Culture of Canada

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Perhaps the most prominent symbol of Canada, the maple leaf has been a de facto symbol since the 1700s.

The culture of Canada embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, humour, musical, political and social elements that are representative of Canadians. Throughout Canada's history, its culture has been influenced firstly by its indigenous cultures, and later by European culture and traditions, mostly by the British and French.[1] Over time, elements of the cultures of Canada's immigrant populations have become incorporated to form a Canadian cultural mosaic.[1][2] Certain segments of Canada's population have, to varying extents, also been influenced by American culture due to shared language (in English-speaking Canada), significant media penetration and geographic proximity.[3][4]

Canada is often characterized as being "very progressive, diverse, and multicultural".[5] Canada's federal government has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration.[6] Canada's culture draws from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a just society are constitutionally protected.[7] Canadian policies—such as abortion, euthanasia, same-sex marriage, and cannabis; an emphasis on cultural diversity; large-scale immigration; abolishing capital punishment; publicly funded health care; higher and more progressive taxation; efforts to eliminate poverty; and strict gun control are social indicators of the country's political and cultural values.[8][9][10] Canadians identify with the country's institutions of health care, military peacekeeping, the national park system, and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[11][12]

The Canadian government has influenced culture with programs, laws and institutions. It has created crown corporations to promote Canadian culture through media, such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) and the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and promotes many events which it considers to promote Canadian traditions. It has also tried to protect Canadian culture by setting legal minimums on Canadian content in many media using bodies like the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).[13]

Cultural components[edit]



Fur traders at work as depicted in 1777 by Claude J. Sauthier

For thousands of years, Canada has been inhabited by indigenous peoples from a variety of different cultures and of several major linguistic groupings.[14] Although not without conflict and bloodshed, early European interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations in what is now Canada were arguably peaceful.[15] First Nations and Métis peoples played a critical part in the development of European colonies in Canada, particularly for their role in assisting European coureur des bois and voyageurs in the exploration of the continent during the North American fur trade.[16] Over the course of three centuries, countless North American Indigenous words, inventions, concepts, and games have become an everyday part of Canadian language and use.[17] Many places in Canada, both natural features and human habitations, use indigenous names. The name "Canada" itself derives from the St. Lawrence Huron-Iroquoian word "Kanata" meaning "village" or "settlement".[18] The name of Canada's capital city Ottawa comes from the Algonquin language term "adawe" meaning "to trade".[18]

A Canadian war bond poster that depicts an industrious beaver, a national symbol of Canada

In the 17th-century, French colonials settled New France in Acadia, in the present-day Maritimes, and in Canada, along the Saint Lawrence River in present-day Quebec and Ontario.[19] These regions were under French control from 1534 to 1763. However, the British conquered Acadia in 1710 and conquered Canada in 1760. The British were able to deport most of the Acadians, but they were unable to deport the Canadiens of Canada because they severely outnumbered the British forces. The British therefore had to make deals with Canadiens and hope they would one day become assimilated.[20] The American Revolution, from 1775 to 1783, provoked the migration of 40,000 to 50,000 United Empire Loyalists from the Thirteen Colonies to the newly conquered British lands, which brought American influences to Canada for the first time.[20] Following the War of 1812, many Scottish and English people settled in Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Many Irish people fleeing the Great Famine also arrived between 1845 and 1852.[20]

The Canadian Forces and overall civilian participation in the First World War and Second World War helped to foster Canadian nationalism;[21] however, in 1917 and 1944, conscription crises highlighted the considerable rift along ethnic lines between Anglophones and Francophones.[22] As a result of the First and Second World Wars, the Government of Canada became more assertive and less deferential to British authority.[23] Canada, until the 1940s, was often described as "binational", with the 2 components being the cultural, linguistic and political identities of English Canadians and of French Canadians.[24]

Legislative restrictions on immigration (such as the Continuous journey regulation and Chinese Immigration Act) that had favoured British, American and other European immigrants (such as Dutch, German, Italian, Polish, Swedish and Ukrainian) were amended during the 1960s,[25][26] resulting in an influx of people of many different ethnicities.[27] By the end of the 20th century, immigrants were increasingly Chinese, Indian, Vietnamese, Jamaican, Filipino, Lebanese, Pakistani and Haitian.[28] By the 21st century Canada had thirty four ethnic groups with at least one hundred thousand members each, of which eleven have over 1,000,000 people and numerous others are represented in smaller numbers.[29] As of 2006, 16.2% of the population self-identify as a visible minority.[29]

Development of popular culture[edit]

Cartoon drawing of hockey game and people falling through the ice
"Ye Gude Olde Days" from Hockey: Canada's Royal Winter Game, 1899

Themes and symbols of pioneers, trappers, and traders played an important part in the early development of Canadian culture.[30] Modern Canadian culture as it is understood today can be traced to its time period of westward expansion and nation building.[31] Contributing factors include Canada's unique geography, climate, and cultural makeup. Being a cold country with long winter nights for most of the year, certain unique leisure activities developed in Canada during this period including ice hockey and embracement of the summer indigenous game of lacrosse.[32][33][34]

By the 19th century, Canadians came to believe themselves possessed of a unique "northern character," due to the long, harsh winters that only those of hardy body and mind could survive.[35] This hardiness was claimed as a Canadian trait, and sports that reflected this, such as snowshoeing and cross-country skiing, were asserted as characteristically Canadian.[36] During this period, the churches tried to influence leisure activities by preaching against drinking, and scheduling annual revivals and weekly club activities.[37] In a society in which most middle-class families now owned a harmonium or piano, and standard education included at least the rudiments of music, the result was often an original song.[38] Such stirrings frequently occurred in response to noteworthy events, and few local or national excitements were allowed to pass without some musical comment.[39][40]

By the 1930s, radio played a major role in uniting Canadians behind their local or regional teams. Rural areas were especially influenced by sports coverage and the propagation of national myths.[41] Outside the sports and music arena, Canadians expressed a national character of being hard working, peaceful, orderly and polite.[42]

Political culture[edit]

Cultural legislation[edit]

Monument to Multiculturalism by Francesco Pirelli, in Toronto

French Canada's early development was relatively cohesive during the 17th and 18th centuries, and this was preserved by the Quebec Act of 1774, which allowed Roman Catholics to hold offices and practice their faith.[43] In 1867, the Constitution Act was thought to meet the growing calls for Canadian autonomy while avoiding the overly strong decentralization that contributed to the Civil War in the United States.[44] The compromises reached during this time between the English- and French-speaking Fathers of Confederation set Canada on a path to bilingualism which in turn contributed to an acceptance of diversity.[45] The English and French languages have had limited constitutional protection since 1867 and full official status since 1969.[46] Section 133 of the Constitution Act of 1867 (BNA Act) guarantees that both languages may be used in the Parliament of Canada.[46] Canada adopted its first Official Languages Act in 1969, giving English and French equal status in the government of Canada.[47] Doing so makes them "official" languages, having preferred status in law over all other languages used in Canada.[47]

Prior to the advent of the Canadian Bill of Rights in 1960 and its successor the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982, the laws of Canada did not provide much in the way of civil rights and this issue was typically of limited concern to the courts.[48] Canada since the 1960s has placed emphasis on equality and inclusiveness for all people.[49] Multiculturalism in Canada was adopted as the official policy of the Canadian government and is enshrined in Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[50][51] In 1995, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in Egan v. Canada that sexual orientation should be "read in" to Section Fifteen of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, a part of the Constitution of Canada guaranteeing equal rights to all Canadians.[52] Following a series of decisions by provincial courts and the Supreme Court of Canada, on July 20, 2005, the Civil Marriage Act (Bill C-38) became law, legalizing same-sex marriage in Canada.[53] Furthermore, sexual orientation was included as a protected status in the human-rights laws of the federal government and of all provinces and territories.[54]

Contemporary politics[edit]

The Centre Block of the Canadian parliament buildings on Parliament Hill

Canadian governments at the federal level have a tradition of liberalism,[55] and govern with a moderate, centrist political ideology.[56][57] Canada's egalitarian approach to governance emphasizing social justice and multiculturalism, is based on selective immigration, social integration, and suppression of far-right politics that has wide public and political support.[58][59] Peace, order, and good government are constitutional goals of the Canadian government.[60]

Canada has a multi-party system in which many of its legislative customs derive from the unwritten conventions of and precedents set by the Westminster parliament of the United Kingdom. The country has been dominated by two parties,[61] the centre-left Liberal Party of Canada and the centre-right Conservative Party of Canada.[62] The historically predominant Liberals position themselves at the centre of the political scale,[63] with the Conservatives sitting on the right and the New Democratic Party occupying the left.[61] Smaller parties like the Quebec nationalist Bloc Québécois and the Green Party of Canada have also been able to exert their influence over the political process by representation at the federal level.

Nationalism and protectionism[edit]

Quebec's National Holiday (French: La Fête nationale du Québec) is celebrated annually on June 24, St. John the Baptist Day.

