sounds similar to Madonna's "real name" in Russian press — Louisa,[73] and her patronymic "daughter of Silvio" (Latin: silva — "forest", see Pushkin's "The Shot") has increased the distrust (see also La Sylphide ballet)[74][75]). There's is also a strong cinematographic image of a female fox named "Lisa Alisa", a male fox from Italian novel for children The Adventures of Pinocchio beforee being adapted in Russian translation as female.[note 3]
In Russia, Anthony van Dyck's painting reference was used by Aleksander Pushkin in his character Eugene Onegin's speech of instant dislike of Olga Larina: "Like this stupid moon on this stupid horizon" (Russian: Как эта глупая луна на этом глупом небосклоне, romanizedKak eta glupaya luna na etom glupom nebosklone). Since then, "stupid beauty" was taught to be perceived by schoolchildren as 16 y. o. blond chess lover Olga's literal characteristics, juxtaposing her to "Russian by soul" (Russian: русская душою) protagonist Tatiana. Onegin is described by the author as one of those who "were educated a little bit, about something and somehow" Мы все учились понемногу, чему-нибудь и как-нибудь and "he could not distinguish a iamb from a chorea, no matter how we've tried" (Russian: Не мог он ямба от хорея, как мы ни бились, отличить).

In 2006, deacon Andrey Kuraev, a notable Orthodox theologian and missionary, spoke on TV prime-time: "For me, it’s really not Madonna who is interesting, but those people who admire her antics. In my opinion, it's a path [that leads] to Kondopoga. Because the people who allow blasphemy over their shrines like this, such a people lose a right to be respected from their still believing neighbors"[76][77] Rolling Stone Russia on Like a Prayer: "In the title gospel-style song Louise Ciccone completely changes her stage image: she's left the category of one-hit-wonder and targets more mature audience".[78] History Candidate (doctoral-level degree in Russia) Inna Simonova: "The excitement considering the Moscow arrival of Louise Veronica Ciccone, who “ingenuously modestly” calls herself in the public media space as “Madonna” (her close people, as they say, call her by the name “Anna” or, in American manner - “Ann”[79]), seems to exceed all the conceivable boundaries".[80] After 2018 release of a cult[81] The X-Files series episode "The Lost Art of Forehead Sweat" the term "Mandela Effect" considering Madonna became more popular in Russia and the practice of naming her "Louise Ciccone known with pseudonym Madonna" in media has decreased, but didn't disappear completely.[73][82][83][84] In 2019, deputy Milonov spoke on a subject considering a possible law about banning foreign artists from political statements: "For example, apart from her concert program an outstanding American singer Madonna was expressing her political preferences and was trying to conduct a political agitation regarding the criticism of Russian legislation".[85] Milonov on a possibility of cultural damage from Madonna's boycott of Russia, in 2015: "To claim such things, one must be either an idiot or a scoundrel. Therefore this will not make it worse, if idiots and scoundrels do not visit us".[86] According to YouGov, in Russia the singer-songwriter is regularly voted as Top-10 most admirable woman, e. g. she had 6,28% and 6th overall place in 2019, with first woman in space Valentina Tereshkova on a 1st place.[87][88][89] Since 2008, deacon Andrey Kuraev's textbook "Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture" was approved for schoolchildren. Deacon Kuraev considered himself a Russian nationalist but his views were often perceived as both anti-Catholic and anti-Semitic.[90][91] The same year he's called Madonna a curse word "blyad'" (Russian: блядь; modern meaning is something between "whore" Russian: шлюха, tr. shloycha, "bitch" Russian: стерва, tr. sterva, and the closest local analogue of profane F word similarly euphemized as "the word starting with b" Russian: слово на букву "б", tr. slovo na bukvu be. E. g. Anton Chekhov wrote in his 1889 letter: "For no purpose, you have left Marina Mnishek. Of all the historical little harlots (Russian: блядишек, tr. blyadishek)[92] (rhyme to Mnishek), she is perhaps the most colorful one"[93]) during Radio Mayak broadcast, also quoting his meaning for the word is "wrong" (heretic) in Church Slavonic language, which caused a scandal. Later that year he defended his use of the word by misquoting "Roman blyad" (meaning Roman Catholic Church) from protopope Avvakum autobiography as "Nikon's blyads" (meaning the supporters of Patriarch Nikon).[94] In 2012, the deacon condemned the use of the word by Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Dmitry Rogozin considering Madonna's supoort of Pussy Riot as the official's try on PR.[95] Before her concert in Moscow Madonna expressed her opinion on Russian state-church relations in a Kommersant: "I am convinced that the church and the government should not be together, they must exist separately. When they are together, it's a very dangerous marriage. Other countries have experienced this problem, and we know that a situation when church and state are too close will harm everyone in the end. I believe in democracy. Nonetheless, Russia should become a democratic country after having said goodbye to communism. That's how it should be![96] Right after the events journalist Masha Gessen said: "I think, she won't have concerts in Russia until the regime changes."[97]

Madonna's logo in 2014 with "Madonia" (Latin for "Madonnaland"[note 4]) word using Russian "и" for "i" letter. One of the key points of Russian history, a subject that fancied Madonnaa since her childhood years,[98] is the denial of theory that the pre-country was defeated in 9th century and renamed into Rus' after its conqueror, Danish Viking Rurik from Scylding dynasty.[note 5][99][100][101][102][103] By coincidence, Madonna was using Cyrillyc letters as a decoration for her first performance with "Everybody" in the Danceteria, and her use of (Mannaz) Runic alphabet letter, as Madame X Tour logo.[104] According to Chinese Sina, Europeans have historically perceived Russians as Asian people with Mongolian blood.[105] As for 2019, French President Emmanuel Macron was the minority thinking it's possible to reverse Russia's turn from the West to China which started from 2012 gay-propaganda law, or earlier, with Putin's 2011 quote from The Jungle Book's character, python Kaa[note 6]

In 2014, Madonna posted: "Russia. Ukraine. Venezuela .........., now France?!!!!! Fight fascism".[106] In 2015, the performer has officially announced she won't tour Russia ever again because pedophilia and homosexuality were basically put into one category by a 2013 state-federal "gay propaganda" law which evolved from a 2012 St. Petersburg law.[107][108] In 2019, school headmaster Eugene Yamburg shared his opinion on the results of state religious education: "Not so long ago a fourth-grader from another city was transferred to my school. She studied at the gymnasium, where she introduced elective courses: Orthodoxy, Islam, Judaism, secular ethics. And the girl says to me: “Eugene Sanych, you can’t imagine how fortunate it is that we are Orthodox.” I say: "No objection." “But you can’t imagine how much do I hate the Catholics!” I wonder: “For what?” “So, they pray to the Primadonna!” - the girl is indignant. Of course, I explained that the Primadonna is Alla Borisovna Pugacheva, and the Catholics are praying Madonna, the Orthodox Mother of God. The girl was amazed".[109] Since 2017, according to a new domestic violence law, violence against the close relatives has been transferred from a criminal case to an administrative offense.[110][111]

By coincidence, Madonna Ciccone and influential classical composer Modest P. Mussorgsky (1839-1881) not only have House of Rurik ancestry in common[112] but also their denial of academic education worthiness (instinctive approach to music[113])[114][115][116] Mussorgsky's music was called "rubbish" (Russian: мусор, tr. musor, IPA: [ˈmusər]) by contemporary Russian critics, and his opera Boris Godunov was personally banned by the House of Romanov monarchs for its strong democratic ideas (see also "Tall poppy syndrome").[117][118] In 2012, Madonna was accused of undermining Russia's defense in St. Petersburg.[119][120][121]

Madonna's music was reviewed mostly negatively by Russian critics who were stating another false argument about "currents of negative criticism" towards almost all Madonna albums from all the Western music critics.[122][123] In the 2015 book "Pugachiovsсshina: the end of story", the well-known Soviet and Belarusian composer Eduard Khanok has pointed out the misunderstanding of the Russian people which is served by the genre critics: "People always confuse classical music with pop. In classical music, there's an accurate classification of voices: tenor, soprano, mezzo-soprano, etc. Estrada (show business) is a diversity of sounds: from “sweet-voiced” [...] to “voiceless” [...]. Classical voices compete who's better at performing the well-known pieces from Tchaikovsky, Verdi... In Estrada (show business) everyone comes with their own “*hit” [material], excuse me, — with their baggage. Most of the time, then they leave with it for nowhere. And the performer's task on stage is to try to stand out from the crowd, find its face, the repertoire. Therefore, the main thing in this profession is not the voice but the image. The voice should be just good enough not to spoil the image". The book title "Pugachiovsсshina" is a reference to Alla Pugacheva. According to Khanok, who was a student of famous classical composer and teacher Dmitry Kabalevsky at Moscow Conservatory,[124] the decreased quality of a local song industry is a result of her natural human desire to monetize already huge fame as a performer a lot more effectively: to gain royalties as a composer without either melodic gift or professional education by singing the lower quality self-composed songs and then promoting them through abusing the power connections [125][126][127]

External media
Images
2004 art of Madonna as Valkyrie with elf ears in «Mist's Edge» by the Spanish artist Luis Royo.[128] In 2009 it has inspired the popular fan video for the song "Olga" (2003), music by Natalia O'Shea, lyrics contain Nikolay Gumilev's poem "Olga" (1920) about the medieval trendsetter,[129][130] Varangian Olga (of Gardariki (Old Norse: ᚴᛅᚱᚦᛅᚱᛁᚴᛁ)) in full.[131] Olga's portrait mosaic image is at The Papal Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican, left from an altar, North transept.[132][133] By coincidence, Madonna's bulldog had the same nickname[134]
2008 MadonNATO art – Madonna as NATO's music representative, caricature by RIA artist Vladimir Kremlyov[135]
2013 book art: Madonna as Gertrude from Shakespeare's Hamlet by Andrey Dugin [de]. "Gertruda" (Russian: Гертруда, tr. Gertruda) is also a slang meaning "Hero of Labour" (Russian: Герой Труда, tr. Geroy Truda), honorary title in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia.[136][note 7]
Video
2016 Figure-skating to "Music" cover, skating performance by Olympic champion Tatiana Navka. Music for Madonna's movie W./E., composed by Abel Korzeniowski, was used by two 2016 World Figure Skating Championships winners: Russian Evgenia Medvedeva (Ladies) and French pair Gabriella Papadakis / Guillaume Cizeron (Ice dancing).
2018 song "Бой Баба" (Boy Baba, an idiom meaning "Superwoman" and play of words Boi/Boy where "Boi" means 'Battle') by the Russian band Aquarium.
The work was perceived as a homage to Madonna, especially her secretprojectrevolution era. 3:44 contains an animated image of people holding banners "Boy Baba for Tsardom!", "Boy Baba of all Rus'", etc.[137] Bulls' pink ridges of the video is a reference to the same Gumilev poem.[138][139]

