Culture of Chicago
The city is known for its Chicago School and Prairie School architecture. It continues to cultivate a strong tradition of classical music, popular music, dance, and performing arts, rooted in Western civilization, as well as other traditions carried forward by its African-American, Asian-American, European American, Hispanic American, and Native American citizens.
Food and drink
|Part of a series on|
Chicago lays claim to a large number of regional specialties that reflect the city's ethnic and working-class roots. Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza; this style is said to have originated at Pizzeria Uno. The Chicago-style thin crust is also popular in the city. A number of well-known chefs have had restaurants in Chicago, including Charlie Trotter, Rick Tramonto, Grant Achatz, and Rick Bayless.
The most popular Chicago-style foods are:
- The Chicago-style hot dog, traditionally a steamed or boiled, natural-casing all-beef wiener on a poppy-seed bun, topped with yellow mustard, chopped onion, sliced tomato, neon-green sweet-pickle relish, sport peppers, a dill-pickle spear, and a sprinkling of celery salt—but never ketchup.
- Chicago-style pizza is deep-dish pizza with a tall outer crust and large amounts of cheese, with chunky tomato sauce on top of the cheese instead of underneath it. Similar to this is stuffed pizza, with even more cheese, topped with a second, thinner crust. Thin-crust pizza is also very popular in Chicago.
- The Italian beef, a sandwich featuring thinly sliced roast beef simmered in a broth (known locally as "gravy") containing Italian-style seasonings and served on an Italian roll soaked in the meat juices. Most beef stands offer a "cheesy beef" option, which is typically the addition of a slice of provolone or mozzarella. A "combo" is a beef sandwich with the addition of grilled Italian sausage. Italian beef sandwiches are traditionally topped with sweet peppers or spicy giardiniera.
Other Chicago-style dishes include:
- Chicken Vesuvio, an Italian-American dish made from chicken on the bone and wedges of potato, celery, and carrots; sauteed with garlic, oregano, white wine, and olive oil, then baked until the chicken's skin becomes crisp.
- Shrimp DeJonghe, a casserole of whole peeled shrimp blanketed in soft, garlicky, sherry-laced bread crumbs.
- Maxwell Street Polish, named after Maxwell Street where it was first sold. It's a Polish sausage made with beef and pork, and with garlic and other spices, served on a bun with grilled onions.
- A francheezie is a variation of the Chicago-style hot dog. The hot dog is wrapped in bacon and deep-fried, and either stuffed or topped with cheese.
- The jibarito is a specialty sandwich that originated in the heart of Chicago's Puerto Rican community. Invented by Borinquen Restaurant in the Humboldt Park neighborhood, a jibarito is made with meat or chicken, and condiments, placed between two pieces of fried and flattened plantain instead of bread.
- The mother-in-law is a tamale on a hot dog bun, topped with chili.
- Chicago also has its own unique style of tamale, machine-extruded from cornmeal and wrapped in paper, and typically sold at hot dog stands.
- Gyros is popular in Chicago. While some restaurants still make their own gyros cones, Chicago is the hometown of mass-produced gyros.
- Flaming saganaki was popularized by restaurants in the Greektown neighborhood. A square piece of kasseri, kefalotyri, or a similar cheese is fried in a small, two-handled pan, topped with a splash of brandy, and served flambé-style, traditionally with a cry of "Opa!" from the waiter.
- A pizza puff is a deep-fried dough pocket filled with cheese, tomato sauce, and other pizza ingredients such as sausage. Indigenous to Chicago, pizza puffs can be found at some hot dog restaurants.
- A pepper and egg sandwich combines scrambled eggs and grilled bell peppers, served on French bread. Originally eaten during Lent by Italian immigrants in Chicago, it now can be found in some casual dining restaurants.
Less well known are:
- The more provincial South Side specialties such as the Big Baby, a style of double cheeseburger with grilled onions and the condiments, traditionally located underneath the burger patties, which originated at Nicky's The Real McCoy on 58th and Kedzie in the Gage Park neighborhood.
- The breaded-steak sandwich, a specialty particularly found in the Bridgeport neighborhood, which consists of a flattened inexpensive cut of beef that has been breaded, fried Milanesa-style and served on an Italian bread roll with marinara sauce, topped with optional mozzarella cheese and/or green peppers.
- Aquarium-smoked barbecue, particularly rib tips and hot links.