In general, Canadian nationalists are concerned about the protection of Canadian sovereignty and loyalty to the Canadian State, placing them in the civic nationalist category. It has likewise often been suggested that anti-Americanism plays a prominent role in Canadian nationalist ideologies.[64] A unified, bi-cultural, tolerant and sovereign Canada remains an ideological inspiration to many Canadian nationalists.[65] Alternatively Quebecois nationalism and support for maintaining French Canadian culture many of whom were supporters of the Quebec sovereignty movement during the late-20th century.[66]

Cultural protectionism in Canada has, since the mid-20th century, taken the form of conscious, interventionist attempts on the part of various Canadian governments to promote Canadian cultural production.[67] Sharing a large border, a common language (for the majority), and being exposed to massive diffusions of American media makes it difficult for Canada to preserve its own culture versus being assimilated to American culture. While Canada tries to maintain its cultural differences, it also must balance this with responsibility in trade arrangements such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement (USMCA).[68]

Foreign relations[edit]

a person in a military uniform wearing a United Nations blue helmet
Canadian peacekeeper in 1976 wearing the distinctive flag of Canada and UN blue helmet

The notion of peacekeeping is deeply embedded in Canadian culture and a distinguishing feature that Canadians feel sets their foreign policy apart from its closest ally, the United States.[69][70][71] Canada's foreign policy of peacekeeping, peace enforcement, peacemaking, and peacebuilding has been intertwined with its tendency to pursue multilateral and international solutions since the end of World War II.[72][73][74][75]

Canada's central role in the development of peacekeeping in the mid 1950s gave it credibility and established it as a country fighting for the "common good" of all nations.[76] Canada has since been engaged with the United Nations, NATO and the European Union (EU) in promoting its middle power status into an active role in world affairs.[77]

Canada has long been reluctant to participate in military operations that are not sanctioned by the United Nations,[78][79] such as the Vietnam War or the 2003 Invasion of Iraq.[78][79] Canada has participated in US-led, UN-sanctioned operations such as the first Gulf War, in Afghanistan and Libya.[78][79] The country also participates with its NATO allies in UN-sanctioned missions, such as the Kosovo Conflict and in Haiti.[78][79]


Canadian values are the perceived commonly shared ethical and human values of Canadians. The major political parties have claimed explicitly that they uphold Canadian values, but use generalities to specify them. Historian Ian MacKay argues that, thanks to the long-term political impact of "Rebels, Reds, and Radicals", and allied leftist political elements, "egalitarianism, social equality, and peace... are now often simply referred 'Canadian values.'"[80] Canada ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education, and gender equality.[81]

A 2013 Statistics Canada survey found that an "overwhelming majority" of Canadians shared the values of human rights (with 92% of respondents agreeing that they are a shared Canadian value), respect for the law (92%) and gender equality (91%).[82] Universal access to publicly funded health services "is often considered by Canadians as a fundamental value that ensures national health care insurance for everyone wherever they live in the country."[83]

A copy of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, was intended to be a source for Canadian values and national unity.[84] The 15th Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau wrote in his Memoirs that:

Canada itself could now be defined as a "society where all people are equal and where they share some fundamental values based upon freedom", and that all Canadians could identify with the values of liberty and equality.[85]

Numerous scholars, beginning in the 1940s with American sociologist Seymour Martin Lipset; have tried to identify, measure and compare them with other countries, especially the United States.[86][87] However, there are critics who say that such a task is practically impossible.[88]

Denis Stairs a professor of political Science at Dalhousie University; links the concept of Canadian values with nationalism. [Canadians typically]...believe, in particular, that they subscribe to a distinctive set of values - Canadian values - and that those values are special in the sense of being unusually virtuous.[89]


The maple leaf is the symbol most associated with Canadian identity.

Canada's large geographic size, the presence of a significant number of indigenous peoples, the conquest of one European linguistic population by another and relatively open immigration policy have led to an extremely diverse society. As a result, the issue of Canadian identity remains under scrutiny.[90]

Canada has constitutional protection for policies that promote multiculturalism rather than cultural assimilation or a single national myth.[91] In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many commentators speak of a French Canadian culture as distinguished from English Canadian culture.[92] However, as a whole, Canada is in theory, a cultural mosaic—a collection of several regional, and ethnic subcultures.[93][94]

As Professor Alan Cairns noted about the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms , "the initial federal government premise was on developing a pan-Canadian identity"'.[95] Pierre Trudeau himself later wrote in his Memoirs (1993) that "Canada itself" could now be defined as a "society where all people are equal and where they share some fundamental values based upon freedom", and that all Canadians could identify with the values of liberty and equality.[96]

Political philosopher Charles Blattberg suggests that Canada is a "multinational country"; as all Canadians are members of Canada as a civic or political community, a community of citizens, and this is a community that contains many other kinds within it. These include not only communities of ethnic, regional, religious, and civic (the provincial and municipal governments) sorts, but also national communities, which often include or overlap with many of the other kinds.[97]

Journalist and author Richard Gwyn has suggested that "tolerance" has replaced "loyalty" as the touchstone of Canadian identity.[98] Journalist and professor Andrew Cohen wrote in 2007:

The Canadian Identity, as it has come to be known, is as elusive as the Sasquatch and Ogopogo. It has animated—and frustrated—generations of statesmen, historians, writers, artists, philosophers, and the National Film Board ... Canada resists easy definition.[99]

Canada's 15th prime minister Pierre Trudeau in regards to uniformity stated:

Uniformity is neither desirable nor possible in a country the size of Canada. We should not even be able to agree upon the kind of Canadian to choose as a model, let alone persuade most people to emulate it. There are few policies potentially more disastrous for Canada than to tell all Canadians that they must be alike. There is no such thing as a model or ideal Canadian. What could be more absurd than the concept of an "all-Canadian" boy or girl? A society which emphasizes uniformity is one which creates intolerance and hate.[100]

In 2015, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau defined the country as the world's first postnational state: "There is no core identity, no mainstream in Canada".[101]

The question of Canadian identity was traditionally dominated by three fundamental themes: first, the often conflicted relations between English Canadians and French Canadians stemming from the French Canadian imperative for cultural and linguistic survival; secondly, the generally close ties between English Canadians and the British Empire, resulting in a gradual political process towards complete independence from the imperial power; and finally, the close proximity of English-speaking Canadians to the United States.[102] Much of the debate over contemporary Canadian identity is argued in political terms, and defines Canada as a country defined by its government policies, which are thought to reflect deeper cultural values.[103]

In 2013, more than 90% of Canadians believed that the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the national flag were the top symbols of Canadian identity. Next highest were the national anthem, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and hockey.[104]

Inter-provincial interactions[edit]

Demonstrators in Calgary, Alberta, protesting the coalition of opposition parties attempting to take control of Parliament during the 2008 Canadian parliamentary dispute

Western alienation is the notion that the western provinces have historically been alienated, and in extreme cases excluded, from mainstream Canadian political affairs in favour of Eastern Canada or more specifically the central provinces.[105] Western alienation claims that these latter two are politically represented, and economically favoured, more significantly than the former, which has given rise to the sentiment of alienation among many western Canadians.[106] Likewise; the Quebec sovereignty movement that lead to the Québécois nation and the province of Quebec being recognized as a "distinct society" within Canada, highlights the sharp divisions between the Anglo and Francophone population.[107]

Though more than half of Canadians live in just two provinces (Ontario and Quebec), each province is largely self-contained due to provincial economic self-sufficiency. Only 15 percent of Canadians live in a different province from where they were born, and only 10 percent go to another province for university. Canada has always been like this, and stands in sharp contrast to the United States' internal mobility which is much higher. For example 30 percent live in a different state from where they were born, and 30 percent go away for university. Scott Gilmore in Maclean's argues that "Canada is a nation of strangers", in the sense that for most individuals, the rest of Canada outside their province is little-known. Another factor is the cost of internal travel. Intra-Canadian airfares are high—it is cheaper and more common to visit the United States than to visit another province. Gilmore argues that the mutual isolation makes it difficult to muster national responses to major national issues.[108]


Canadian humour is an integral part of the Canadian Identity. There are several traditions in Canadian humour in both English and French.[109][110] While these traditions are distinct and at times very different, there are common themes that relate to Canadians' shared history and geopolitical situation in the Western Hemisphere and the world. Various trends can be noted in Canadian comedy. One trend is the portrayal of a "typical" Canadian family in an ongoing radio or television series.[111] Other trends include outright absurdity,[112] and political and cultural satire.[113] Irony, parody, satire, and self-deprecation are arguably the primary characteristics of Canadian humour.[114][115][116]

Just for Laughs Festival in Montreal, Québec, at the Saint-Denis Theatre

The beginnings of Canadian national radio comedy date to the late 1930s with the debut of The Happy Gang, a long-running weekly variety show that was regularly sprinkled with corny jokes in between tunes.[117] Canadian television comedy begins with Wayne and Shuster, a sketch comedy duo who performed as a comedy team during the Second World War, and moved their act to radio in 1946 before moving on to television.[118] Second City Television, otherwise known as SCTV, Royal Canadian Air Farce, This Hour Has 22 Minutes, The Kids in the Hall, Trailer Park Boys, Corner gas and more recently Schitt's Creek are regarded as television shows which were very influential on the development of Canadian humour.[119] Canadian comedians have had great success in the film industry and are amongst the most recognized in the world.[119]

Humber College in Toronto and the École nationale de l'humour in Montreal offer post-secondary programmes in comedy writing and performance.[120] Montreal is also home to the bilingual (English and French) Just for Laughs festival and to the Just for Laughs Museum, a bilingual, international museum of comedy.[121] Canada has a national television channel, The Comedy Network, devoted to comedy. Many Canadian cities feature comedy clubs and showcases, most notable, The Second City branch in Toronto (originally housed at The Old Fire Hall) and the Yuk Yuk's national chain.[122] The Canadian Comedy Awards were founded in 1999 by the Canadian Comedy Foundation for Excellence, a not-for-profit organization.[123]


One of the national symbols of Canada, the beaver is depicted on the Canadian five-cent piece and was on the first Canadian postage stamp, c. 1859.