In 2018, Soviet and Georgian singer Nani Bregvadze has expressed a popular version about "not a very good singer and dancer" Madonna "making a catastrophic change to the Soviet stage" by switching the emphasis from songs to the show.[140] The professional conservatory level problem-semantic analysis of Confessions on a Dance Floor called "Madonna: Amazing Discoveries" (2005) presented an argument against the hypothesis: "No, Confessions on a dance floor is not just a good album. This is a real dance symphony. [...] Each level of mode has its own, individual role that it carries through the entire album, all stages are in a complex relationship with each other. And this is not just amazing, it's unbelievable. What kind of music are you talking about? This is not Beethoven, this is not Chopin, this is Madonna, this is popular music, not just popular. Super-popular. [...] To combine an album of light dance music with one idea, one intonation, one mode system, to limit yourself into short pentatonic tunes instead of the wide and beautiful melodies that Madonna can sing so elegantly ("Don't cry for me, Argentina", oh-oh-oh ....) How could one even conceive such thing, not to mention, and managed to embody that?"[141] In 2009, Russian musicologist, Moscow Conservatory professor, Marina Karaseva has also noticed an almost complete unpreparedness of Russian audience for the perception of Madonna's work on a concert: "Apparently, our listeners-spectators need to “rise above themselves” for a long time, and not to relax themselves on the consumption of domestic poppy pop music of any dignity which feels it's safe".[142]

Madonna's very distant House of Rurik DNA-traced ancestry (through Valdemar II of Denmark's mother Sophia of Minsk and Vsevolod I of Kiev on his paternal side) was revealed by MyHeritage during the company's 2019 partnership with Eurovision. Fun fact was noticed in Russia by the media.[143][112] In a high-context culture (see also another Rurikid, famous classical composer Modest Mussorgsky[144] and List of canonized Russian Princes and Princesses [ru]) the fact has changed local conservative nationalist media's tone and lexics to a more positive one.[145][146] Rossiyskaya Gazeta: "Well, and the song "Batuka", the basis for which, obviously, is the same as in shamanistic dances of Tuva, could easily have been sung by our Buranovskiye Babushki".[147] However, Madonna music was continued to be reviewed very negatively by Russian critics, this time because of her left-wing political preferences.[148] Madonna's acting in movies was traditionally dubbed in the Russian language and cultural references to her stereotypical "Russian beauty" appearance[149][150] (light eyes and symmetrical face with high cheekbones[151]) also have contributed to her general recognition and success in a country because MTV was launched in Russia just in 1998.[note 8][152][153][154][155] For example, Madonna's infamous Swept Away movie remake was perceived a lot more positively by the Russian critics and public because of the resemblance to a cult 1957 Cannes-winning Soviet film The Forty-First about a female Red Army sniper and her handsome Whites prisoner.[156][157] Madonna's children books, "Yakov and the Seven Thieves" especially, were also praised for adapting both Jewish agada plot/names and Slavic folklore names, the later ones most obviously borrowed from the operas: Sadko the Snake (Sadko by Rimsky-Korsakov), Olga (The Maid of Pskov by Rimsky-Korsakov, Eugeny Onegin by Tchaikovsky), Vladimir the Villain (Eugene Onegin), Boris the Barefoot Midget (Boris Godunov by Mussorgsky), Igor the Tiger (Prince Igor by Borodin).[158][159] Madonna's directorial and writing effort W.E., with Ukrainian piano-playing immigrant character named Eugene (see the system of more than 3000 Children music schools in Russia [ru][160][161] which was later adopted by China,[162][163][164][165][166][167][168][169][170][note 9]) was retitled for theatrical release as WE. Believe in Love (Russian: МЫ. Верим в любовь, tr. My verim v lyubov'), both to appeal a target audience and because of confusion with a well-known 1920s dystophian novel We by Yevgeny Zamyatin. Despite a harsh criticism by the most influential critic Anton Dolin, the movie had an average Kinopoisk score 7.413 (13 508 votes)[171]), with 50 percent of positive professional reviews, a significant difference from IMDb score 6.30 (11 487 votes)[172] and 37 percent of positive reviews[173] Seven years after the release, Madonna's movie made a list of instant classics: "The film is about art's ability to recall a close connection between the past and the present".[174]

Madonna as an icon[edit]

Dubbed as the most iconic female artist of all time,[175] Madonna is a synonym of vanguard in the fields of her work.[176] By her impact and contributions, she has been analyzed from the point view of several studies, including feminist, sexual, gay, queer, musical, social and postmodern etc., becoming known as an icon in all these branches. Reader editor Brian McNair wrote that "Madonna more than made up for in iconic status and cultural influence".[177] Professor Dennis Hall said that "the fact that not only her work but her person was open to multiple interpretations contributed to the rise of Madonna Studies".[178] As Hall, Hao Huang in his 1999 book Music in the 20th Century wrote that Madonna has made a career as well as an art out of reinventing herself — as a rock diva, stage and screen star, video vixen, fashion icon, and cultural phenomenon.[179]

Icon of Madonna, taken in 1990 at the AIDS Project Los Angeles. Is created by Alan Light.

Academics felt that Oxford English Dictionary's recent definition of "icon" as a "person or thing" or an "institution", etc., considered worthy of admiration or respect or "regarded as a representative symbol", esp. of a culture or movement” (OED 2009), and this include Madonna.[180] Alyson Welsh from The Guardian commented that "she is an amazing role model, and a cultural icon".[181] The program Australasian Journal of American Studies (AJAS) remember that it's not an accident that Mickey Mouse and Madonna are worldwide icons.[182]

Professors from Heidelberg University shows how Madonna's "iconicity" is indeed that of a "meta-icon" in the sense that the self-reflexive imitation of celebrity poses. Calls this strategy "iconizing", in analogy to the concept of "vogueing". The essay also inquires into the blend of biography and performativity that can be said to underlie Madonna's "iconizing" in relation to the performance artists.[180] Michelle Goldberg said that "Andy Warhol did an enormous amount to change that idea in highbrow circles, but Madonna made it conventional wisdom to conflate art and commerce. She pioneered this kind of multimedia, 'life as performance art'."[17]

Before closing the 20th century, Q magazine declared her as one of the most important cultural figures of this century.[183] Miranda Sawyer, Jefferson Hack and others authors called to her as a 21st-century icon.[184][185] Andrew Morton wrote in his book Madonna (2002) that "she is the undisputed female icon of the modern age". Also cited as one of the most fascinating women and enigmatic in current history.[186] Madonna in Art (2004) is a book by Mem Mehmet where included the work art by over a hundred artists, including Andrew Logan, Sebastian Krüger, Al Hirschfeld, and Peter Howson. The book is a testament to her unique global impact.[187] French biographer Anne Bleuzen wrote that she is "interplanetary",[188] and Italian author Francesco Falconi felt that she is an icon eternal.[189] Editor Eduardo Gutiérrez Seguro from Latin magazine Quién wrote:

Her Majesty: music and pop culture would not be the same [without Madonna]. Madonna set a precedent never seen for a singer, before her, eroticism was not a must—per very disguised form it takes, in the scenes videos or lyrics—. Feminism underwent a complete makeover and the formula surprise/offense the public has she placed in the Everest of show business.[190]

Music[edit]

A platinum record for her album GHV2 under Maverick Records.

Rolling Stone described her as a musical icon without peer,[191] while RTL Television Belgium said that "Madonna is a key figure in the music".[192] Bill Wyman, editor of Chicago Reader, wrote that she is a "genuinely freakish figure in popular music".[193] According to international media and critics, Madonna is the most influential female recording artist of all time,[175][194][195] and the greatest woman in music history.[196][197]

Her contributions on music are generally praised by critics, which have also been known to induce controversy. Tony Sclafani from company MSNBC felt that her Madonna's impact and effect on the future direction of music bests The Beatles, even that quarter century after Madonna emerged, artists still use her ideas and seem modern and edgy doing so.[198] Laura Barcella in her book Madonna and Me: Women Writers on the Queen of Pop (2012) wrote that "really, Madonna changed everything the musical landscape, the '80s look du jour, and most significantly, what a mainstream female pop star could (and couldn't) say, do, or accomplish in the public eye."[199] Similar to Barcella, Joe Levy Blender editor in chief, "opened the door for what women could achieve and were permitted to do".[200]

In the music industry, Madonna was the first female to have complete control of her music and image.[201][202] Authors noted that before Madonna, records labels determined every step of artists, but she introduced her style and conceptually directed every part of her career; the music industry was the foundation to permanently change the way the record companies treat artists.[1] Journalist Carol Benson wrote that Madonna entered the music business with definite ideas about her image, but it was her track record that enabled her to increase her level of creative control over her music.[203] Many years after, she founded Maverick Records became the most successful "vanity label" in the history of music. While under Madonna's control it generated well over $1 billion for Warner Bros. Records, more money than any other recording artist's record label.[204][205]

Critics felt in retrospect that Madonna's presence is defined for changing contemporary music history for women's, mainly rock, dance and pop scene.[23][198][199][206][207][208][209] Also, she is cited that open the doors for the future hip-hop explosion and approach to sex to her music.[198] Erin Vargo from online magazine in popular culture, felt that "Madonna has fought for freedom of expression by female artists. Her legacy has paved the way for today’s pop, hip-hop, and rock artists to get into their own groove".[210] The Times stated: "Madonna, whether you like her or not, started a revolution amongst women in music ... Her attitudes and opinions on sex, nudity, style and sexuality forced the public to sit up and take notice".[211] The New York Post writer Brian Niemietz, who found that Madonna revolutionized dance music much the same way Elvis Presley invented gospel and rock and roll.[212]

Pop star[edit]

"Madonna’s influence reigns supreme on today’s artists, her impact on pop culture through film and fashion may never be topped, and Madonna changed the role of women in pop music. She gave women power, the ability to do more than just record dance hits, and brought about change in the industry that gave birth to every single pop star today."