- Atomic cake, featuring banana, yellow, and chocolate cake layers alternating with banana, strawberry, and fudge fillings.
- Chicago mix popcorn, which consists of caramel corn and cheese-flavored popcorn mixed together.
Chicago features many restaurants that highlight the city's various ethnic neighborhoods, including Chinatown on the South Side, Greektown on Halsted Street, and Little Italy on Taylor Street and the Heart of Italy. The South Asian community along Devon Avenue hosts many Pakistani and Indian eateries. The predominantly Mexican neighborhoods of Pilsen and Little Village are home to numerous eateries ranging from small taquerías to full scale restaurants. Several restaurants featuring Middle Eastern fare can be found along Lawrence Avenue, while Polish cuisine is well represented along Milwaukee Avenue on the Northwest side and Archer Avenue on the Southwest side. A large concentration of Vietnamese restaurants can be found in the Argyle Street district in Uptown.
Along with ethnic fare and fast food, Chicago is home to many steakhouses, as well as a number of upscale dining establishments serving a wide array of cuisine. Some notable destinations include Frontera Grill, a gourmet Mexican restaurant owned by chef and Mexico: One Plate at a Time host, Rick Bayless; Graham Elliot's eponymous restaurant, Graham Elliot; Jean Joho's Everest, a new-French restaurant located on the top floor of the Chicago Stock Exchange building downtown, and Tru from chefs Rick Tramonto and Gale Gand.
Chicago has a long brewing history that dates back to the early days of the city. While its era of mass-scale commercial breweries largely came to an end with Prohibition, the city today boasts a number of microbreweries and brewpubs. Included among these are large regional brewers, such as Goose Island and Lagunitas, as well as more localized craft brewers like Argus, Half Acre, Metropolitan, Off Color, Pipeworks and Revolution Brewing.
Annual events include Chicago Craft Beer Week, the Festival of Barrel-Aged Beers (known as FOBAB), the Chicago Beer Festival, and the Chicago Beer Classic (formerly called the American Beer Classic).
Jeppson's Malört is a brand of bäsk, a Swedish-style liqueur flavored with wormwood. Known for its bitter taste, it can be found in some Chicago-area taverns and liquor stores, but is seldom seen elsewhere in the country. The Carl Jeppson Company was founded in Chicago in the 1930s and is still based there, but the beverage is now distilled in Florida.
Koval, Chicago's first distillery to operate within city limits since Prohibition, began operation in 2008. Located in the Andersonville neighborhood on the city's North Side, Koval offers a wide range of spirits and was featured on the Chicago ("World's Greenest Beer") episode during the second season of the Esquire Network show Brew Dogs in 2014.
Chicago has made many significant pop-cultural contributions in the field of music: Chicago blues, Chicago soul, Jazz, Gospel, indie rock, hip hop, industrial music, and punk rock. With the advent of Chicago house in the 1980s, the city is also the birthplace of the house style of music, which helped lead to the development of techno music in Detroit, Michigan.
Chicago artists have played an influential role in the R&B–soul genre. Popular R&B artists to hail from Chicago include R. Kelly, Curtis Mayfield, The Impressions, Jerry Butler, The Chi-Lites, Ahmad Jamal, Dave Hollister, Jennifer Hudson, Baby Huey, and Carl Thomas.
Prominent figures from Chicago blues include Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, Willie Dixon, Elmore James, Sonny Boy Williamson, Syl Johnson, Junior Wells, Bo Diddley, Albert King, Koko Taylor, Magic Slim, Luther Allison, Lonnie Brooks, and Buddy Guy.
Jazz musicians based in Chicago have included Jelly Roll Morton, Bix Beiderbecke, Benny Goodman, Sun Ra, Von Freeman, and Dinah Washington. The city is the home of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians, a group of musical artists who helped pioneer avant-garde jazz.
The hip hop scene in Chicago is also very influential, with major artists including Kanye West, Chance the Rapper, Twista, Common, Lupe Fiasco, Crucial Conflict, Psychodrama, Da Brat, Shawnna, Chief Keef, King Louie, and Rhymefest.
The rock band Chicago was named after the city, although its original name was the Chicago Transit Authority. The band's name was shortened to Chicago after the CTA threatened to sue them for unauthorized use of the original trademark. Popular 1980s band Survivor is from Chicago.