Predominant symbols of Canada include the maple leaf, beaver, and the Canadian horse.[124][125][126] Many official symbols of the country such as the Flag of Canada have been changed or modified over the past few decades to Canadianize them and de-emphasise or remove references to the United Kingdom.[127] Other prominent symbols include the sports of hockey and lacrosse, the Canada goose, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Canadian Rockies,[128] and more recently the totem pole and Inuksuk;[129] material items such as Canadian beer, maple syrup, tuques, canoes, nanaimo bars, butter tarts and the Quebec dish of poutine have also been defined as uniquely Canadian.[129][130] Symbols of the Canadian monarchy continue to be featured in, for example, the Arms of Canada, the armed forces, and the prefix His Majesty's Canadian Ship. The designation Royal remains for institutions as varied as the Royal Canadian Armed Forces, Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Royal Winnipeg Ballet.[131][132]


Visual arts[edit]

Tom Thomson, The Jack Pine, Winter 1916–17. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa.

Indigenous artists were producing art in the territory that is now called Canada for thousands of years prior to the arrival of European settler colonists and the eventual establishment of Canada as a nation state.[133] Like the peoples that produced them, indigenous art traditions spanned territories that extended across the current national boundaries between Canada and the United States.[134] The majority of indigenous artworks preserved in museum collections date from the period after European contact and show evidence of the creative adoption and adaptation of European trade goods such as metal and glass beads.[135] Canadian sculpture has been enriched by the walrus ivory, muskox horn and caribou antler and soapstone carvings by the Inuit artists.[136] These carvings show objects and activities from the daily life, myths and legends of the Inuit.[137] Inuit art since the 1950s has been the traditional gift given to foreign dignitaries by the Canadian government.[138]

The works of most early Canadian painters followed European trends.[139] During the mid-19th century, Cornelius Krieghoff, a Dutch-born artist in Quebec, painted scenes of the life of the habitants (French-Canadian farmers). At about the same time, the Canadian artist Paul Kane painted pictures of indigenous life in western Canada. A group of landscape painters called the Group of Seven developed the first distinctly Canadian style of painting, inspired by the works of the legendary landscape painter Tom Thomson.[140] All these artists painted large, brilliantly coloured scenes of the Canadian wilderness.

Since the 1930s, Canadian painters have developed a wide range of highly individual styles. Emily Carr became famous for her paintings of totem poles in British Columbia.[141] Other noted painters have included the landscape artist David Milne, the painters Jean-Paul Riopelle, Harold Town and Charles Carson and multi-media artist Michael Snow. The abstract art group Painters Eleven, particularly the artists William Ronald and Jack Bush, also had an important impact on modern art in Canada.[142] Government support has played a vital role in their development enabling visual exposure through publications and periodicals featuring Canadian art, as has the establishment of numerous art schools and colleges across the country.[143]


Margaret Atwood is a Canadian poet, novelist, literary critic, essayist, inventor, teacher, and environmental activist.

Canadian literature is often divided into French- and English-language literatures, which are rooted in the literary traditions of France and Britain, respectively.[144] Canada's early literature, whether written in English or French, often reflects the Canadian perspective on nature, frontier life, and Canada's position in the world, for example the poetry of Bliss Carman or the memoirs of Susanna Moodie and Catherine Parr Traill. These themes, and Canada's literary history, inform the writing of successive generations of Canadian authors, from Leonard Cohen to Margaret Atwood.

By the mid-20th century, Canadian writers were exploring national themes for Canadian readers. Authors were trying to find a distinctly Canadian voice, rather than merely emulating British or American writers. Canadian identity is closely tied to its literature. The question of national identity recurs as a theme in much of Canada's literature, from Hugh MacLennan's Two Solitudes (1945) to Alistair MacLeod's No Great Mischief (1999). Canadian literature is often categorized by region or province; by the socio-cultural origins of the author (for example, Acadians, indigenous peoples, LGBT, and Irish Canadians); and by literary period, such as "Canadian postmoderns" or "Canadian Poets Between the Wars".

Canadian authors have accumulated numerous international awards.[145] In 1992, Michael Ondaatje became the first Canadian to win the Booker Prize for The English Patient.[146] Margaret Atwood won the Booker in 2000 for The Blind Assassin[147] and Yann Martel won it in 2002 for the Life of Pi.[148] Carol Shields's The Stone Diaries won the Governor General's Awards in Canada in 1993, the 1995 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, and the 1994 National Book Critics Circle Award.[149] In 2013, Alice Munro was the first Canadian to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for her work as "master of the modern short story".[150] Munro is also a recipient of the Man Booker International Prize for her lifetime body of work, and three-time winner of Canada's Governor General's Award for fiction.[151]


Canada has had a thriving stage theatre scene since the late 1800s.[152] Theatre festivals draw many tourists in the summer months, especially the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in Stratford, Ontario, and the Shaw Festival in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. The Famous People Players are only one of many touring companies that have also developed an international reputation.[153] Canada also hosts one of the largest fringe festivals, the Edmonton International Fringe Festival.[154]

A 1904 postcard showing the Grand Opera House and Majestic Theatre, Adelaide Street, in the current Toronto Theatre District

Canada's largest cities host a variety of modern and historical venues. The Toronto Theatre District is Canada's largest, as well as being the third largest English-speaking theatre district in the world.[155] In addition to original Canadian works, shows from the West End and Broadway frequently tour in Toronto. Toronto's Theatre District includes the venerable Roy Thomson Hall; the Princess of Wales Theatre; the Tim Sims Playhouse; The Second City; the Canon Theatre; the Panasonic Theatre; the Royal Alexandra Theatre; historic Massey Hall; and the city's new opera house, the Sony Centre for the Performing Arts.[156] Toronto's Theatre District also includes the Theatre Museum Canada.

Montreal's theatre district ("Quartier des Spectacles") is the scene of performances that are mainly French-language, although the city also boasts a lively anglophone theatre scene, such as the Centaur Theatre.[157] Large French theatres in the city include Théâtre Saint-Denis and Théâtre du Nouveau Monde.[158]

Vancouver is host to, among others, the Vancouver Fringe Festival, the Arts Club Theatre Company, Carousel Theatre, Bard on the Beach, Theatre Under the Stars and Studio 58.[159]

Calgary is home to Theatre Calgary, a mainstream regional theatre; Alberta Theatre Projects, a major centre for new play development in Canada; the Calgary Animated Objects Society; and One Yellow Rabbit, a touring company.[160]

There are three major theatre venues in Ottawa; the Ottawa Little Theatre, originally called the Ottawa Drama League at its inception in 1913, is the longest-running community theatre company in Ottawa.[161] Since 1969, Ottawa has been the home of the National Arts Centre, a major performing-arts venue that houses four stages and is home to the National Arts Centre Orchestra, the Ottawa Symphony Orchestra and Opera Lyra Ottawa.[162] Established in 1975, the Great Canadian Theatre Company specializes in the production of Canadian plays at a local level.[163]


CBC's English-language master control point, the Canadian Broadcasting Centre, in Toronto

Canadian television, especially supported by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation,[164] is the home of a variety of locally produced shows. French-language television, like French Canadian film, is buffered from excessive American influence by the fact of language, and likewise supports a host of home-grown productions.[165] The success of French-language domestic television in Canada often exceeds that of its English-language counterpart. In recent years nationalism has been used to prompt products on television. The I Am Canadian campaign by Molson beer, most notably the commercial featuring Joe Canadian, infused domestically brewed beer and nationalism.[166][167]

Canada's television industry is in full expansion as a site for Hollywood productions.[168] Since the 1980s, Canada, and Vancouver in particular, has become known as Hollywood North.[169] The American TV series Queer as Folk was filmed in Toronto. Canadian producers have been very successful in the field of science fiction since the mid-1990s, with such shows as The X-Files, Stargate SG-1, Highlander: The Series, the new Battlestar Galactica, My Babysitter's a Vampire, Smallville, and The Outer Limits all filmed in Vancouver.[170]

The CRTC's Canadian content regulations dictate that a certain percentage of a domestic broadcaster's transmission time must include content that is produced by Canadians, or covers Canadian subjects.[171] These regulations also apply to US cable television channels such as MTV and the Discovery Channel, which have local versions of their channels available on Canadian cable networks. Similarly, BBC Canada, while showing primarily BBC shows from the United Kingdom, also carries Canadian output.