—Author Art Tavana from company Spin Media.[23]

Madonna is a pop star icon.[213] She is the first multimedia figure in the history of popular culture.[5] Peter Robinson from The Guardian felt that "Madonna pretty much invented contemporary pop fame so there is a little bit of her in the DNA of every modern pop thing".[4] Rolling Stone of Spain wrote that "Madonna became the first viral Master of Pop on history, years before the Internet was massively used." Madonna was everywhere; in the almighty music television channels, 'radio formulas', magazine covers and even in bookshops. A pop dialectic, never seen since The Beatles's reign, which allowed her to keep on the edge of tendency and commerciality".[209] Also, Caryn Ganz from the same magazine wrote that "Madonna is the most media-savvy American pop star since Bob Dylan and, until she toned down her press-baiting behavior in the nineties, she was the most consistently controversial one since Elvis Presley.[214] Music critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine felt that "one of Madonna's greatest achievements is how she has manipulated the media and the public with her music, her videos, her publicity, and her sexuality".[202] Becky Johnston from Interview magazine commented: "[F]ew public figures are such wizards at manipulating the press and cultivating publicity as Madonna is. She has always been a great tease with journalists, brash and outspoken when the occasion demanded it, recalcitrant and taciturn when it came time to pull back and slow down the striptease".[215]

Academic Becca Cragin explain that "Madonna has managed to hold the public's attention for 30 years now, in large part because of her skillful use of the visual in expressing herself and marketing her music".[18] French academic Georges-Claudes Guillbert wrote that taking some elements and transforms them into commercial products. Cultural critic, Douglas Kellner explained that Madonna's popularity also requires focus on audiences, not just as individuals, but as members of specific groups.[216] Journalist Mark Watts felt that the rise and (perceived) decline of Madonna has gone, so to say, hand-in-hand with that of postmodern theory.[217] According to journalist Annalee Newitz, "the academics in the fields of theology to queer studies have written literally volumes about what Madonna's fame means for gender relations, American culture, and the future".[35] As Newitz, author in Images of women in American popular culture (1995) said that Madonna had reached such staggering celebrity that scholarly and popular assessments of the meaning of her work for the future of feminism, for the sexual values of the young.[218] In this way, many authors, including Alvin Hall and Matthew Rettenmund (Encyclopedia Madonnica; 1995), agree that Madonna is "the world's greatest artist" while others classify her as "the most powerful celebrity or famous woman in the world".[20][219][220] Music editor Bill Friskics-Warren wrote that "Madonna's megastardom and cultural ubiquity had made her as much a social construct as anything else, a "person-turned-idea," as Steve Anderson put it, along the iconic lines of Elvis Presley or Marilyn Monroe".[221]

Mainstream[edit]

A painting inspired by Madonna's look on the music video of "Frozen". The released of Ray of Light increased the popularity of traditional Asian culture in American popular culture.

Called to as a "mainstream hero" by professor Karlene Faith,[24] Madonna is the best-selling woman artist in the history,[175] and the most successful female recording artist of all time certified by Guinness Book of Worlds Records.[222] With several critics feeling that she paved the way for every female artist,[206] Time magazine expressed that "every pop star of the last two or three decades has Madonna to thank in some part for his or her success".[223] She is cited like an influence by many other artists worldwide.

Her superstardom also is cited as the motivation of the success commercial and popularised or introduction of several things like branches, terms, groups, cultures, persons and products. For example, the media cited her acting in the movie Evita, that popularised Argentinian politics and she put the nation Malawi on the map while she launched the trend for celebrity adoption.[175][224] Madonna's success open to other celebrities such as singers, actors and politicians have successfully dabbling in the publishing field for young audiences.[225] Her first book Sex changed publishing history.[226] Her album Something to Remember set a trend of releasing ballad albums afterward, such as the 1996 albums Love Songs by Elton John and If We Fall in Love Tonight by Rod Stewart.[227]

She popularizing the Voguing. Academic Stepehn Ursprung from Smith College felt that "Madonna created a market for Voguing in the commercial entertainment world". Analyzed that "through a close connection with the continued commercial success of Madonna, Voguing has left its mark on the world largely... Voguing was first appropriated by pop culture by pop music icon Madonna".[228] The website Wallblog (Haymarket Media Group) from United Kingdom called tentatively in a question, to Yahoo! like the "Madonna of digital media".[229] Even, is cited that she has carried the burlesque to mass culture.[230] As is cited that MTV helped her, some authors like Josue Rich from Entertainment Weekly felt that Madonna helped make MTV (alongside Michael Jackson).[231] Biographer Mick St Michael wrote that "girl power began with Madonna".[232] Also, she has credit for the introduction of electronic music to the stage of popular music,[233] and innovated the rave culture.[234][235] Similar, music critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine felt that Madonna introduced the dance pop to mainstream scene.[236]

According to intellectuals, the phenomenon of femininity inspired by South Asia as a tendency in Western media could go back to February 1998 when the pop icon Madonna released her video for "Frozen". They explained that "although Madonna did not initiate the Indian fashion accessories beauty [...] took the public eye to attract the attention of the global media.[237] The Spanish style of Madonna in the video "La Isla Bonita" became popular and was reflected in fashion trends of the time in the form of "boleros", skirts with tables and rosaries and crucifixes as accessories.[238] According to the official website of the city Safed, Madonna popularized the Jewish mysticism.[239] Madonna set a trend that influenced people to take interest in the sexuality of women's bodies.[240][unreliable source?] In general, some authors like entertainment critic Rogelio Segoviano felt that "the fever for queen of pop does not yield to the passage of time".[241]

Fashion[edit]

Iconic corset made by fashion designer Jean Paul Gaultier that Madonna wore during her 1990 Blond Ambition World Tour.

Time included her as one of the Top 100 Icons of all time in fashion, style and design.[29] Critics praised Madonna's style during her career, which became the defining look in the 80s.[224] This gave rise to the term of Madonna wannabe. To experts in the 1990s, her use of fashion was even more eclectic.[242]

Journalist Michael Pye felt that "the face that launched a thousand fashions. To a large extent Madonna not only makes fashion, she is fashion.[243] Editor of Vogue magazine Anna Wintour declared:

She's a perfect example of how popular culture and street style now influence the world of fashion. Over the years, Madonna has been one of the most potent style setters of our time. She, just as much as Karl Lagerfeld, makes fashion happen.[243]

Professors in Oh Fashion (1994) book wrote that "the Madonna phenomenon suggests that in a postmodern image culture identity is constructed through image and fashion, involving one's look, pose, and attitude. Fashion and identity for Madonna are inseparable from her aesthetic practices, from her cultivation of her image in her music videos, films, TV appearances, concerts, and other cultural interventions".[244] Billboard declared that "no pop diva has reinvented her fashion image with the consistency and creativity of Madonna... she evolved into a fashion-forward icon whose sense of style became as influential as her chart-topping tunes".[245] Similarly, editor of The Huffington Post Dana Oliver comments why Madonna is the ultimate style chameleon and added that "no one has transformed herself like Madonna. She has had about as many looks as she has records. Her ability to constantly reinvent herself and her music has helped to secure her status as an icon, and she has influenced a generation of copycats. In short, no one has had more diverse looks than Madonna".[246]

Chloe Wyma from Louise Blouin Media commented that Madonna's chameleon attitude in transforming her fashion has become a universally recognized fact.[247] Ana Laglere from Batanga Media expressed that "each new Madonna's style is a trend and is used by major designers as inspiration, flooding our world with innovative ideas".[1] Cynthia Robins from San Francisco Chronicle said that "when Madonna came along, all fashion hell broke loose. Thus far, her influence on fashion —high, low and otherwise— has transmogrified from 'Who's That Girl?' to what in the world will Madonna wear next?".[248] Alessandra Codinha from Vogue named as "the master of reinvention".[249]

Feminism[edit]

Madonna as a feminist icon has generated variety of opinions worldwide. She is frequently associated with the feminist movement and she is considered a revolutionary figure who questioned the boundaries of gender. She is also responsible for influencing the mentality and behavior of women and how society interprets these changes.[1] Professor Sut Jhally felt that "Madonna is as an almost sacred feminist icon".[250] Academic Camille Paglia from University of the Arts called Madonna a "true feminist" and noted that "she exposes the puritanism and suffocating ideology of American feminism, which is stuck in an adolescent whining mode". According to her, "Madonna has taught young women to be fully female and sexual while still exercising total control over their lives".[251] Psychologist Jule Eisenbud in Sex Symbols (1999) noted that Madonna's refusal to accept that power and femininity is equivalent to masculinity has allowed her to maintain her status as a sex symbol.[252]

Jessica Valenti wrote in her book Madonna and Me: Women Writers on the Queen of Pop (2012) "sure, one Madonna gave birth to Jesus... but our Madonna gave birth to "femme-inism".[253] Spanish newspaper Periódico Diagonal convened a researchers panel discussion her as a feminist icon.[230] One of the comments, included that "she democratized the idea of women as protagonists and as agents of their own action", while some ambiguous ones stated that she contributed to women's empowerment of a few Western women, straight and gay middle class, but that empowerment is not feminism, because it is individualistic. Madonna was included in The Guardian list of the Top 100 women and editor Homa Khaleeli declared "no matter the decade or the fashion, she has always been frank about her toughness and ambition". She is still one of the most famous women on the planet and "she inspires not because she gives other women a helping hand, but because she breaks the boundaries of what's considered acceptable for women".[254] She was also included in Time magazine's list of the 25 most powerful women in the 20th century.[223]

Sex symbol[edit]

Madonna has been referred to as a sexual icon,[30][255] and sex symbol; most notable in the decade of the 1980s and 1990s.[256] Also, she is cited as an icon of sexual freedom and expression.[189] Author Courtney E. Smith in the 2011 book Record Collecting for Girls noted that most people associate Madonna with sex.[257] Chuck Klosterman in his book Sex, Drugs, and Cocoa Puffs (2003) wrote that "whenever I hear intellectuals talk about sexual icons of the present day, the name mentioned most is Madonna".[258] Even, Karen Fredericks from socialist newspaper Green Left Weekly in comment with her sexual attitude said that Madonna capturing an enormous mainstream audience, has had a perhaps surprising impact in progressive circles.[259]

Artists Adam Geczy and Vicki Karaminas in Queer Style (2013) noted Madonna transmogrified from virgin to dominatrix to Über Fran, each time achieving iconic status. Added Madonna was the first woman to do so-and with mainstream panache and approbation.[260] bell hooks teach that her "power to the pussy" credo worked only to solidify Madonna's positioning on the backs of the marginalized. The sexual icon she constructed may indeed, then, accord power to the pussy.[260] Academics from European School of Management and Technology felt that Madonna became one of the world's first performers to manipulate the juxtaposition of sexual and religious themes.[7] American editor Janice Min wrote that "long before Sex and the City, Madonna owned her sexuality. She made people cringe but also think differently about female performers. Her role as a provocateur changed boundaries for ensuing generations. She was a one-woman reality show."[200] As Min, Shmuel Boteach, author of Hating Women (2005), felt that Madonna was largely responsible for erasing the line between music and pornography. He stated: "Before Madonna, it was possible for women more famous for their voices than their cleavage to emerge as music superstars. But in the post-Madonna universe, even highly original performers such as Janet Jackson now feel the pressure to expose their bodies on national television to sell albums".[261]