Many mainstream rock bands hail from Chicago or were made famous there. Among these are The Blues Brothers, the aforementioned Chicago, Styx, Cheap Trick, REO Speedwagon, Survivor, the Butterfield Blues Band, and the Siegel–Schwall Band.
Chicago has also been home to a thriving folk music scene, particularly in the 1960s and 1970s. John Prine, Steve Goodman and Bonnie Koloc were the most prominent folk singer–songwriters of that time.
In the late 1970s, local band The Shoes arguably started indie rock with a power pop album recorded in their living room. 1980s and 1990s alternative bands Local H, Eleventh Dream Day, Ministry, Veruca Salt, My Life With the Thrill Kill Kult, Material Issue, Liz Phair, Urge Overkill, and The Smashing Pumpkins hail from Chicago. Contemporary rock bands The Lawrence Arms, Soil, Kill Hannah and Wilco are also Chicago-based. The 2000s have seen local artists Disturbed, Alkaline Trio, The Academy Is, Rise Against, The Audition, Spitalfield, Chevelle, the Plain White T's, Kanye West, Lupe Fiasco, and Fall Out Boy also attain success in the U.S.
Chicago has become known for indie rockers following in the paths of the Smashing Pumpkins, Urge Overkill, Wilco, and The Jesus Lizard; bands like The Sea and Cake, Califone, OK Go, Andrew Bird and Umphrey's McGee hail from the city. Tim and Mike Kinsella, hailing from Chicago, fronted several seminal 90s emo bands: Cap'n Jazz, American Football, Owen, Joan of Arc, and Owls. Matthew and Eleanor Friedberger of The Fiery Furnaces, who now reside in Brooklyn, New York are originally from Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. Chicago is also home to many independent labels like Thrill Jockey, Drag City, and others, and to the popular music-news website Pitchfork Media.
A handful of punk rock bands are based in Chicago. Some of the more famous punk rock products of the city are Naked Raygun, The Effigies, Big Black and Shellac (featuring Steve Albini), The Squids (featuring LaTour), and Screeching Weasel. Many of these punk and indie bands got their start at noted alternative music venues Metro (originally Cabaret Metro), Lounge Ax, Empty Bottle, Double Door, and The Fireside Bowl.
Chicago is also known for being the "birthplace of American Industrial Music", as many bands got their start in Chicago. The city was also home of the now-defunct Wax Trax! Records record label which once had KMFDM, Ministry, Front 242, PIG, Front Line Assembly, My Life With the Thrill Kill Kult, Coil, and more on its roster.
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra is one of the nation's oldest and most respected orchestras. It is well regarded throughout the world through tours in both Asia and Europe and also through a large number of recordings widely available. Perhaps because of Chicago's historically large German-American population, the CSO is particularly well known for its performances of pieces by German composers.
Chicago also has a thriving and youthful contemporary classical scene. Major venues for new music include concerts by the International Contemporary Ensemble, Ensemble Dal Niente, Third Coast Percussion, Fulcrum Point and the CSO's MusicNOW series. Composers of note include Augusta Read Thomas, Lee Hyla, Marcos Balter, Kirsten Broberg, Hans Thomalla, Jay Alan Yim and Shulamit Ran.
While lacking a school of music with the stature of the Juilliard School or the Curtis Institute of Music, the Chicago area does have a number of colleges. The best known outside of the region is the Northwestern University Bienen School of Music. The Chicago College of Performing Arts at Roosevelt University and the School of Music at DePaul University are both working to expand their reputations.
Chicago's colorful history and culture have provided inspiration for a wide variety of musical compositions. In the 19th century, the chain of events surrounding the Great Chicago Fire led Chicago resident Horatio Spafford to write the hymn "It Is Well With My Soul".
Annual music festivals in Chicago with free admission include the Chicago Blues Festival, the Chicago Jazz Festival, the Grant Park Music Festival, and World Music Festival Chicago. Annual ticketed festivals in the city include Lollapalooza, Pitchfork Music Festival, Riot Fest, North Coast Music Festival, Spring Awakening, and Ruido Fest.
Chicago is a major center for theater, and is the birthplace of modern improvisational comedy. The city is home to two renowned comedy troupes: The Second City and iO Theater (formerly known as ImprovOlympic). The form itself was invented at the University of Chicago in the 1960s by an undergraduate performance group called the Compass Players, whose members went on to found Second City. It is also home to one of the longest running plays in the country—the Neo-Futurists' Too Much Light Makes the Baby Go Blind, an ensemble of 30 plays in 60 minutes. Many world-famous actors and comedians are Chicagoans or came to study in the area, particularly at Northwestern University in Evanston.