A number of Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood significantly contributed to the creation of the motion picture industry in the early days of the 20th century.[172] Over the years, many Canadians have made enormous contributions to the American entertainment industry, although they are frequently not recognized as Canadians.[173]

Standard Theatre, 482 Queen Street West, Toronto, 1906

Canada has developed a vigorous film industry that has produced a variety of well-known films and actors.[174] In fact, this eclipsing may sometimes be creditable for the bizarre and innovative directions of some works,[174] such as auteurs Atom Egoyan (The Sweet Hereafter, 1997) and David Cronenberg (The Fly, Naked Lunch, A History of Violence) and the avant-garde work of Michael Snow and Jack Chambers. Also, the distinct French-Canadian society permits the work of directors such as Denys Arcand and Denis Villeneuve, while First Nations cinema includes the likes of Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner. At the 76th Academy Awards, Arcand's The Barbarian Invasions became Canada's first film to win the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.[175]

The National Film Board of Canada is a public agency that produces and distributes films and other audiovisual works which reflect Canada to Canadians and the rest of the world'.[176] Canada has produced many popular documentaries such as The Corporation, Nanook of the North, Final Offer, and Canada: A People's History. The Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF) is considered by many to be one of the most prevalent film festivals for Western cinema. It is the première film festival in North America from which the Oscars race begins.[177]


Ottawa Jazz Festival inside Rideau Centre, 2008

The music of Canada has reflected the multi-cultural influences that have shaped the country. Indigenous, the French, and the British have all made historical contributions to the musical heritage of Canada. The country has produced its own composers, musicians and ensembles since the mid-1600s.[178][179] From the 17th century onward, Canada has developed a music infrastructure that includes church halls; chamber halls; conservatories; academies; performing arts centres; record companies; radio stations, and television music-video channels.[180][181] The music has subsequently been heavily influenced by American culture because of its proximity and migration between the two countries.[182][183][184] Canadian rock has had a considerable impact on the development of modern popular music and the development of the most popular subgenres.[185]

Patriotic music in Canada dates back over 200 years as a distinct category from British patriotism, preceding the first legal steps to independence by over 50 years. The earliest known song, "The Bold Canadian", was written in 1812.[186] The national anthem of Canada, "O Canada" adopted in 1980,[187] was originally commissioned by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable Théodore Robitaille, for the 1880 Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony.[188] Calixa Lavallée wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The text was originally only in French, before English lyrics were written in 1906.[189]

Music broadcasting in the country is regulated by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences presents Canada's music industry awards, the Juno Awards, which were first awarded in a ceremony during the summer of 1970.[190]


A Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) satellite truck, used for live television broadcasts

Canada's media is highly autonomous, uncensored, diverse, and very regionalized.[191][192] The Broadcasting Act declares "the system should serve to safeguard, enrich, and strengthen the cultural, political, social, and economic fabric of Canada".[193] Canada has a well-developed media sector, but its cultural output—particularly in English films, television shows, and magazines—is often overshadowed by imports from the United States.[194] As a result, the preservation of a distinctly Canadian culture is supported by federal government programs, laws, and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).[195]

Canadian mass media, both print and digital, and in both official languages, is largely dominated by a "handful of corporations".[196] The largest of these corporations is the country's national public broadcaster, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, which also plays a significant role in producing domestic cultural content, operating its own radio and TV networks in both English and French.[197] In addition to the CBC, some provincial governments offer their own public educational TV broadcast services as well, such as TVOntario and Télé-Québec.[198]

Non-news media content in Canada, including film and television, is influenced both by local creators as well as by imports from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and France.[199] In an effort to reduce the amount of foreign-made media, government interventions in television broadcasting can include both regulation of content and public financing.[200] Canadian tax laws limit foreign competition in magazine advertising.[201]


Sports in Canada consists of a variety of games. Although there are many contests that Canadians value, the most common are ice hockey, box lacrosse, Canadian football, basketball, soccer, curling, baseball and ringette. All but curling and soccer are considered domestic sports as they were either invented by Canadians or trace their roots to Canada.[202]

Ice hockey being played at McGill University, in Montreal, 1884

Ice hockey, referred to as simply "hockey", is Canada's most prevalent winter sport, its most popular spectator sport, and its most successful sport in international competition. It is Canada's official national winter sport.[203] Lacrosse, a sport with indigenous origins, is Canada's oldest and official summer sport.[203] Canadian football is Canada's second most popular spectator sport,[204] and the Canadian Football League's annual championship, the Grey Cup, is the country's largest annual sports event.[205]

While other sports have a larger spectator base, association football, known in Canada as soccer in both English and French, has the most registered players of any team sport in Canada, and is the most played sport with all demographics, including ethnic origin, ages and genders.[206] Professional teams exist in many cities in Canada – with a trio of teams in North America's top pro league, Major League Soccer – and international soccer competitions such as the FIFA World Cup, UEFA Euro and the UEFA Champions League attract some of the biggest audiences in Canada.[207] Other popular team sports include curling, street hockey, cricket, rugby league, rugby union, softball and Ultimate frisbee. Popular individual sports include auto racing, boxing, karate, kickboxing, hunting, sport shooting, fishing, cycling, golf, hiking, horse racing, ice skating, skiing, snowboarding, swimming, triathlon, disc golf, water sports, and several forms of wrestling.

As a country with a generally cool climate, Canada has enjoyed greater success at the Winter Olympics than at the Summer Olympics, although significant regional variations in climate allow for a wide variety of both team and individual sports. Great achievements in Canadian sports are recognized by Canada's Sports Hall of Fame,[208] while the Lou Marsh Trophy is awarded annually to Canada's top athlete by a panel of journalists.[209] There are numerous other Sports Halls of Fame in Canada.[208]


A small sampling of Canadian foods. Clockwise from top left: Montreal-style smoked meat; maple syrup; poutine; Nanaimo bar; butter tart; and peameal bacon.

Canadian cuisine varies widely depending on the region. The former Canadian prime minister Joe Clark has been paraphrased to have noted: "Canada has a cuisine of cuisines. Not a stew pot, but a smorgasbord."[210] While there are considerable overlaps between Canadian food and the rest of the cuisine in North America, many unique dishes (or versions of certain dishes) are found and available only in the country. Common contenders for the Canadian national food include poutine[211][212][213] and butter tarts.[214][215] Other popular Canadian made foods include indigenous fried bread bannock, French tourtière, Kraft Dinner, ketchup chips, date squares, nanaimo bars, back bacon, the caesar cocktail and many many more.[216] The Canadian province of Quebec is the birthplace and world's largest producer of maple syrup,[217] The Montreal-style bagel and Montreal-style smoked meat are both food items originally developed by Jewish communities living in Quebec [218]

The three earliest cuisines of Canada have First Nations, English, and French roots. The indigenous population of Canada often have their own traditional cuisine. The cuisines of English Canada are closely related to British and American cuisine. Finally, the traditional cuisines of French Canada have evolved from 16th-century French cuisine because of the tough conditions of colonial life and the winter provisions of Coureur des bois.[219] With subsequent waves of immigration in the 18th and 19th century from Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe, and then from Asia, Africa and Caribbean, the regional cuisines were subsequently affected.[219]

Public opinion data on culture[edit]

A 2022 web survey by the Association for Canadian Studies found that an absolute majority of respondents in all provinces except Alberta disagreed with the statement that "there is only one Canadian culture". Most respondents didn't choose what music to listen to based on whether or not the artist was Canadian. While half of Quebeckers and more than one third of respondents in the rest of Canada agreed that "I worry about preserving my culture" at the same time 60% of respondents agreed that "If a Canadian artist is good enough, they will become discovered without the need for specific Canadian content rules". Forty-six percent of respondents had no favourite Canadian musical artist. Rock, pop, and country music were the most popular genres of music, with above twenty percent fan bases in all age categories, but with hip-hop also appealing to more than twenty percent in the youngest cohort (18–35 years old). Film genre preferences were largely as the same across age categories, with comedies and action films the most popular, except that only one percent of older people (>55 years old) were fans of animated movies compared to eleven percent in young adults, while older adults showed a strong preference for dramas compared to younger people. Three out of four respondents could not name a single Canadian visual artist, living or dead.[220]

Outside views[edit]

In a 2002 interview with the Globe and Mail, Aga Khan, the 49th Imam of the Ismaili Muslims, described Canada as "the most successful pluralist society on the face of our globe",[221] citing it as "a model for the world".[222] A 2007 poll ranked Canada as the country with the most positive influence in the world. 28,000 people in 27 countries were asked to rate 12 countries as either having a positive or negative worldwide influence. Canada's overall influence rating topped the list with 54 per cent of respondents rating it mostly positive and only 14 per cent mostly negative.[223] A global opinion poll for the BBC saw Canada ranked the second most positively viewed nation in the world (behind Germany) in 2013 and 2014.[224][225]