During her career, Madonna has several provocative works. Perhaps, her book Sex is most notorious, considered by many as the artist's most controversial and transgressive period.[262] Some authors noted that Sex helped Madonna make a name in the porn industry,[263] and earned her the title of S&M's first cultural ambassador.[264] Steve Bachmann, on his book Simulating Sex: Aesthetic Representations of Erotic Activity pointed out that "perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of Madonna's sexual phenomenon is the extent to which her book marked a new threshold in the pornographic franchise".[265] Brian McNair, author of Striptease Culture: Sex, Media and the Democratisation of Desire (2012) praised this period of Madonna's career, saying that she had "porno elegance" and that "Sex is the author of a cultural phenomenon of global proportions [due to the critics] and thanks to this Madonna established her iconic status and cultural influence.[266] Professors in Oh Fashion (1994) book felt that "Madonna is a toy for boys, but on another level boys are toys for her".[242]

Queer and Gay[edit]

According to The Advocate, Madonna is the greatest gay icon of all time.[267] New Statesman reported that Madonna became the supreme gay icon, and the Madonna Studies analyzed and support these.[268] Scholars Carmine Sarracino and Kevin Scott in The Porning of America (2008), wrote that Madonna "gained particular popularity with gay audiences, signaling the creation of a career-long fan base that would lead to her being hailed as the biggest gay icon of all time".[269] Out magazine wrote that Madonna "stuck her neck out and positioned herself to be a gay icon before it was cool to be one".[270]

Associate professor Judith A. Peraino wrote that "no one has worked harder to be a gay icon than Madonna, and she has done so by using every possible taboo sexual in her videos, performances, and interviews".[271] Similar, Alex Hopkins from Time Out magazine denoted that gay community labeled her as [Their] 'Glorious Leader', "Madge is part of our subculture's rich history of diva worship. She has referenced every sacred monster from Dietrich to Monroe, reveled in upfront, often transgressive sexuality and demonstrated a highly developed sense of camp. No wonder we loved her". Also, her lack of inhibition helped inspire a generation of gay men and women to live on their own terms.[272]

Madonna is also referred to as a queer icon and icon of queerness. Theologist, Robert Goss wrote: "For me, Madonna has been not only a queer icon but also a Christ icon".[273] Similar Sheila Whiteley from Sexing the Groove: Popular Music and Gender (2013) felt that "Madonna came closer to any other contemporary celebrity in being an above-ground queer icon".[274]

Postmodern[edit]

According to Lucy O'Brien: Much has been made of Madonna as a postmodern icon, yet all her reference points have been resolutely modernist—from Steinbeck and Fitzgerald to Virginia Woolf and Sylvia Plath, to her predilection for narrative and psychoanalysis.[275]

Canadian editor Richard Appignanesi wrote that for some "Madonna is the cyber-model of the New Woman.[276] Similar, senior lecturers Stéphanie Genz and Benjamin Brabon in Postfeminism: Cultural Texts and Theories (2009) felt that "whether it is as a woman, mother, pop icon or fifty year old, the American singer challenges our preconceptions of who 'Madonna' is and, more broadly, what these identity categories mean within a postmodern context".[277]

Pop icon and honorific nicknames and titles on popular culture[edit]

Madonna as a pop icon and figure on popular culture has generated scrutine analysis, but some journalists and critics like Carol Clerk wrote that "during her career, Madonna has transcended the term 'pop star' to become a global cultural icon".[278] However, academics from Rutgers University comments that "Madonna has become the world's biggest and most socially significant pop icon, as well as the most controversial".[279] Critical theorist Douglas Kellner described her as "a highly influential pop culture icon" and "the most discussed female singer in popular music".[280] Even, in 2012 Latin critics felt that Madonna is the most influential presence of current popular culture.[230] Historian Jasmina Tešanović like others authors, noted that Madonna's changes are well-calculated in order to be ahead of the curve, of the game, to dictate the fashion, to be a trendsetter and called her as one of the most honest performers in pop culture.[18] VH1 listed her behind David Beckham as the greatest pop icon of all time.[281]

William Langley from The Daily Telegraph noted that Madonna "remains a permanent fixture on every list of world's most powerful/admired/influential women."[282] For example, The Sun listed her in the topping of "the 50 female singers who will never be forgotten".[283] American journalist Edna Gundersen felt that Madonna is "durable pop triumvirate".[200] Also, she has been referred to as a "modern Medusa" or "queen of gender disorder and racial deconstruction".[19]

Madonna has several titles, subjectives and superlatives, many of them explain and explore her large impact in many fields. Blogger Richard Pérez-Feria posted on The Huffington Post that "over the course of her remarkable career, Madonna has been called many things... whore, which, for vastly different reasons. What Madonna ultimately achieved is nothing less than reigning as the universe's Queen of Pop, as in music, culture, life".[284] Chilean newspaper of politics, economy and culture, Qué Pasa stated in 1996, that "to Madonna can be attributed many titles and never be exaggerated. She is the undisputed queen of pop, sex goddess, and of course marketing".[285] Music blogger Alan McGee from The Guardian felt that Madonna is post-modern art, the likes of which we will never see again. He further asserted that Madonna and Michael Jackson invented the terms Queen and King of Pop.[286] Like a corollary, her most notable nickname in world popular culture is Queen of Pop. Carlos Otero from Divinity Channel wrote that "Madonna has secured for life the title of Queen of Pop. He further asserted that "after 30 years of career would take another three decades to meet her influence and legacy".[287]

Mathew Donahue, one of 12 faculty members of Bowling Green State University's Pop Culture Studies program, gives lectures about Madonna in many of his music and culture classes has qualified her as the "Queen of all Media".[18] Also, she was named as the mother of "kingdom technological".[288] Madonna is also referred to as the Queen of MTV. CNN commented that MTV could stand for "Madonna Television".[289] Julían Ruíz from Spanish newspaper El Mundo said that she is our "Lady Madonna".[290]

Contradictory perspective[edit]

A New Yorker protests Madonna adopting children from Africa on Halloween.

Professors in American Icons noted that she was not only an omnipresent figure but a polarizing one. For example, in 1993, she was the subject of the I Hate Madonna Handbook and the following year the inspirations for I Dream of Madonna.[178] Lynn Spigel noted that Madonna is a producer of cultural ambiguity and openness.[301] Rabbi Isaac Karudi —the highest authority of the Orthodox Kabbalah— described her as a "depraved cultural icon".[302] Social critic and critical theorist, Stuart Sim noted that "Madonna now attained the status of cultural icon, she is however, an extremely problematic one, as her delight in simultaneously evoking and transgressing cultural stereotypes of feminity makes her exceedingly difficult to categorize; depending on one's point of view".[303] Cultural critic Fausto Rivera Yánez from El Telégrafo said that "Madonna has labeling usurper, since much of its aesthetic and musical approach draws on religious imagery of black cultures, discourses of sexual diversity and circumstantial geopolitical contexts".[304] Maureen Orth explain her the contradiction as a cultural and social impact:[305]

"Madonna’s celebrity is unique in that it seems to depend as much on repugnance as on acceptance. Her fame frame, unlike that of most other mega-stars, rests very much on people who love to hate her—while monitoring her every move—and on others who hate to love her, as well as on the traditional adoring fans. Perhaps it’s not surprising that even academics are doing a brisk trade in 'Madonna-ology'.

American Pulitzer Prize-winning critic for The New York Times Michiko Kakutani, felt that Madonna is incredibly popular. Or: "Clearly, Madonna is not universally loved." Or: "The politics of sex and gender representations as they relate to identity has not been lost on Madonna."[19] Authors in Representing gender in cultures (2004) noted that "Madonna has been consistently denied a status of a 'real' musician and even accused of using, in a vampire-like way, fashionable musicians to update her sound".[306]

During her career, Madonna attracted the attention of family organizations, feminist "anti-porn" and religious groups worldwide with boycott and protests. Professor Bruce David Forbes author of Religion and Popular Culture in America (2005) felt that "some of the most important and interesting texts in recent American culture which have overlapping concerns with liberation theologies are by Madonna".[307] Karen Fredericks from socialist newspaper Green Left Weekly questioned if does the "Madonna phenomenon" advance the cause of women's liberation within Western societies? she said that clearly, there's no point going to Madonna for help. She asserted that the artist is a commodity in a capitalist market which has been influenced, at least to some extent, by the demands of the women's movement.[259] Sociologist John Shepherd wrote that Madonna's cultural practices highlight the sadly continuing social realities of dominance and subordination.[21] In 1988, one Italian sculptor planned a statue of Madonna in Pacentro, where are from her paternal grandparents, who said "Madonna is a symbol of our children and represents a better world in the year 2000". The then mayor of the city declared: "it is absolutely untrue that the city administration of Pacentro is willing to host the statue to the singer Madonna as some maintain".[308][309]

Academic Audra Gaugler from Lehigh University advocated for Madonna, wrote that "she has faced much criticism throughout her career, but much of it is unjust. Instead of Madonna's actions eliciting criticism, they should elicit praise because she radically tries to change society by blurring the boundaries that separate different groups of people in society and she urges all people to gain power in their lives and lift themselves out of subordinate positions. Madonna blurs the boundaries that exist in society and separate people in society in two distinct ways". She noted that there exists a large band of critics that at first praised her, but then became disillusioned with her as she became more and more controversial.[22]