Since their foundings in 1925 and 1974, Goodman Theatre, downtown, and Steppenwolf Theatre Company on the city's north side have nurtured generations of actors, directors, and playwrights. They have grown into internationally renowned companies of artists. Many other theatres, from nearly 100 black box performances spaces like the Strawdog Theatre Company in the Lakeview area to landmark downtown houses like the Chicago Theatre on State and Lake Streets, present a wide variety of plays and musicals, including touring shows and original works such as the premiere in December 2004 of Spamalot. The Chicago Shakespeare Theater, Lookingglass Theatre Company, and the Victory Gardens Theater have won regional Tony Awards, along with Goodman and Steppenwolf. Broadway In Chicago, created in July 2000, hosts touring productions and Broadway musical previews at: Bank of America Theatre, Cadillac Palace Theatre, Ford Center for the Performing Arts Oriental Theatre. Broadway In Chicago provides over 7,500 jobs and an economic impact of over $635 million. Polish language productions for Chicago's large Polish speaking population can be seen at the historic Gateway Theatre in Jefferson Park.
The Lyric Opera of Chicago, founded in 1954, performs in the Civic Opera House. The Civic Opera House was built in 1929 on the east bank of the Chicago River and is the second-largest opera auditorium in North America with 3,563 seats. The Lyric Opera purchased the Civic Opera House from the building's owner in 1993. The company has reported an average of 100% sales for the past 16 years and approximately 34,000 subscribers for its six-month season.
The Lithuanian Opera Company of Chicago was founded by Lithuanian Chicagoans in 1956, and presents operas in Lithuanian. It celebrated fifty years of existence in 2006, and operates as a not-for-profit organization. It is noteworthy for performing the rarely staged Rossini's William Tell (1986) and Ponchielli's I Lituani (1981, 1983 and 1991), and also for contributing experienced chorus singers to the Lyric Opera of Chicago. The opera Jūratė and Kastytis by Kazimieras Viktoras Banaitis was presented in Chicago, Illinois in 1996.
The Joffrey Ballet makes its home in Chicago. Other ballet, modern and jazz dance troupes that are located in the city include Hubbard Street Dance Chicago, River North Chicago Dance Company, Gus Giordano Jazz Dance Chicago, Chicago Dance Crash, Thodos Dance Chicago, Chicago Festival Ballet and The Joel Hall Dancers.
Chicago is one of 13 metropolitan areas that have major league baseball, football, basketball, and hockey teams. In three of these metropolitan areas the teams from all four sports play their games within the limits of one city — Chicago, Philadelphia, and Denver. Four of the metropolitan areas have two baseball teams — Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area — and of these four, only Chicago has had the same two teams since the American League was established in 1901.
The Chicago Cubs of the National League play at Wrigley Field, which is located in the North Side neighborhood of Lakeview. The area of Lakeview near the stadium is commonly referred to as "Wrigleyville."
The Chicago Bears of the National Football League play at Soldier Field. The Bears have won nine American Football championships (eight NFL Championships and Super Bowl XX) trailing only the Green Bay Packers, who have thirteen.
The Chicago Bulls of the National Basketball Association are one of the world's most recognized basketball teams, thanks to their enormous success during the Michael Jordan era, when they won six NBA titles in the 1990s. The Bulls play at the United Center on Chicago's Near West side.
The Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League also play at the United Center. The Hawks are an Original Six franchise, founded in 1926, and have won six Stanley Cups, including 2010, 2013, and 2015.
The Chicago Fire, members of Major League Soccer, won one league and four US Open Cups since 1997. After eight years at Soldier Field, they moved to the new Toyota Park in nearby Bridgeview at 71st and Harlem Avenue during the summer of 2006.
One NCAA Division I college football team plays in the Chicago area — the Northwestern Wildcats, in nearby Evanston. Chicago-area college basketball teams competing at the Division I level are the Northwestern Wildcats, the DePaul Blue Demons, the Loyola Ramblers, the UIC Flames, and the Chicago State Cougars.
Once a year in early autumn, thousands of long-distance runners from around the world compete in the Chicago Marathon.