The United States is home to a number of perceptions about Canadian culture, due to the countries' partially shared heritage and the relatively large number of cultural features common to both the US and Canada.[226] For example, the average Canadian may be perceived as more reserved than his or her American counterpart.[227] Canada and the United States are often inevitably compared as sibling countries, and the perceptions that arise from this oft-held contrast have gone to shape the advertised worldwide identities of both nations: the United States is seen as the rebellious child of the British Crown, forged in the fires of violent revolution; Canada is the calmer offspring of the United Kingdom, known for a more relaxed national demeanour.[228][229]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Loue, Sana; Sajatovic, Martha (2011). Encyclopedia of Immigrant Health. Springer. p. 337. ISBN 978-1-4419-5655-2.
  2. ^ Magocsi, Paul R.; Multicultural History Society of Ontario (1999). Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. University of Toronto Press. pp. 1186–1187. ISBN 978-0-8020-2938-6.
  3. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1999). Economic and cultural transition towards a learning city: the case of Jena. OECD Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 978-92-64-17015-5.
  4. ^ Ricks, Christopher; Michaels, Leonard (1990). The State of the language. University of California Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-520-05906-1.
  5. ^ Anne-Marie Mooney Cotter (2011). Culture clash: an international legal perspective on ethnic discrimination. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-4094-1936-5.
  6. ^ Johnson, Azeezat; Joseph-Salisbury, Remi; Kamunge, Beth (2018). The Fire Now: Anti-Racist Scholarship in Times of Explicit Racial Violence. Zed Books. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-78699-382-3.
  7. ^ Petty, Sheila; Sherbert, Garry; Gérin, Annie (2006). Canadian Cultural Poesis: Essays on Canadian Culture. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. p. 348. ISBN 978-0-88920-486-7.
  8. ^ Hollifield, James; Martin, Philip L.; Orrenius, Pia (2014). Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective, Third Edition. Stanford University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-8047-8735-2.
  9. ^ Bricker, Darrell; Wright, John; Ipsos-Reid (Firm) (2005). What Canadians think- about almost- everything. Doubleday Canada. pp. 8–20. ISBN 978-0-385-65985-7.
  10. ^ "Examples of Charter-related cases - Canada's System of Justice". Department of Justice - Government of Canada. 2018. Archived from the original on October 31, 2019. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  11. ^ The Environics Institute (2010). "Focus Canada (Final Report)" (PDF). Queen's University. p. 4 (PDF page 8). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 4, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  12. ^ "Exploring Canadian values" (PDF). Nanos Research. October 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  13. ^ National Film Board of Canada (2005). "Mandate of the National Film Board". Archived from the original on April 21, 2006. Retrieved March 15, 2006.
  14. ^ Harrison, Trevor W.; Friesen, John W. (2010). Canadian Society in the Tw.enty-first Century: An Historical Sociological Approach. Canadian Scholars’ Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-55130-371-0.
  15. ^ Preston, David L. (2009). The Texture of Contact: European and Indian Settler Communities on the Frontiers of Iroquoia, 1667–1783. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-8032-2549-7. Archived from the original on March 16, 2023. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
  16. ^ J.R. Miller (2009). Compact, Contract, Covenant: Aboriginal Treaty-Making in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-4426-9227-5. Archived from the original on March 16, 2023. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
  17. ^ Newhouse, David. "Hidden in Plain Sight Aboriginal Contributions to Canada and Canadian Identity Creating a new Indian Problem" (PDF). Centre of Canadian Studies, University of Edinburgh. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  18. ^ a b "Aboriginal place names contribute to a rich tapestry". Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Archived from the original on February 10, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  19. ^ Hudson, John C. (2002). Across this land: a regional geography of the United States and Canada. JHU Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-8018-6567-1.
  20. ^ a b c Powell, John (2009). Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Infobase Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4381-1012-7.
  21. ^ R. Douglas Francis, ed. (November 1, 2011). Canada and the British World: Culture, Migration, and Identity. UBC Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7748-4031-6.
  22. ^ Christopher Edward Taucar (2002). Canadian Federalism and Quebec Sovereignty. Vol. 47. American university studies: Political science. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-0-8204-6242-4.
  23. ^ Thompson, Wayne C. (2013). Canada World Today. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-4758-0474-4.
  24. ^ Robinson, Guy M. (1991). A Social geography of Canada. Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-55002-092-2.
  25. ^ Kivisto, Peter (2008). Multiculturalism in a Global Society. John Wiley & Sons. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-470-69480-0.
  26. ^ Patricia E.. Bromley (2011). Human Rights, Diversity, and National Identity: Changes in Civic Education Textbooks Cross-nationally (1970–2008) and in British Columbia (1871–2008). Stanford University. pp. 107–108. STANFORD:XT006FZ3167.
  27. ^ Ksenych, Edward; Liu, David (2001). Conflict, order and action: readings in sociology. Canadian Scholars' Press. p. 407. ISBN 978-1-55130-192-1.
  28. ^ "Immigration Policy in the 1970s". Canadian Heritage (Multicultural Canada). 2004. Archived from the original on November 5, 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  29. ^ a b "2006 Census release topics". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on September 30, 2019. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  30. ^ "Canada in the Making: Pioneers and Immigrants". The History Channel. August 25, 2005. Archived from the original on January 21, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2006.
  31. ^ Blad, Cory (September 23, 2011). Neoliberalism and National Culture: State-Building and Legitimacy in Canada and Québec. BRILL. pp. 62–. ISBN 978-90-04-21111-7.
  32. ^ Suzanne Morton, "Leisure," Oxford Companion to Canadian History (2006) pp 355–56.
  33. ^ George Karlis, Leisure and recreation in Canadian society: An introduction (2011).
  34. ^ Gerald Redmond, "Some Aspects of Organized Sport and Leisure in Nineteenth-Century Canada." Loisir et société/Society and Leisure 2#1 (1979): 71–100.
  35. ^ Cameron, Elspeth (1997). Canadian Culture: An Introductory Reader. Canadian Scholars’ Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-55130-090-0.
  36. ^ Brown, Dave (1989). "The Northern Character Theme and Sport in Nineteenth Century Canada". Canadian Journal of History of Sport. 20 (1): 47–56. doi:10.1123/cjhs.20.1.47.
  37. ^ Lynne Sorrel Marks (1996). Revivals and Roller Rinks: Religion, Leisure, and Identity in Late-nineteenth-century Small-town Ontario. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9780802078001.
  38. ^ The Piano Concerto In Canada, 1900–1980 a bibliographic survey. by Zuk, Ireneus. Baltimore, Md. Peabody Institute, 1985. 429 p. (Ref ML128 .P3Z85 1985t)
  39. ^ Making Music: Profiles from a Century of Canadian Music, Alex Barris and Ted Barris. Toronto: HarperCollins, 2001.
  40. ^ Canadian news facts v. 35 no. 22 (15 December 2001. ISSN 0008-4565
  41. ^ Lorenz, Stacy L. (2000). ""A Lively Interest on the Prairies": Western Canada, the Mass Media, and a 'World of Sport,' 1870–1939". Journal of Sports History. 27 (2): 195–227.
  42. ^ Robidoux, Michael A. (Spring 2002). "Imagining a Canadian Identity through Sport: A Historical Interpretation of Lacrosse and Hockey". The Journal of American Folklore. 115 (456): 209–225. doi:10.1353/jaf.2002.0021. JSTOR 4129220. S2CID 144703704.
  43. ^ "Quebec". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press. 2003. Archived from the original on January 2, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2006.
  44. ^ "American Civil war". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Founcation. 2003. Archived from the original on May 24, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2006.
  45. ^ François Vaillancourt, Olivier Coche (2009). Official Language Policies at the Federal Level in Canada:costs and Benefits in 2006. The Fraser Institute. p. 11. GGKEY:B3Y7U7SKGUD.
  46. ^ a b Linteau, Paul André; Durocher, René; Robert, Jean-Claude (1983). Quebec, a history, 1867–1929. James Lorimer & Company. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-88862-604-2.
  47. ^ a b Kosel, Jochen (2010). The Language Situation in Canada with Special Regard to Quebec. GRIN Verlag. p. 15. ISBN 978-3-640-65926-5.
  48. ^ Church, Joan; Schulze, Christian; Strydom, Hennie (2007). Human rights from a comparative and international law perspective. Unisa Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-86888-361-5.
  49. ^ MacLennan, Christopher (2004). Toward the Charter: Canadians and the Demand for a National Bill of Rights, 1929–1960. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-7735-2536-8.
  50. ^ Black-Branch, Jonathan L.; Canadian Education Association (1995). Making Sense of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Canadian Education Association. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-920315-78-1.
  51. ^ Duncan, James S.; Ley, David (1993). Place/culture/representation. Routledge. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-0-415-09451-1.
  52. ^ Linda Silver Dranoff (2011). Every Canadian's Guide to the Law: Fourth Edition. HarperCollins Canada. pp. 373–. ISBN 978-1-4434-0559-1. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  53. ^ Paul Ubaldo Angelini (2011). Our Society: Human Diversity in Canada. Cengage Learning. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-17-650354-3.