Sources[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ A strong example of Soviet ban is an English singer and Oscar-winning actress Julie Andrews, gay icon and ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev's admirer [1]. She was so unknown in the Soviet Union, it was possible for an Oscar-winning director Nikita Mikhalkov, who re-invented himself as a nobleman from Moscow, a strong anti-gay lobbier and Ivan Ilyin fascism philosophy promoter shortly after the Soviet Union's collapse, to avoid a lawsuit and huge scandal for both using a screenshot (3 min 5 sec) from her movie Star! and Andrews' body language for Julia Ormond's role in his first critics flop, both domestic and international, The Barber of Siberia (1998), a story about a XIX century American woman's love child with a Russian officer. A secret of Russian ballet dancers was formulated by Jewish ballerina Maya Plisetskaya: "It's important to dance the music, not to music".
  2. ^ Slavic female name "Olisava" (Russian: Олисава) means "fox". A term for an animal "lisa" (Russian: fox) is a shortened form of "Olisava".
  3. ^ In adapted Russian translation of The Jungle Book, panther Bagheera is also a female character.
  4. ^ In 2015, Texas University Press hired Russian-born Madonna skepticist Alina Simone to write a book Madonnaland. For an exapmle of level of Alina's research, she calls Madonna's ballet teacher Christopher Flinn a "black gay".
  5. ^ Meanwhile, neighboring Finns, Estonians, and Latvians don't recognize the renaming of Rurik occupied territory and peoples to this day, Russia is officially called Finnish: Venäjä, Estonian: Venemaa, and Latvian: Krievija (see also Eastern Galindians, Baltic people near Moscow completely assimilated as "Pravoslavnye" (Russian translation of Greek word "Orthodox" — Russian: православные, tr. pravoslavnye, is spelled and pronounced very similar to the word "Proto-Slavic" — Russian: праславяне, tr. praslavyane). The term "Orthodox" was perceived as an ethnical identity in Russian Empire, and after collapse of a Soviet Union people were encouraged to list themselves as "Orthodox" in a polls, based on a fact of their origin from Russian peasants (Russian word "peasant" (Russian: крестьянин, tr. krest'yanin) is a term delivered from "Christian" (Russian: христианин, tr. christianin)). Thus, Madonna's Harper's Bazaar quote about wearing a scarf "like a Russian peasant" can also be translated as "like an Orthodox Christian".
  6. ^ In Russia, Vladimir Putin's self-confessed love for Rudyard Kipling was not considered as racist characteristics. Historically, the adapted translation of his poem The Ballad of East and West was a lot more popular than his The Man Who Was (1890), beginning: "Let it be clearly understood that the Russian is a delightful person till he tucks in his shirt. As an Oriental he is charming. It is only when he insists upon being treated as the most easterly of western peoples instead of the most westerly of easterns that he becomes a racial anomaly extremely difficult to handle. The host never knows which side of his nature is going to turn up next".
  7. ^ In Russia, Shakespeare's "Gertrude" is periodically portrayed as a misunderstood female character of smart ruler ahead of her time: she suicides conciously by drinking Hamlet's poison in the end, mostly out of disappointment in her men. The concept is based on a theory the Danish throne in a play should be inherited by king's brother, not his son, as it was in Norway, mentioned by Shakespeare (or other medieval states, including neighbouring medieval Rus'). In a local popular provincial paradigm, Queen Gertrude just secures her son's position by marrying his unkle, the one who could possibly have another children by a new young wife and, thus, could make Hamlet's chances to inherit the throne as low as possible, but Hamlet's clinical misogyny destroys the dynasty [2] Since 1970s portrayal by Alla Demidova, Gertrude's suicide has become a local cliche, and the part has become a stereotypical dream role for Russian theatre actresses, e. g. in a 2007 film Actress: "Demidova's Gertrude is obviously too weak for martial arts, but she can never be reconciled with herself. She turns murder into suicide. She drinks the poisoned wine as if she's seen the truth at the bottom of a glass".[3]
  8. ^ Lyubov Orlova performed the most famous "bayan playing" female dance on "Fighting Film Colletcion #4 [ru]" (1941), a series of motivational propaganda movies during World War II [4]. An official biography claims her distant House of Rurik ancestry [5].
  9. ^ State-sponsored system of Children music schools in Russia [ru] was aimed at preparing both the future consumers of classical music and the performers. It evolved from a first free music school for peasants established by "The Five" in the XIX century. In late Soviet Union, a cult of classical music was functioning as a replacement of religion using the main motto / credo, Dmitry Kabalevsky's quote: "Beauty Evokes Kindness" (Russian: Прекрасное пробуждает доброе, tr. Prekrasnoe probuzhdaet dobroe) where Ludwig van Beethoven, as Vladimir Lenin's favourite composer, was an unfading idol to such a degree he even half-jokingly was referenced with patronymic — "Ludwig Ivanovich".[6] A similar pattern was repeated with Madonna Ivanovna (her father's name has a local version of "Selivan" (main character from Nikolai Leskov's "Bugaboo [de]"), which was generally shortened to "Ivan"). Russian Orthodox Church doesn't allow the use of music instruments in a church, as only choir and bells ringing are allowed, thus, the Communists-developed system of training piano, violin or balalaika players is almost useless, for a current political regime ideology based on Ivan Ilyin philosophy. For example, compare "Vo Kuznitse" song performance by children music school students choir and by male church choir.