Chicago is home to a lively fine arts community. The highest concentration of contemporary art galleries can be found in the River North neighborhood, though a great amount of arts activity also centers around the area around Wicker Park. Chicago visual art has had a strong individualistic streak, little influenced by outside fashions. "One of the unique characteristics of Chicago," said Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts curator Bob Cozzolino, "is there's always been a very pronounced effort to not be derivative, to not follow the status quo", and arts pioneers such as Stanislav Szukalski who were tied to the "Chicago Renaissance" helped to fashion the city into a nexus for new trends in art.
Chicago has long had a strong tradition of figurative surrealism, as in the works of Ivan Albright and Ed Paschke. In 1968 and 1969, members of the Chicago Imagists, such as Roger Brown, Leon Golub, Robert Lostutter, Jim Nutt, and Barbara Rossi produced bizarre representational paintings. Today Robert Guinan paints gritty realistic portraits of Chicago people which are popular in Paris, although he is little known in Chicago itself.
These same impulses also appeared in Chicago's lively street photography scene, gaining notoriety through artists centered around the Institute of Design such as Harry Callahan, Aaron Siskind, Leon Lewandowski as well as in the work of nanny-savant Vivian Maier. Bob Thall's beautiful, bleak photographs of Chicago-area architecture have also won much acclaim.
Chicago has a Percent for Art program of public artworks, although it is notoriously more opaque and secretive than that of most other cities; arts activist such as Paul Klein and attorney Scott Hodes have long criticized its lack of public accountability.
Chicago is home to a number of large, outdoor works by well-known artists. These include the Chicago Picasso, Miró's Chicago, Flamingo and Flying Dragon by Alexander Calder, Monument with Standing Beast by Jean Dubuffet, Batcolumn by Claes Oldenburg, Cloud Gate by Anish Kapoor, Crown Fountain by Jaume Plensa, Man Enters the Cosmos by Henry Moore, and the Four Seasons mosaic by Marc Chagall.
The central part of Chicago was largely destroyed by the Chicago Fire in 1871. Almost all the buildings currently standing in the city's downtown area were built after that, one exception being the Chicago Water Tower.
Around the turn of the twentieth century, Chicago was a key location in the development of the skyscraper. This movement was spearheaded by architects promoting the Chicago School design philosophy, including Louis Sullivan and others. Notable tall buildings and skyscrapers built before the mid-1930s include the Rookery Building, the Auditorium Building, the Chicago Cultural Center, the Monadnock Building, the Reliance Building, the Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building, the Marquette Building, the Chicago Building, the Wrigley Building, Tribune Tower, the London Guarantee Building, 333 North Michigan, the Carbide & Carbon Building, and the Chicago Board of Trade Building.
In the 1940s, a modernist Second Chicago School of architecture emerged from the work of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Buildings that he designed include 860–880 Lake Shore Drive, Crown Hall, 330 North Wabash, and the Kluczynski Federal Building.
The tallest buildings in Chicago are Willis Tower, Trump Tower, the Aon Center, the John Hancock Center, and the Franklin Center. Willis Tower was originally named Sears Tower, and was the tallest building in the world from 1973 to 1998. It is now the second-tallest building in the United States, after One World Trade Center, though the height to the roof of Willis Tower is greater than that of One World Trade Center.
Other architecturally significant modern and postmodern skyscrapers in Chicago include the Inland Steel Building, Marina City, Lake Point Tower, 333 Wacker Drive, the Crain Communications Building, the Thompson Center, the Harold Washington Library, and Aqua.
The Prairie School of architecture originated in Chicago, which is home to a number of buildings by Frank Lloyd Wright and other Prairie School architects. Examples include Robie House and the First Congregational Church of Austin.
The Pullman Historic District was the first planned industrial community in the United States.
Some neighborhoods in the city have many Chicago bungalow houses. Built mostly between 1910 and 1940, these single-family homes are narrow, one-and-a-half story brick structures, with gables parallel to the street.
Early writers associated with Chicago include, Theodore Drieser, Eugene Field, Hamlin Garland, Edgar Lee Masters, and Frank Norris. Poets have included Gwendolyn Brooks and Carl Sandburg. Other notable writers often associated with the city's literary tradition include Nelson Algren, Saul Bellow, John Dos Passos, James T. Farrell, Loraine Hansberry, Ernest Hemingway, Upton Sinclair, Studs Terkel, and Richard Wright.