  54. ^ Steinberg, Shirley R. (2009). Diversity and Multiculturalism. Peter Lang. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-4331-0345-2.
  55. ^ Westhues, Anne; Wharf, Brian (2014). Canadian Social Policy: Issues and Perspectives. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-1-55458-409-3.
  56. ^ Johnson, David (2016). Thinking Government: Public Administration and Politics in Canada, Fourth Edition. University of Toronto Press. pp. 13–23. ISBN 978-1-4426-3521-0. Archived from the original on March 31, 2023. Retrieved October 29, 2018. ...most Canadian governments, especially at the federal level, have taken a moderate, centrist approach to decision making, seeking to balance growth, stability, and governmental efficiency and economy...
  57. ^ "Plurality-Majority Electoral Systems: A Review". Elections Canada. August 27, 2018. Archived from the original on September 12, 2019. Retrieved October 29, 2018. First Past the Post in Canada has favoured broadly-based, accommodative, centrist parties...
  58. ^ Ambrosea, Emma; Muddea, Cas (2015). "Canadian Multiculturalism and the Absence of the Far Right – Nationalism and Ethnic Politics". Nationalism and Ethnic Politics. 21 (2): 213–236. doi:10.1080/13537113.2015.1032033. S2CID 145773856.
  59. ^ Taub, Amanda (2017). "Canada's Secret to Resisting the West's Populist Wave". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 1, 2022.
  60. ^ Dixon, John; Scheurell, Robert P. (March 17, 2016). Social Welfare in Developed Market Countries. Routledge. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-1-317-36677-5.
  61. ^ a b Evans, Geoffrey; de Graaf, Nan Dirk (2013). Political Choice Matters: Explaining the Strength of Class and Religious Cleavages in Cross-National Perspective. OUP Oxford. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-0-19-966399-6.
  62. ^ Baumer, Donald C.; Gold, Howard J. (2015). Parties, Polarization and Democracy in the United States. Taylor & Francis. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-317-25478-2. Archived from the original on March 31, 2023. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  63. ^ Bittner, Amanda; Koop, Royce (March 1, 2013). Parties, Elections, and the Future of Canadian Politics. UBC Press. p. 300. ISBN 978-0-7748-2411-8. Archived from the original on March 31, 2023. Retrieved October 29, 2018. Domination by the Centre The central anomaly of the Canadian system, and the primary cause of its other peculiarities, has been its historical domination by a party of the centre. In none of the other countries is a centre party even a major player, much less the dominant....
  64. ^ O'Connor, Brendon (2007). Anti-Americanism: Comparative perspectives. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-84645-026-6.
  65. ^ Russell, Peter H. (2004). Constitutional odyssey: can Canadians become a sovereign people?. University of Toronto Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-8020-3777-0.
  66. ^ Clift, Dominique (1982). Quebec nationalism in crisis. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 106–108. ISBN 978-0-7735-0383-0.
  67. ^ John Carlos Rowe (2010). A Concise Companion to American Studies. John Wiley and Sons. p. 393. ISBN 978-1-4051-0924-6.
  68. ^ Raboy, Marc (1990). Missed opportunities: the story of Canada's broadcasting policy. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 301. ISBN 978-0-7735-0775-3.
  69. ^ Gutiérrez-Haces, Maria Teresa (November 6, 2018). Identity and Otherness in Canadian Foreign Policy. Collection internationale d'Études canadiennes | International Canadian Studies Series. University of Ottawa Press. pp. 231–250. ISBN 978-0-7766-2722-9. Archived from the original on March 4, 2024. Retrieved March 4, 2024.
  70. ^ Carroll, Michael K (2016). "Peacekeeping: Canada's past, but not its present and future?". International Journal. 71 (1). [Sage Publications, Ltd., Canadian International Council]: 167–176. doi:10.1177/0020702015619857. ISSN 0020-7020. JSTOR 44631172. Archived from the original on February 28, 2024. Retrieved February 28, 2024.
  71. ^ "Canada's Current Role in World" (PDF). Environics Institute for Survey Research. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2024. Retrieved March 4, 2024.
  72. ^ Edgar, Alistair D. (2002). "Canada's changing participation in international peacekeeping and peace enforcement: What, if anything, does it mean?". Canadian Foreign Policy Journal. 10 (1): 107–117. doi:10.1080/11926422.2002.9673309. ISSN 1192-6422.
  73. ^ Keating, T.F. (2002). Canada and World Order: The Multilateralist Tradition in Canadian Foreign Policy. Oxford University Press. pp. 108, 112. ISBN 978-0-19-541529-2.
  74. ^ Whitworth, S. (2004). Men, Militarism, and UN Peacekeeping: A Gendered Analysis. Critical security studies. Lynne Rienner Pub. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-58826-296-7. Archived from the original on March 15, 2024. Retrieved March 5, 2024.
  75. ^ Gabryś, M.; Soroka, T. (2017). Canada as a selective power: Canada's Role and International Position after 1989. Societas. Neriton, Wydawnictwo. p. 40. ISBN 978-83-7638-792-5.
  76. ^ Fred Gaffen (1987). In The Eye of The Storm: A History of Canadian Peacekeeping. Deneau & Wayne Publishers. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-88879-160-3.
  77. ^ Juneau, T.; Momani, B. (2022). Middle Power in the Middle East: Canada's Foreign and Defence Policies in a Changing Region. University of Toronto Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-4875-2847-8.
  78. ^ a b c d Massie, Justin (April 30, 2019). "Why Canada Goes to War: Explaining Combat Participation in US-led Coalitions". Canadian Journal of Political Science. 52 (3). Cambridge University Press (CUP): 575–594. doi:10.1017/s0008423919000040. ISSN 0008-4239.
  79. ^ a b c d Mingst, K.; Karns, M.P. (2019). The United Nations In The Post-cold War Era, Second Edition. Taylor & Francis. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-000-30674-3.
  80. ^ McKay, Ian (2005). Rebels, Reds, Radicals: Rethinking Canada's Left History. Between The Lines. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-896357-97-3.
  81. ^ "Provincial and Territorial Ranking". Archived from the original on September 26, 2022. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
  82. ^ Government of Canada (October 2015). "Canadian Identity, 2013". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on May 7, 2018. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  83. ^ "The Health of Canadians – The Federal Role". 17.2 Universality: Parliament of Canada. Archived from the original on January 17, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  84. ^ Sniderman, Paul M.; Fletcher, Joseph F.; Tetlock, Philip E. (1996). The Clash of Rights: Liberty, Equality, and Legitimacy in Pluralist Democracy. Yale University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-300-06981-5.
  85. ^ Pierre Elliott Trudeau (1993). Memoirs. McClelland & Stewart. pp. 322–323. ISBN 978-0-7710-8588-8.
  86. ^ Doug Baer, et al. "The values of Canadians and Americans: A critical analysis and reassessment Archived May 22, 2019, at the Wayback Machine". Social Forces 68.3 (1990): 693-713.
  87. ^ Seymour Martin Lipset (1991). Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada. Psychology Press. pp. 42–50. ISBN 978-0-415-90385-1.
  88. ^ MacDonald, Neil (September 13, 2016). "A very short list of Canadian values: Neil Macdonald". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on December 31, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  89. ^ Denis Stairs (2003), "Myths, Morals, and Reality in Canadian Foreign Policy Archived May 24, 2019, at the Wayback Machine" International Journal Vol. 58, No. 22. pp. 239-256 DOI:10.2307/40203840
  90. ^ MacGregor, p.39
  91. ^ DeRocco, David; Chabot, John F. (2008). From Sea to Sea to Sea: A Newcomer's Guide to Canada. Full Blast Productions. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-9784738-4-6.
  92. ^ Franklin, Daniel; Baun, Michael J. (1995). Political culture and constitutionalism: a comparative approach. M.E. Sharpe. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-56324-416-2.
  93. ^ English, Allan D. (2004). Understanding Military Culture: A Canadian Perspective. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-7735-7171-6.
  94. ^ Burgess, Ann Carroll; Burgess, Tom (2005). Guide to Western Canada. Globe Pequot Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-7627-2987-6.[permanent dead link]
  95. ^ Saunders, Philip (April 2002). "The Charter at 20". CBC News Online. CBC/Radio-Canada. Archived from the original on March 7, 2006. Retrieved March 17, 2006.
  96. ^ Trudeau, P.E. (1993). Memoirs. McClelland & Stewart. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-7710-8588-8.
  97. ^ Blattberg, Charles (2013). ""Canadian Identity" and "Canadian Identity and Language"". University of Montreal. SSRN 2238333. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  98. ^ Gwyn, Richard J. (2008). John A: The Man Who Made Us. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-679-31476-9.
  99. ^ Cohen, Andrew (2008). The Unfinished Canadian: The People We Are. McClelland & Stewart. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-0-7710-2286-9.
  100. ^ Hines, Pamela (August 2018). The Trumping of America: A Wake Up Call to the Free World. FriesenPress. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-5255-0934-6. -Pierre Elliott Trudeau, as cited in The Essential Trudeau, ed. Ron Graham. (pp.16 – 20)
  101. ^ Foran, Charles (January 4, 2017). "The Canada experiment: is this the world's first 'postnational' country?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved December 4, 2023.
  102. ^ Marger, Martin N. (2011). Race and Ethnic Relations: American and Global Perspectives. Cengage Learning. p. 433. ISBN 978-1-111-18638-8.
  103. ^ Steven Alexander Kennett (1998). Securing the Social Union: A Commentary on the Decentralized Approach. IIGR, Queen's University. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-88911-767-9.
  104. ^ "The Daily — Canadian identity, 2013". October 2015. Archived from the original on May 3, 2018. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
  105. ^ Wesley, Jared J. (2011). Code Politics: Campaigns and Cultures on the Canadian Prairies. UBC Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-7748-2077-6.