Sources

  1. ^ a b c d Ana, Laglere (April 14, 2015). "9 razones que explican por qué Madonna es la Reina del Pop de todos los tiempos" [9 reasons explain why Madonna is the Queen of Pop of all time] (in Spanish). Batanga.com. pp. 1–8. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
  2. ^ Herman 2009, pp. 286
  3. ^ von Aue, Mary (October 24, 2014). "WHY MADONNA'S UNAPOLOGETIC 'BEDTIME STORIES' IS HER MOST IMPORTANT ALBUM". Vice Magazine. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
  4. ^ a b Robinson, Peter (March 5, 2011). "Madonna inspired modern pop stars". The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
  5. ^ a b "Madonna Biography". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 2008. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  6. ^ Madonna: Entertainer (Women of Achievement) Library Binding – November 1, 2010. Amazon.com. ISBN 1604138599.
  7. ^ a b Jaime Anderson & Martin Kupp (2006). "Madonna – Strategy on the Dance Floor" (PDF). European School of Management and Technology (ESMT). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 29, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
  8. ^ Claude 2002, pp. 88
  9. ^ Quico, Alsedo (September 5, 2013). "Madonna = Bachar El Asad". El Mundo (in Spanish). Spain. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  10. ^ T. Cole Rachel (March 2, 2015). "Pop Sovereign: A Conversation with Madonna". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  11. ^ Claude 2002
  12. ^ Langley, William (August 9, 2008). "Madonna, mistress of metamorphosis". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  13. ^ Benson 2000, pp. 241
  14. ^ May 1997, pp. 169
  15. ^ Tatiana, Giselle; Pérez, Rojas (November 25, 2012). "Fans esperan a Madonna" [Fans waiting for Madonna]. ElMundo (in Spanish). Colombia. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  16. ^ Clúa Ginés & Pitarch 2008, pp. 81,84,90
  17. ^ a b Strawberry Saroyan and Michelle Goldberg (October 10, 2000). "So-called Chaos". Salon. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  18. ^ a b c d e DeMarco, Laura (August 30, 2013). "30 years of Madonna". Cleveland. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
  19. ^ a b c Kakutani, Michiko (October 21, 1992). "Books of The Times; Madonna Writes; Academics Explore Her Erotic Semiotics". The New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  20. ^ a b Sexton, Adam, ed. (December 1992). Desperately Seeking Madonna: In Search of the Meaning of the World's Most Famous Woman (1st Printing January 1993 ed.). New York: Delta. ISBN 9780385306881.
  21. ^ a b Shepard 2003, pp. 108
  22. ^ a b Gaugler, Audra (2000). "Madonna, an American pop icon of feminism and counter-hegemony : blurring the boundaries [sic] of race, gender, and sexuality by Audra Gaugler". Lehigh University. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
  23. ^ a b c Tavana, Art (May 15, 2014). "Madonna was better than Michael Jackson". Death & Taxes. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  24. ^ a b Faith, Karlene (1997). Madonna, Bawdy & Soul. University of Toronto Press. JSTOR 10.3138/j.ctt2tv4xw#.
  25. ^ a b Cullen 2001, p. 85
  26. ^ Hall 2006, pp. 51
  27. ^ Aguilar Guzmán 2010, pp. 88
  28. ^ Jeansonne 2006, pp. 446
  29. ^ a b Skarda, Erin (April 2, 2012). "Madonna - All-TIME Top 100 Icons in Fashion, Style and Design". Time. Retrieved June 17, 2015.
  30. ^ a b Smith-Shomade 2002, p. 162
  31. ^ "Madonna: Biography of the World's Greatest Pop Singer [Kindle Edition]". Amazon.com. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
  32. ^ Cullen 2001, p. 86
  33. ^ Marcus, Sara (February 3, 2012). "How Madonna liberated America". Salon. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  34. ^ Claude 2002, pp. 41–43
  35. ^ a b Annalee, Newitz (November 1993). "Madonna's Revenge". EServer.org. Archived from the original on February 28, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2015.
  36. ^ Spigel 2007, pp. 122
  37. ^ a b "ДРУГИЕ ТРЕКИ ИСПОЛНИТЕЛЯ - MADONNA" (in Russian). Официальный хит-парад радио TopHit.ru. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  38. ^ "North Korea 'friend': Madonna caused Soviet Union's collapse". Asia Times. January 11, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2019. This led to the fact that PepsiCo was allowed to have factories in the USSR, and that people were listening to “the most rubbishy aspects of bourgeois imperialist pop culture such as Madonna.”
  39. ^ "Виталий Милонов: Мадонна накормит Петербург помоями адской кухни империи зла!" [Vitaly Milonov: "Madonna will feed Petersburg with rubbish from the hell kitchen of evil empire] (in Russian). Интернет-портал «Neva.Today». August 7, 2012. Archived from the original on November 19, 2018. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
  40. ^ "She's Madonna! Скандальное турне MDNA накрыло Россию" [She’s Madonna! Scandalous MDNA tour has reached Russia] (in Russian). Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation. August 12, 2012. Archived from the original on January 6, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2019. Nikolay Alexeyev: „Madonna's statement in support of the gay community was not as strong as one would expect. It was very neat, everything was served under the slogan "No fear!" If she wrote on her back, “I'm gay,” that would be different.“
  41. ^ Khromtchenko 2009, Letter B: Ballerina.
  42. ^ "Самые сексуальные, дерзкие и богатые женщины 1980-х" [The sexiest, most daring and rich women of 1980s]. Lenta.ru. October 24, 2018. Retrieved October 10, 2018. central television and radio were promoting a formal morality frame where Madonna didn't fit and a little bit more chaste Sandra was O.k.
  43. ^ "Валерий Гергиев: "Россия станет страной Мадонны?!"" [Valery Gergiev: "Is Russia Going to become a Madonna country?!] (in Russian). Argumenty i Fakty. June 5, 2011. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  44. ^ "Полюбите пианиста. По мнению Путина, Денис Мацуев стоит ста миллионов музыкантов" [Love the pianist. According to Putin, Denis Matsuev is worth a one hundred million musicians] (in Russian). May 19, 2008. Retrieved October 8, 2019. Denis Matsuev: "I consider it a shame that Madonna tour was trumpeted on all Russian channels and the media made number one news out of this. In a country where Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninoff and Rimsky-Korsakov have lived, it is impossible to present such an event as a sensation. Yes, the girl is a professional, I regard her normally, but still Russia is a different country, there should not be anything like this"
  45. ^ "Музыкальные предпочтения" [Musical Preferences] (in Russian). Levada Center. February 18, 2019. Retrieved September 17, 2019. Russian pop music / estrada - 35 percent; Soviet estrada - 32 percent; Russian chanson - 30 percent; Classical music - 22 percent; Folk music - 20 percent; Foreign pop music - 18 percent
  46. ^ "What do you know about Madonna? VIDEO Transcript". Unofficial fan site Madonna.RU.com. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  47. ^ "Madonna vs Alla - VIDEO". Unofficial fan site Madonna.RU.com. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  48. ^ "All-Time Chart of Popular Performers" (in Russian). The Combined Site of all Moscow Radio Stations - Moskva.FM. Archived from the original on October 15, 2015. 1. Alla Pugacheva; 2. Madonna; 3. Lyube
  49. ^ "Владимир Путин присутствовал на концерте группы "Любэ"" [Vladimir Putin attended the concert of the Lyube group] (in Russian). Official Site - President of Russia - Kremlin.ru. September 15, 2002. Retrieved October 8, 2019. Putin: "The guys sing about us, about our life, make it intelligibly, in an understandable language"
  50. ^ "Московский патриархат: Верующим не стоит ходить на концерт Мадонны" [Moscow Patriarchate: Believers should not go to Madonna concert] (in Russian). Moskovsky Komsomolets. August 7, 2006. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  51. ^ "Михаил Пиотровский — Разбор полета" [Michail Piotrovsky - Debriefing - 17.06.2019] (in Russian). Echo of Moscow. June 17, 2019. Retrieved September 11, 2019. Mikhail Piotrovsky: We believe the religion is part of culture. And the church and politicians believe the culture is an assistant to religion
  52. ^ "Сегодня слушаешь ты джаз, а завтра Родину продашь" [Today you're listening to jazz, and tomorrow you will betray your homeland] (in Russian). Echo of Moscow. September 9, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2019. since we are essentially working for the state and represent Russia, Fed. Agancy on Press were concerned by the jazz accompaniment… it's an American music, and so on
  53. ^ "Геном россиян возьмут под охрану" [Russians' DNA will be protected] (in Russian). September 12, 2018. Retrieved December 11, 2019. For example, you can find out which ethnic group ancestors belong to. For example, it's the Jews. Unfortunately, basing on that, a discrimination can occur in the society
  54. ^ "Лоза удивлен шумихой вокруг смерти солистки The Cranberries: Эта музыка не греет славянскую душу" [Loza is surprised by the media hype surrounding the death of the soloist of The Cranberries: This music doesn't warm the Slavic soul] (in Russian). Tsargrad TV. January 16, 2019. Retrieved December 10, 2019. I do not quite understand how this concerns us. We do not pay attention to the death of Korean performers, or Thai
  55. ^ "Putin plans to replace Wikipedia with 'reliable' Russian version". The Independent. November 6, 2019. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
  56. ^ "Khovansky and Jerzy Sarmat trampled Madonna (18+)". Unofficial fan-site Madonna.ru.com. Retrieved December 24, 2019. And so it was some kind of provincial Mexican singer, which, therefore, had previously acted in porn and, there, I don’t know, sucked everyone to make her famous there
  57. ^ "Madonna (Maria Louise Ciccone) - Life Story". Skuola.net. Archived from the original on September 24, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
  58. ^ ""Пушкин и Гончарова" История великих пар" ["Pushkin and Goncharova". Stories of great couples] (in Russian). Direct speech. March 19, 2019. Retrieved May 13, 2019. in the history of Russian literature there was no woman who was hated as much as Goncharova
  59. ^ "Уединясь от всех далеко..." [Secluded from everyone far ...] (in Russian). Nauka i Zhizn. March 1, 1999. Archived from the original on February 12, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  60. ^ "Георгий Черданцев: "Если и теперь ван Дайка будут называть ван Дейком, то кроме как идиотским упрямством это назвать нельзя"" [Georgy Cherdantsev: “If even now Van Dyck will be spelled van Deyk, then you can’t call something something than idiotic stubbornness”] (in Russian). Sports.ru. December 3, 2019. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  61. ^ "Как сделать вид, что хорошо разбираешься в искусстве" [How to Pretend You're Well Versed in Art] (in Russian). Excitemage.net. January 22, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2019. Now, the main thing! You must not confuse van Eyck with van Deyk. The latter is not easy to distinguish, therefore, hearing harmonious surnames, think about Putin's face [on Arnolfini Portrait] and separate the grains from the chaff. Van Deyk, like Rubens, belong to the "late" Flemings. Well, I’m not going to tell you how to distinguish Rubens ... yes, yes, yes, “if everyone is fat, and even men have cellulite, that’s it”
  62. ^ ""Русский Гамлет" возвращается" ["Russian Hamlet" return] (in Russian). Komsomolskaya pravda. July 5, 2017. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  63. ^ "Eugene Onegin by Stephen Fry". Onegin.live. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  64. ^ "Дмитрий Быков. Пушкин как наш Христос. Сборник лекций для чтения" [Dmitry Bykov. Pushkin like our Christ.] (in Russian). Litres.ru. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  65. ^ "Почему "Пушкин — наше всё"?" [Why "Pushkin is our everything"?] (in Russian). «Cultura.RF» — official project of Ministry for Culture of Russia. Retrieved September 23, 2018. Apollon Grigoryev was a Russian writer and original thinker who believed that poets are “manifestors of great truth and great secrets of life,” and he saw in Pushkin the embodiment of all original, special, that exists in the Russian people, which distinguishes its consciousness, and even lifestyle, from representatives of the other worlds "
  66. ^ "Где на самом деле похоронен Пушкин?" [Where was Pushkin burried indeed?] (in Russian). February 11, 2003. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  67. ^ Открытый интегрированный урок по теме: "Образы мадонн в творчестве А. С. Пушкина и Рафаэля". Archived from the original on August 8, 2018. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
  68. ^ "МАДОННА И ТВОРЕЦ" [Madonna and Creator] (in Russian). Literary Russia [ru]. February 8, 2019. Archived from the original on February 15, 2019. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  69. ^ "Открытый урок с Дмитрием Быковым. "Евгений Онегин", как неоконченный роман" ["Eugene Onegin" as unfinished novel] (in Russian). Official YouTube - "Public lesson" with Dmitry Bykov // RTVi. February 18, 2015. Retrieved February 15, 2019. Girl's question: "Why is Lensky, as a poet who must subtly feel the world, the people around him, falls in love with empty Olga, and not with Tatyana?" The boy’s answer: "Olga is beautiful". Teacher by Dmitry Bykov: "That's right... I’ll say a terrible thing..."
  70. ^ ""The Five Senses of Madonna", MadonnaTribe Meets Rui Paes". MadonnaTribe. November 8, 2007. Archived from the original on August 15, 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  71. ^ "Патрикей" [Patrikey]. Academic - The etymological dictionary of the Russian language by Max Fasmer.
  72. ^ "ЛИСА - СКАЗОЧНЫЙ ПЕРСОНАЖ" [FOX — FAIRY TALES CHARACTER]. Schci.ru — Russian folk life. Retrieved December 27, 2019. She is beautiful, seductive, eloquent, can easily pretend to be vulnerable and weak, while manipulating the others for her own benefit
  73. ^ a b "Мадонна, Доминго и Каррерас на одной сцене" [Madonna, Domingo and Carreras on the same stage]. Classical Music news. July 10, 2019. Retrieved December 5, 2019. What will Madonna - whose real name is Louisa Ciccone - do on this scene?
  74. ^ "Кот Котофеевич (1981)" [Cat Catofeevich (1981) [ru]]. Cartoons of Soyuzmultfilm studio – Official Youtube channel. Cat: Who are you?
    Fox: I'm Lizaveta Ivanovna. Lisa, for the simple folk.
    Cat: Oh! I know you. I've seen you on a picture.
    Lisa: Are they drawing me, indeed? It's flattering. I also know you.
    Cat: Me?
    Fox: Yes, you're a tiger.
    Cat: What?
    Fox: Tiger, but only dwarf one.
    Cat: Oh yeah! I just had illness in my childhood.
  75. ^ "Лисонька-лиса, рыжая краса: 30 зимних фотографий хитрой красавицы" [Foxy fox, the red beauty: 30 winter photos of a cunning beauty]. Kulturologia.ru.
  76. ^ "Последнее искушение Христа" - первая ласточка в череде соблазнов" ["The Last Temptation of Christ" - first in a row of temptations] (in Russian). Pravda.ru. November 10, 2018. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved November 19, 2018. And the truth is - if you already begin to blaspheme with your very artistic pseudonym on the topic of the name of the Mother of God - then why not end up with anger at her Divine Son?
  77. ^ "Андрей Кураев: нельзя зарабатывать деньги на чужой боли" [Andrey Kuraev: you cannot make money from someone else's pain] (in Russian). Vesti.Ru. September 12, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2018. The name, which for billions of people on the earth and in the history of the earth is perceived as a symbol of utmost purity - the Madonna, Virgin Mary, Mother of God - has become the stage nickname of a porn star
  78. ^ "50 самых важных женщин в популярной музыке - Мадонна, «Like a Prayer», Sire, 1989" (in Russian). Rolling Stone Russia. Archived from the original on September 16, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  79. ^ "Свое тело Мадонна доверила парню из России" [Madonna has entrusted her body to a guy [bodyguard] from Russia] (in Russian). Komsomolskaya Pravda. April 12, 2002. Archived from the original on October 7, 2018. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  80. ^ "Святотатство "в виду всей Москвы"?" [Blasphemy "in display to the whole Moscow"?] (in Russian). Orthodox news agency "Russian line". August 21, 2008. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  81. ^ "The X-Files - Russian is the second most popular language of the article with 26.883%". Wikirank. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
  82. ^ "Эффект Манделы. Искусственная сенсация или реальный феномен?" [Mandela effect. Artificial sensation or real phenomenon?] (in Russian). Научно-популярный журнал ПсихоПоиск. June 4, 2018. Archived from the original on May 8, 2019. Retrieved May 8, 2019. A widely known method for the diagnosis of paramnesia under the name "Diz - Rodiger - McDermott Paradigm" demonstrates how false memories can easily appear if there is a semantic basis for this in the past
  83. ^ "ЭФФЕКТ МАНДЕЛЫ — АНГЛОЯЗЫЧНЫЕ ВИДЕО, ФАКТЫ, ОБСУЖДЕНИЕ" [Mandela Effect - English videos, facts, discussion] (in Russian). «Цифровая Вселенная». Archived from the original on January 17, 2018. Retrieved August 8, 2018. It turns out that “Madonna” is not the creative pseudonym of the singer, whose name was Maria Louise Ciccone ... Now, it turns out, from childhood she was Madonna Louise Ciccone
  84. ^ "Madonna (entertainer) - Russian is the second most popular language of the article with 11.8197%". Wikirank. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
  85. ^ "Милонов предложил разработать специальные правила для Rammstein и Мадонны" [Milonov proposed to develop special rules for Rammstein and Madonna] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. August 3, 2019. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  86. ^ "Милонов назвал Мадонну лицемерной старухой и дурой" [Milonov called Madonna a hypocritical old woman and stupid]. Gazeta Spb. August 8, 2015. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
  87. ^ "World's most admired 2015: Angelina Jolie and Bill Gates". YouGov. January 1, 2015. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  88. ^ "World's most admired 2018". YouGov. April 11, 2018. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  89. ^ "Taylor Swift & Madonna Among YouGov's Most Admired Women List". Billboard. July 19, 2019. Archived from the original on August 2, 2019. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
  90. ^ Kadjaya Valery (2008). Диакон бесстыжий или как делают антисемитом [Deacon Shameless or How They Make Anti-Semite]. Moscow. p. 191.
  91. ^ "Лауреаты премии Союза журналистов России 2007 года" [Winners of the 2007 Union of Journalists of Russia Prize]. Union of Journalists of Russia. Archived from the original on August 25, 2014. Retrieved October 1, 2018. Special Prize “For the Journalism Book” ... Valery Kadzhaya (Moscow) - for the book “Deacon Shameless, or How They Make Anti-Semite”
  92. ^ ""Fifty Shades Of Cute": Diminutive Russian Nouns". Language Step by Step. Retrieved November 4, 2019. –shek is a diminutive suffix of many nouns [female plural and masculine singular suffixes are identical in this case]
  93. ^ "Across the pages of Boris Godunov: From Jesuitism to Foolishness, or Two Worlds - Two Systems" (in Russian). Classical Music News. April 14, 2010. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  94. ^ "Дьякон Андрей Кураев о "бляди" певице Мадонне" [Deacon Andrei Kuraev about the "blyad" singer Madonna] (in Russian). YouTube. October 4, 2008. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  95. ^ "Кураев: Рогозин решил пропиариться на Мадонне" [Kuraev: Rogozin decided to promote on Madonna] (in Russian). Life.ru. August 9, 2012. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  96. ^ ""Наверное, стоило устраивать это представление не в церкви, а перед церковью" - Мадонна о Pussy Riot" ["Perhaps it was worth arranging this performance not in the church, but in front of the church." Madonna about Pussy Riot] (in Russian). Kommersant. August 7, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
  97. ^ "Журналист Маша Гессен – о Мадонне как гражданской активистке" (in Russian). Radio Svoboda. August 9, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2018. Я думаю, пока не сменится власть, у неё больше концертов в России не будет.
  98. ^ "Live to tell... an exclusive interview with Madonna". Independent (Ireland). March 23, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
  99. ^ "Madonna's Back". Harper's Bazaar. October 4, 2013. Archived from the original on January 9, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  100. ^ "Зачем Москва отменяет монголо-татарское иго?" [Why is Moscow denying the Mongol-Tatar yoke?] (in Russian). Obozrevatel.com (Ukraine). January 23, 2018. Retrieved December 11, 2019. Nobody could ever conquer Russia.
  101. ^ "Владимир Познер о русском человеке" [Vladimir Pozner about Russian personality] (in Russian). July 16, 2018. Retrieved December 12, 2019. Therefore, when they ask me: "What is Russian?" - I do not know. I just say, they're similar to the Irish, in my opinion. “To the Irish ??” - I say "Yes". Because the ups and downs of mood are typical - one. They like to drink - two. They like to fight - three. They like to have friends - four. Literary talent - five. All the great English writers are actually Irish. Almost all of them. And one more thing: there were a lot of victims. After all, the Irish suffered 800 years from the British! And the Russians - from the Tatars. And then, not only from the Tatars. And suffering adds something
  102. ^ "Ten Times Madonna Proved She Is Actually Irish". Today FM. August 16, 2018. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  103. ^ "Irish DNA originated in Middle East and eastern Europe". Guardian. December 28, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  104. ^ "Everybody - live at the Danceteria". Official Madonna YouTube.
  105. ^ "Sina (Китай): испокон веков Россия – европейская страна, но почему Европа относит ее к Азии?" [Sina (China): For centuries, Russia was a European country, but why does Europe attribute it to Asia?] (in Russian). Chinese "Sina" translated to Russian - Inosmi.ru. September 22, 2019. Retrieved December 11, 2019. There is an old saying in Europe: scratch a Russian - you will find a Tatar. The expression says that Mongolian blood actually flows inside the Russians, therefore they should not be considered Europeans
  106. ^ "Madonna branded Granny Gaga by far-right National Front in France in fascism row". Daily Express . June 4, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  107. ^ "Madonna's Andy Cohen interview: EW's guest editor questions the queen of pop". EW. August 16, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2018. No. But that’s okay. Why would I even want to perform in a place where being gay is [criminalized]?
  108. ^ "В МВД предложили уголовно наказывать за пропаганду гомосексуализма" [The Ministry of Internal Affairs proposed to criminalize homosexuality propaganda] (in Russian). Vesti FM. October 19, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2018. В МВД предлагают ужесточить наказание за пропаганду педофилии и гомосексуализма среди детей. [The Ministry of Internal Affairs proposes to reinforce the punishment for the promotion of pedophilia and homosexuality among children.]
  109. ^ ""Принято думать, что Запад потерял скрепы, духовность, которые мы якобы имеем"" [It is generally accepted that the West has lost the bonds, the spirituality that we supposedly have] (in Russian). Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  110. ^ "В ЕСПЧ призвали изменить закон о домашнем насилии в России" [ECHR called on to amend the law on domestic violence in Russia] (in Russian). Radio Svoboda. July 15, 2019. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
  111. ^ "О женщинах и свободе. Новый феминизм вместо равноправия обещает право требовать компенсацию за первородный грех" [About women and freedom. A new feminism, instead of equality, promises the right to demand compensation for original sin]. Novaya gazeta. March 11, 2019. Retrieved December 28, 2019. Homo sapiens, as all hominids, has the female body weight for about 80% of the bodyweight of the male, and this leads to the fact that the male is the leader in the family and the head in the pack. We have the only close relative, which is an exception, it is the bonobo monkey, aka pygmy chimpanzee. In bonobos, relationships within the collective are built primarily through homosexual relationships. 80% of these homosexual relationships are females, and although females in Bonovo also weight fewer than males, they rule the society. A flock of bonobos is led by a collective Central Committee of old wise females. This is the only one of the higher apes that really has matriarchy. Matriarchy is not detected in any of the human societies. These are fairy tales
  112. ^ a b "These Eurovision Winners Are Related to Madonna" (in Russian). MyHeritage. May 17, 2019. Archived from the original on June 3, 2019. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  113. ^ "Madonna - MTV Ultrasound Inside 1998". Official Madonna YouTube., and the shared idea of marginalized people having a voice.
  114. ^ "Фильм "Мусоргский" (1950)" [Film "Mussorgsky" (1950)] (in Russian). It's curious that Modest Petrovich didn't have a habit of refining the tunes for a long time, making edits or drafts. He carefully thought over ideas, and then sat down to record a completely finished music
  115. ^ "Чайковский и "Могучая кучка": спор о русской музыке" [Tchaikovsky and The Mighty Handful: A Debate About Russian Music] (in Russian). Arzamas Academy. Retrieved November 22, 2019. Under the influence of these ideas, the source of which was largely French naturalism, new images from the social lower classes emerge in Mussorgsky’s works as “high” music - for example, the Holy Fool in opera 'Boris Godunov' and in vocal monologue 'Svetik Savishna', or a homeless child asking alms, in the vocal composition "Orphan"
  116. ^ "Глава VI. Рубикон" [Part VI. Rubicon] (in Russian). Mussorgsky.ru Project. From the refrain, the “Yeryomushka's Lullaby” is long drawn out (in the Dorian mode) as: “You have to bend your head below a thin grass [level] so that [you,] a poor orphan will live a blithely life”. Combined with the music, these words sound like a secret murmur of the humiliated and destitute