  106. ^ "Western Canadians still feel more connected to their province than to country as a whole: Ipsos -". October 8, 2018. Archived from the original on May 12, 2019. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  107. ^ Blake, Raymond B. (2007). Transforming the Nation: Canada and Brian Mulroney. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. pp. 265–267. ISBN 978-0-7735-3214-4.
  108. ^ Gilmore, Scott (May 8, 2019). "Canada: A nation of strangers". Maclean's. Archived from the original on August 14, 2021. Retrieved July 3, 2019. Canada: A nation of strangers: Canadians don't often move out of their birth province. We vacation elsewhere. We barely know each other. We're now unable to muster national responses to big issues
  109. ^ Scobie, Stephen "Humorous Writing in English" Archived September 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved on: April 23, 2010.
  110. ^ Lacombe, Michelle "Humorous Writing in French" Archived September 1, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved on: April 23, 2010.
  111. ^ Owram, Doug (1997). Born at the right time: a history of the baby-boom generation. University of Toronto Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8020-8086-8.
  112. ^ Boberg, Charles (2010). The English Language in Canada: Status, History and Comparative Analysis. Cambridge University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-521-87432-8.
  113. ^ New, William H. (2002). Encyclopedia of literature in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 516. ISBN 978-0-8020-0761-2.
  114. ^ Nieguth, Tim (2015). The Politics of Popular Culture: Negotiating Power, Identity, and Place. MQUP. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-7735-9685-6.
  115. ^ Serra Ayse Tinic (2005). On location: Canada's television industry in a global market. University of Toronto Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-8020-8548-1.
  116. ^ Brooks, Stephen (2002). The challenge of cultural pluralism. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-275-97001-7.
  117. ^ Murray, Gil (2003). Nothing on but the radio: a look back at radio in Canada and how it changed the world. Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-55002-479-1.
  118. ^ Doug Hill, Jeff Weingrad (December 15, 2011). Saturday Night: A Backstage History of Saturday Night Life. Untreed Reads. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-61187-218-7.
  119. ^ a b Charney, Maurice (2005). Comedy: a geographic and historical guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 210–213. ISBN 978-0-313-32714-8.
  120. ^ "Organisation Members". Cultural Human Resources Council. 2010. Archived from the original on November 13, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  121. ^ John Robert Colombo (2001). 1000 questions about Canada: places, people, things, and ideas : a question-and-answer book on Canadian facts and culture. Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-88882-232-1.
  122. ^ Stebbins, Robert A. (1990). The laugh-makers: stand-up comedy as art, business, and life-style. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-7735-0735-7.
  123. ^ "History". The Canadian Comedy Awards & Festival. 2012. Archived from the original on February 1, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  124. ^ "National Horse of Canada Act". Archived from the original on January 11, 2009. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  125. ^ "The beaver". December 17, 2008. Archived from the original on December 26, 2018. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  126. ^ "The Maple Leaf". November 17, 2008. Archived from the original on December 22, 2013. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  127. ^ Phillip Alfred Buckner (2005). Canada and the end of empire. UBC Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-7748-0916-0.
  128. ^ Canadian Heritage (2002). Symbols of andCanada. Canadian Government Publishing. ISBN 978-0-660-18615-3. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  129. ^ a b Sociology in Action, Canadian Edition, 2nd ed. Nelson Education-McGraw-Hill Education. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-17-672841-0.
  130. ^ Hutchins, Donna; Hutchins, Nigel (2006). The Maple Leaf Forever: A Celebration of Canadian Symbols. Erin: The Boston Mills Press. p. iix intro. ISBN 978-1-55046-474-0.
  131. ^ Murray, Douglas J.; Viotti, Paul R. (1994). The defense policies of nations: a comparative study. JHU Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-8018-4794-3.
  132. ^ "Restoration of traditional military service names welcomed". Government of New Brunswick (Intergovernmental Affairs Office of the Premier). 2011. Archived from the original on August 19, 2011. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
  133. ^ Phillips, Ruth B. (2011). Museum Pieces: Toward the Indigenization of Canadian Museums. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-7735-3905-1.
  134. ^ Friesen, John W.; Friesen, Virginia Agnes Lyons (2006). Canadian Aboriginal Art and Spirituality: A Vital Link. Calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprises. pp. xxi–Intro. ISBN 9781550593044. OCLC 62129850.
  135. ^ J. Russell Harper (1977). Painting in Canada: a history. University of Toronto Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8020-6307-6.
  136. ^ Förg, Nicola (1999). Canada: Pacific coast, the Rockies, Prairie Provinces, and the Territories. Hunter Publishing, Inc. p. 233. ISBN 978-3-88618-368-5.
  137. ^ Patricia Randolph Leigh (2010). International Exploration of Technology Equity and the Digital Divide: Critical, Historical and Social Perspectives. Idea Group Inc (IGI). p. 93. ISBN 978-1-61520-793-0.
  138. ^ Stern, Pamela R. (2010). Daily life of the Inuit. ABC-CLIO. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-313-36311-5.
  139. ^ Dalal, Roshen (2011). The Illustrated Timeline of the History of the World. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-4488-4797-6.
  140. ^ Jessup, Lynda (2001). Antimodernism and artistic experience: policing the boundaries of modernity. University of Toronto Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-8020-8354-8.
  141. ^ MacDonald, Cheryl (2009). Celebrated Pets: Endearing Tales of Companionship and Loyalty. Heritage House Publishing Co. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-1-894974-81-3.
  142. ^ Nowell, Iris (2011). Painters Eleven: The Wild Ones of Canadian Art. Douglas & McIntyre. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-55365-590-9.
  143. ^ Corse, Sarah M. (1997). Nationalism and literature: the politics of culture in Canada and the United States. Cambridge University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-521-57912-4.
  144. ^ W. J. Keith (2006). Canadian literature in English. The Porcupine's Quill. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-88984-283-0.
  145. ^ "Robert Fulford's column about the international success of Canadian literature". June 6, 2001. Archived from the original on March 1, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  146. ^ Brackett, Mary Virginia; Gaydosik, Victoria (2006). The Facts on File Companion to the British Novel: Beginnings through the 19th century. Infobase Publishing. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-8160-5133-5.
  147. ^ Hengen, Shannon Eileen; Thomson, Ashley (2007). Margaret Atwood: a reference guide, 1988–2005. Scarecrow Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-8108-5904-3.
  148. ^ Martel, Yann (2010). Beatrice and Virgil. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-8129-8197-1.
  149. ^ Abby H. P. Werlock (2001). Carol Shields's The stone diaries: a reader's guide. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-8264-5249-8.
  150. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature 2013" (PDF) (Press release). 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
  151. ^ Gaunce, Julia; Mayr, Suzette; LePan, Don; Mather, Marjorie; Miller, Bryanne (July 25, 2012). The Broadview Anthology of Short Fiction, second edition. Broadview Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-1-55481-076-5.
  152. ^ Osnes, Beth (2001). Acting: an International encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-87436-795-9.
  153. ^ Guek Cheng Pang (2004). Canada. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-0-7614-1788-0.
  154. ^ Guek Cheng Pang (2004). Canada. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 121–. ISBN 978-0-7614-1788-0.
  155. ^ Angelini, Paul Ubaldo (2011). Our Society: Human Diversity in Canada. Cengage Learning. p. 34. ISBN 9780176503543.
  156. ^ "Toronto Theatre District". Archived from the original on December 24, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  157. ^ "Discover". Quartier des spectacles. Archived from the original on January 29, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  158. ^ Juilliard, Laure (July 26, 2017). "Handy guide to Montréal's theatres". Tourisme Montréal. Archived from the original on January 19, 2019. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  159. ^ "Theatre Links". Theatre BC. Archived from the original on March 23, 2013. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
  160. ^ "2011 Operating Grant Recipients" (PDF). Calgary Arts Development (CADA). 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 15, 2013. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
  161. ^ Hale, James (2011). Frommer's Ottawa. John Wiley and Sons. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-470-68158-9.
  162. ^ "NAC History | National Arts Centre". March 17, 1970. Archived from the original on June 21, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  163. ^ "Great Canadian Theatre Company". Canadian Theatre Encyclopedia. January 13, 2011. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  164. ^ Petersen, Julie K. (2002). The telecommunications illustrated dictionary. CRC Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-8493-1173-4.
  165. ^ James, Patrick; Kasoff, Mark J. (2008). Canadian Studies in the New Millennium. University of Toronto Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-8020-9468-1.
  166. ^ José Eduardo Igartua (2006). The other quiet revolution: national identities in English Canada, 1945–71. UBC Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-7748-1088-3.