  117. ^ "Кого не хватает на картине Репина "Славянские композиторы"?" [Who is missing in Repin's painting 'Slavic Composers'?] (in Russian). You will sweep away any rubbish into this picture!
  118. ^ "Opera "Boris Godunov"" (in Russian). Classic-music.ru. Alexander III and Nicholas II have cancelled it from the repertoire of the Imperial theaters
  119. ^ "Мадонну обвинили в подрыве обороноспособности России" [Madonna was accused of undermining Russia's defense] (in Russian). Forbes Russia. November 22, 2012.
  120. ^ ""Кухаркины дети". Как закон в сфере образования привёл к крушению империи" ["Cook's children." How did the education law caused the crash of Russian Empire] (in Russian). Argumenty i fakty. July 1, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2019. Thus, with the strict observance of this rule, gymnasiums and a professional gymnasiums will be freed from the arrival of children of coachmen, footmen, cooks, laundresses, small shopkeepers and the alikes, whose children, with the exception of those gifted with genial abilities, should not strive for secondary and higher education at all
  121. ^ "Школьное образование и грамотность в России к 1917 году" [School education and literacy in Russia by 1917]. Echo of Moscow. By 1897, not counting Finland, the precent of half-literate (the ones who could read and/or write) was 21,1% (29,3% men and 13,1% women). (Russian Empire didn't count people who could read and write simultaneously (literate) as a separate category, in order to have a better overall numbers, so all the half-literate were written down under the term "literate"; See also Literacy in pre-revolutionary Russia [ru])
  122. ^ "Мадонна советует Pussy Riot "быть честными перед самими собой"!" [Madonna advises Pussy Riot "to be honest with themselves!"] (in Russian). МК. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on September 17, 2014. Retrieved June 5, 2018. Liz Rozenberg: I personally have never seen “currents of negative criticism”.
  123. ^ "Мадонна вновь возглавила американский хит-парад" [Madonna Topped the US Chart Again] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. June 26, 2019. Archived from the original on June 26, 2019. Retrieved June 26, 2019. Music critics [of the West] gave the album an icy welcome
  124. ^ "Эдуард ХАНОК: "Я был самым богатым белорусским композитором"" [Eduard KHANOK: “I was the richest Belarusian composer”] (in Russian). Komsomolskaya pravda Belarus. February 24, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  125. ^ Khanok 2015, p. 132—133.
  126. ^ "Пахмутову и Добронравова не пускают в шоу-бизнес" [Pakhmutova and Dobronravov are not allowed in show business] (in Russian). Trud. August 2, 2005. Retrieved October 8, 2019. There are certain recipes in our business on how to make a popular song that will make money. This can be compared to flirting. So, some young man, handsome, but with a cold heart, knowing certain tricks, can make a girl fall in love to get her for a one-night stand... I believe, for a true composer it is better to avoid this
  127. ^ "Забота наша такая... У Александры Пахмутовой - юбилей" [Our concern is so ...Alexandra Pakhmutova Anniversary] (in Russian). November 4, 2004. In my opinion, now all over the world money has gotten out of control and they dictate the rules of the game. Not only here, but everywhere. As I said, the laws of show business are very harsh
  128. ^ "Biography". Official site of Luis Royo. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
  129. ^ "Русский женский менеджмент. Княгиня Ольга и Жанна Д`Арк" [Russian women's management. Princess Olga and Joan of Arc] (in Russian). "Na Linii" (On Line). August 17, 2017. Retrieved December 30, 2019. Today's Russia occupies a leading position in the world in the number of female top managers: 40% of the total number
  130. ^ "Правители Руси: княгиня Ольга – месть и святость" [Rulers of Russia: Princess Olga - revenge and holiness] (in Russian). Orthodox Youth Pornal "Heir". October 17, 2017. Retrieved December 30, 2019. And when we talk about Princess Olga, it is necessary to find an analogue in the later history of our country. This analogue is the famous Empress Catherine the Great
  131. ^ "Мельница - Ольга (Дорога сна. Аудио)" [Melnitsa - Olga (The Dream Path)]. Navigator Records. April 17, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2019. Music by N. O'Shea (Hellawes), words by N. Gumilev
  132. ^ Vatican. "Virtual tour, Point 3. North transept". Knyaginya Olga. Vatican.va. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
  133. ^ "1000 лет со дня смерти Владимира Великого. 5 малоизвестных фактов о киевском князе" [1000 Years Since the Vladimir the Great's Death. 5 Lesser Known Facts about Kievan Prince] (in Russian). Retrieved December 12, 2019.
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  137. ^ "BOY BABA - БГ сделал оммаж Мадонне" [BOY BABA - BG made a hommage to Madonna] (in Russian). Неофициальный фан-сайт Madonna.ru.com. December 12, 2018. Archived from the original on April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  138. ^ "Мельница.Ольга" [Melnitsa "Olga"]. YouTube Channel "Hakuna Matata". September 26, 2009.
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  141. ^ "Madonna: удивительные открытия" [Madonna: Amazing Discoveries] (in Russian). Conservatory student (pseudonym – Twinsen) Article saved on Unofficial Fan Site Madonna.RU.com. December 16, 2005. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  142. ^ "ПУГАЧЕВА ДЖЕКСОН МАДОННА" [Pugacheva. Jackson. Madonna.] (in Russian). Portal Kommentarii.ru. March 7, 2009. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  143. ^ "20+ фактов о Мадонне, которые известны только ее самым преданным поклонникам" [20+ facts about Madonna that are known only to her most devoted fans] (in Russian). ADME.ru. August 16, 2019. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  144. ^ "Modest Mussorgsky". Medici.tv. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  145. ^ "'Она другая, но её альбомы - на острие музыкальной моды': Гаспарян - о критике Мадонны" ["She is different, but her albums are at the forefront of musical fashion": Gasparyan about criticizing Madonna] (in Russian). Tsargrad TV. August 16, 2019.
  146. ^ "Русский ответ: Либеральную певицу убрали из ротации на радио" [Russian answer: Liberal singer was removed from radio rotation] (in Russian). Tsargrad TV. January 28, 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  147. ^ "Баян для Мадонны. Чайковский в новом альбоме Madame X" [Bayan for Madonna. Tchaikovsky in the new Madame X album] (in Russian). Rossiyskaya Gazeta. August 5, 2019. Archived from the original on September 2, 2019. Retrieved September 2, 2019.
  148. ^ "Madonna "Madame X": Поп-политиканство особо крупного масштаба" [Madonna "Madame X": Pop Politicking of Especially Large Calibre]. Soyuz. June 14, 2019. Retrieved September 16, 2019. I would not want to stoop to definitions like “the songs of blue donkeys” (meaning the mascot and the color of US Democratic Party), but nothing else comes to mind...
  149. ^ ""Poor Lisa. Mother of the Famous Singer Madonna Lives in Russia"(Ogoniok, 1992)". Ogoniok magazine: April 1st, 1992 fun article - Unofficial fan site Madonna.RU.com. Retrieved September 19, 2019. There, in the West, the Americans being amazed by her Russian beauty, began to call her Madonna
  150. ^ "Elements of a fairy tale in modern journalism (Nadezhda Sokolova, 2016)" (in Russian). January 5, 2016. Retrieved September 19, 2019. Most magazines and newspapers deliberately link her image to the image of modern Cinderella. Although there are headings that refer the reader to other literary characters with a similar (or simply unusual) fate. For example: "Youth spent in garbage dumps" (an explicit reference to the mythology described here - N.Sh.) (Vasiliev 2000); “Louise in Wonderland” (Carroll's tale was called “Alice in Wonderland” - N.Sh.) (Sawyer 2000); "Poor Liza" (direct reference to Karamzin - N.Sh.) (Chernov 1992).
  151. ^ "Russian beauty secrets revealed". Russia Beyond The Headlines. July 19, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  152. ^ "ТИМУР БЕКМАМБЕТОВ: "ХОЧУ СНЯТЬ ФИЛЬМ ПРО ЛЮБОВЬ ОРЛОВУ С МАДОННОЙ В ГЛАВНОЙ РОЛИ"" [Timur Bekmambetov: "I would like to make a movie about Lyubov Orlova with Madonna. But it's just a dream"] (in Russian). MyCityUA.com. December 21, 2009. Archived from the original on December 21, 2009. Madonna could play Orlova very well. But for now, these are just fantasies
  153. ^ "Мадонна" [Madonna] (in Russian). Likeness.ru - fun similiarities. Retrieved September 19, 2019. TOP 4 Madonna likenesses: 1. Johnny Depp as Mad Hatter - 864 votes; 2. Sasha - 178 votes; 3. Valentina Rubcova - 102 votes; 4. Nika Turbina - 88 votes
  154. ^ "Клип недели: Bedtime Story Мадонны" [Video of the week: Bedtime Story] (in Russian). The Blueprint. August 16, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2019. Video has a lot of direct references to the Soviet director Sergei Paradjanov's The Color of Pomegranates
  155. ^ "75 лет Алану Паркеру: Нина Цыркун — про "Эвиту" и отчаянные поиски Мадонны" [75 Years Alan Parker: Nina Tsyrkun about "Evita" and Madonna's Desperate Search (1997 article reprint)] (in Russian). Iskusstvo Kino. February 14, 2019. Archived from the original on February 19, 2019. Retrieved February 19, 2019. Madonna is sincere and very convincing. And again she cries with a real tears
  156. ^ "Есть еще ягоды в ягодицах. У Мадонны теперь девять "Золотых малин"" [There are still butters in the buttocks. Madonna now has nine Golden Raspberries] (in Russian). Kommersant. March 24, 2003. Retrieved September 19, 2019. The main conflict of the script resembles the film of Gregory Chukhrai "The Forty-First" (two class-alien people of different sexes find themselves on an uninhabited island), only it ends a lot less tragically
  157. ^ "Swept Away" (in Russian). Kinopoisk. Retrieved September 19, 2019. Russian Kinopoisk Rating compared: 5.817 (11 021), IMDb: 3.60 (14 759)
  158. ^ "Yakov and The Seven Thieves - Madonna, Gennady Spirin". The Charmed Books. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  159. ^ "10 сентября 2005 года в рамках XVIII Московской международной книжной выставки-ярмарки фонд «Русская культура» поощрил Мадонну за её литературное творчество для детей" [On September 10, 2005, during the 18th Moscow International Book Fair, the "Russian Culture" foundation praised Madonna for her literary work for children] (in Russian). Dazzle.ru. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  160. ^ "Детские музыкальные конкурсы: кому они нужны?" [Children classical music competitions: Who needs them?] (in Russian). September 24, 2019. Retrieved December 5, 2019. And since the cost of the stakes in music schools is microscopic (for reference: 9489 rubles [149 US dollars a month; stake means a teacher's montly salary for 18 hours a week]), this is a question of survival for the teachers
  161. ^ "Бомба для музыкальных школ" [Bomb for the Children Music Schools] (in Russian). Портал ClassicalMusicNews.ru. June 17, 2019. Retrieved December 10, 2019. When Ray Bradbury wrote his dystopia Fahrenheit 451, he did not suspect how close the future was... By hook or by crook, both through the door and through the window, high-ranking officials want to do something with children music schools... Or will we invite Chinese experts? So what? They have been preparing according to our system for many years now, since the industrial revolution began. There are many of them, just enough for us. And we are friends with China, we even export ice cream to them
  162. ^ "Пианист Алексей Сканави: "В Китае наша классическая музыка считается престижным занятием"" [Pianist Alexei Scanavi: "In China, our classical muusic is perceived as prestigious employment"]. Sibnovosti. August 13, 2019. Retrieved September 5, 2019.
  163. ^ "Russia Builds 3 New Churches a Day, Orthodox Leader Says". The Moscow Times. May 27, 2019. Retrieved December 12, 2019. It’s not because we have too much money and don’t know where to spend it on. Our people who have gone through years of atheism [under the Soviet Union] have realized with their minds and hearts that without God, nothing happens
  164. ^ "В России установили новый прожиточный минимум" [Russia sets a new living wage] (in Russian). Zvezda. August 23, 2019. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
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  166. ^ ""Бетховен был не настолько глуп, чтобы до старости восхищаться революцией"" [Beethoven was not that stupid to admire the revolution until his old age] (in Russian). February 18, 2018. If you return to the very image of the composer - for Soviet culture, Beethoven was an iconic figure
  167. ^ "Невероятные приключения американской журналистки в российском суде" [Unbelievable adventures of American journalist in a Russian court] (in Russian). RAPSI [ru]. November 28, 2012. Retrieved September 25, 2018. reminiscent of a typical school skirmish of "bullies" against "nerds"
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