  167. ^ "I. AM. CANADIAN! by Molson - CBC Archives". Archived from the original on August 20, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  168. ^ Mosco, Vincent; Schiller, Dan (2001). Continental order?: integrating North America for cybercapitalism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-7425-0954-2.
  169. ^ Punter, John (2003). The Vancouver achievement: urban planning and design. UBC Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7748-0971-9.
  170. ^ Resnick, Mike (2007). Nebula Awards Showcase 2007. Penguin. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-4406-2261-8.
  171. ^ Blumler, Jay G.; T. J. Nossiter (1991). Broadcasting Finance in Transition: A Comparative Handbook. Oxford University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-19-505089-9.
  172. ^ Rasmussen, Dana (2011). Canada's Influence on the Film Industry: Canada's Pioneers in Early Hollywood. BiblioBazaar. pp. iix (intro).
  173. ^ Foster, Charles (2000). Stardust and shadows: Canadians in early Hollywood. Dundurn Press Ltd. pp. 27–34. ISBN 978-1-55002-348-0.
  174. ^ a b Gorham Anders Kindem (2000). The international movie industry. SIU Press (reprint). pp. 304–307. ISBN 978-0-8093-2299-2.
  175. ^ Fraser, Graham (2007). Sorry, I Don't Speak French: Confronting the Canadian Crisis That Won't Go Away. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-7710-4767-1.
  176. ^ Ferlie, Ewan; Lynn, Laurence E.; Pollitt, Christopher (2007). The Oxford handbook of public management. Oxford Handbooks Online. p. 457. ISBN 978-0-19-922644-3.
  177. ^ "Toronto International Film Festival". Archived from the original on February 3, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  178. ^ Music in Canada 1600–1800. by Amtmann, Willy. Cambridge, Ont. : Habitex Books, 1975. 320 p.(ISBN 0-88912-020-X)
  179. ^ La Musique au Québec 1600–1875. by Michelle Pharand. Montreal: Les Éditions de l'Homme (1976) (ISBN 0-7759-0517-8)
  180. ^ Morey, Carl (1997). Music in Canada: a research and information guide. Garland Pub. pp. ??. ISBN 978-0-8153-1603-9.
  181. ^ "The history of broadcasting in Canada". The Canadian Communications Foundation. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2009.
  182. ^ Profiles of Canada. edited by Kenneth G. Pryke, Walter C. Soderlund. Boulder, Colo. : NetLibrary, 2000.(ISBN 0-585-27925-X)
  183. ^ "History of Canada in music". Historica Foundation of Canada. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
  184. ^ Canadian Music: Issues of Hegemony & Identity, eds Beveley Diamond & Robert Witmer. Canadian Scholars Press, 1994.
  185. ^ Nicks, Joan; Sloniowski, Jeannette (2002). Slippery pastimes: reading the popular in Canadian culture. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-88920-388-4.
  186. ^ Jortner, Adam (2011). The Gods of Prophetstown: The Battle of Tippecanoe and the Holy War for the American Frontier. Oxford University Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-19-976529-4.
  187. ^ Government of Canada (June 23, 2008). "Hymne national du Canada". Canadian Heritage. Government of Canada. Archived from the original on January 29, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
  188. ^ "O Canada". Historica-Dominion. Archived from the original on August 4, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
  189. ^ "Hymne national du Canada". Canadian Heritage. June 23, 2008. Archived from the original on January 29, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
  190. ^ Edwardson, Ryan (2008). Canadian content, culture and the quest for nationhood. University of Toronto Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-8020-9759-0.
  191. ^ Fry, H (2017). Disruption: Change and churning in Canada's media landscape (PDF) (Report). Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  192. ^ "Freedom of expression and media freedom". GAC. February 17, 2020.
  193. ^ Bannerman, Sara (May 20, 2020). Canadian Communication Policy and Law. Canadian Scholars. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-77338-172-5.
  194. ^ Vipond, Mary (2011). The Mass Media in Canada (4th ed.). James Lorimer Company. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-55277-658-2.
  195. ^ Edwardson, Ryan (2008). Canadian Content: Culture and the Quest for Nationhood. University of Toronto Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-8020-9519-0.
  196. ^ Taras, David; Bakardjieva, Maria; Pannekoek, Frits, eds. (2007). How Canadians Communicate II: Media, Globalization, and Identity. University of Calgary Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-55238-224-0.
  197. ^ Taras, David; Bakardjieva, Maria; Pannekoek, Frits, eds. (2007). How Canadians Communicate II: Media, Globalization, and Identity. University of Calgary Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-55238-224-0.
  198. ^ Globerman, Steven (1983). Cultural Regulation in Canada. Institute for Research on Public Policy. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-920380-81-9.
  199. ^ Steven, Peter (2011). About Canada: Media. Fernwood. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-55266-447-6.
  200. ^ Beaty, Bart; Sullivan, Rebecca (2006). Canadian Television Today. University of Calgary Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-55238-222-6.
  201. ^ Krikorian, Jacqueline (2012). International Trade Law and Domestic Policy: Canada, the United States, and the WTO. UBC Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-7748-2306-7.
  202. ^ Morrow, Don; Wamsley, Kevin B. (2013). Sport in Canada: A History. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-0-19-544672-2.
  203. ^ a b Kidd, Bruce (1996). The struggle for Canadian sport. University of Toronto Press. pp. 189–. ISBN 978-0-8020-7664-9.
  204. ^ Canadian Press (June 9, 2006). "Canadians prefer CFL over NFL". Globe and Mail. Canada. Archived from the original on October 3, 2022. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  205. ^ Wong, Glenn M. (2009). The comprehensive guide to careers in sports. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-7637-2884-7.
  206. ^ "Canada's hockey obsession leading to burnout among young players". September 16, 2008. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
  207. ^ "World Cup TV ratings and soccer championships show huge rise". CBC News. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
  208. ^ a b Danilov, Victor J. (1997). Hall of fame museums: a reference guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-313-30000-4.
  209. ^ Zawadzki, Edward (2001). The Ultimate Canadian Sports Trivia Book. Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-88882-237-6.
  210. ^ Pandi, George (April 5, 2008), "Let's eat Canadian, but is there really a national dish?", The Gazette (Montreal), archived from the original on August 23, 2012, retrieved November 7, 2011 Also published as "Canadian cuisine a smorgasbord of regional flavours Archived August 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine"
  211. ^ Trillin, Calvin (November 23, 2009), "Canadian Journal, 'Funny Food'", The New Yorker, pp. 68–70
  212. ^ Wong, Grace (October 2, 2010), Canada's national dish: 740 calories—and worth every bite?, CNN, archived from the original on December 6, 2014, retrieved March 31, 2015
  213. ^ Sufrin, Jon (April 22, 2010), "Is poutine Canada's national food? Two arguments for, two against", Toronto Life, archived from the original on March 22, 2011
  214. ^ Baird, Elizabeth (June 30, 2009), "Does Canada Have a National Dish?", Canadian Living, archived from the original on May 15, 2021
  215. ^ DeMONTIS, RITA (June 21, 2010), "Canadians butter up to this tart", Toronto Sun, archived from the original on August 8, 2017
  216. ^ Andrews, Jennifer (2015). "34 Uniquely Canadian Foods (Other Than Poutine)". Ricotta & Radishes. Archived from the original on November 28, 2015. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
  217. ^ "Maple Syrup." Archived September 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Archived April 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed July 2011.
  218. ^ Simmons, Gail (2012). Talking with My Mouth Full: My Life as a Professional Eater. Hyperion. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4013-0415-7.
  219. ^ a b Civitello, Linda (2011). Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 401–402. ISBN 978-0-470-40371-6.
  220. ^ Jedwab, Jack (December 2022). "The State of Canadian Culture and the perceived need to protect it" (PDF). Association for Canadian Studies. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 1, 2023. Retrieved February 1, 2023.
  221. ^ White, Linda A.; Simeon, Richard (2009). The Comparative Turn in Canadian Political Science. UBC Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-7748-1428-7.
  222. ^ Stackhouse, John; Martin, Patrick (February 2, 2002), "Canada: 'A model for the world'", The Globe and Mail, Toronto, p. F3, archived from the original on June 29, 2009, retrieved June 29, 2009, Canada is today the most successful pluralist society on the face of our globe, without any doubt in my mind ... That is something unique to Canada. It is an amazing global human asset
  223. ^ "Canada – A Good Influence on the World". March 7, 2007. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  224. ^ "BBC poll: Germany most popular country in the world". BBC. May 23, 2013. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  225. ^ "World Service Global Poll: Negative views of Russia on the rise". BBC. June 4, 2014. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  226. ^ "Americans and Canadians – The North American Not-so-odd Couple". Pew Research Center. 2004. Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
  227. ^ Mercer Human Res Consulting, Inc. (2009). The Global Manager's Guide to Living and Working Abroad: Western Europe and the Americas: Western Europe and the Americas. ABC-CLIO. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-313-35884-5.
  228. ^ "The Myths that Made Canada". Vol. 4, no. 8. As I Please (column). March 14, 2004. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2011.
  229. ^ Atkey, Mel (2006). Broadway North: The Dream of a Canadian Musical Theatre. Dundurn. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-4597-2120-3.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]