Popular public attractions in Chicago include the Museum of Science and Industry, the Field Museum of Natural History, Adler Planetarium, Shedd Aquarium, Lincoln Park Zoo, the Chicago History Museum, Millennium Park, and Navy Pier.
One weekend each August the city hosts the Chicago Air & Water Show, a free exhibition on the shores of Lake Michigan.
- LGBT culture in Chicago
- List of Chicago Landmarks
- List of fiction set in Chicago
- List of museums and cultural institutions in Chicago
- Tourism in Chicago
- "Research Resources on Chicago, Jazz, and the Great Migration", University of Chicago Library. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- "Chicago Soul", AllMusic. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- Zeldes, Leah A. (July 7, 2010). "Eat this! The Chicago Hot Dog, Born in the Great Depression", Dining Chicago. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- Zeldes, Leah A. (July 22, 2010). "Do Only Barbarians Put Ketchup on Hot Dogs?", Dining Chicago. Archived from the original on December 30, 2010. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- "Who Invented Deep Dish", Chicago Tribune, February 18, 2009. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Kindelsperger, Nick (June 2, 2014). "The Best Deep Dish Pizza in Chicago", Serious Eats. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- Ali, Tanveer; Ludwig, Howard (January 13, 2015). "A Guide to Chicago Pizza: From Deep-Dish to Tavern-Style and Beyond", DNAinfo. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Pang, Kevin (December 6, 2015). "Hunting the Best Italian Beef in Chicago", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Dolinsky Steve (March 10, 2015). "The 31 Essential Italian Beef Joints in Chicago(land)", SteveDolinsky.com. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Sarazen, Raeanne S. (June 13, 2001). "Would Appreciate It If You Would Send Me a Recipe For...", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Royer, Blake (December 15, 2011). "Dinner Tonight: Chicken Vesuvio", Serious Eats. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Camp, Paul A.; Brownson, JeanMarie (January 27, 1985). "The Heavenly Recipe That Helped Make Henri De Jonghe Immortal", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Olvera, Jennifer (February 23, 2013). "Sunday Supper: Garlicky Shrimp de Jonghe", Serious Eats. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Eng, Monica; Leroux, Charles (October 1, 2004). "The Original Maxwell Street Market", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- Zeldes, Leah A. (October 22, 2008). "Help for the Kielbasa Conundrum", Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on August 19, 2010. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Bruno, Pat (April 14, 1989). "Frank Talk about Francheezies". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- Brusin, Josh (September 15, 2005). "Francheezie... Cambridge House – RIP", Chicago Foodies. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Eng, Monica (June 18, 2003). "Saga of a Sandwich", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- Zeldes, Leah A. (January 22, 2010). "City of the Big Sandwiches: Four Uncommon Chicago Meals on a Bun". Dining Chicago. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- All Things Considered (May 19, 2007). "Making a Mother-in-Law Sandwich". Npr.org. Retrieved May 30, 2011.
- Zeldes, Leah A. (December 18, 2009). "The Unique Chicago Tamale, a Tuneful Mystery". Dining Chicago. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- Segal, David (July 14, 2009). "The Gyro's History Unfolds", New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
- Roy, Joe (February 10, 2012). "TGI Fry-Day: Saganaki at the Parthenon", Serious Eats. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
- Johnson, Charles J. (September 8, 2014). "Parthenon Blazes a Trail", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
- Procopio, Michael (September 29, 2010). "Saganaki, Unflamed", Food for the Thoughtless. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
- "Pizza Puff: Your New Favorite Fried Pizza Product", American Fun Fact of the Day, July 2, 2015. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- Kuban, Adam (December 15, 2010). "What Is a Pizza Puff"?, Serious Eats. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
- Pirnia, Garin (February 15, 2015). "15 Foods Invented (or Perfected) in Chicago Besides Deep Dish Pizza", Mental Floss. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- Ali, Tanveer (February 24, 2015). "Where to Get Pepper and Egg Sandwiches, a Chicago Lent Tradition", DNAinfo. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
- Skoch, Rebecca (March 4, 2014). "4 Places for Pepper and Egg Sandwiches in Chicago", TimeOut Chicago. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
- Vettel, Phil (February 18, 2015). "Go Meatless with These Pepper and Egg Sandwiches", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
- Engler, Peter (January 28, 2005). "The Burger That Ate Chicago", Time Out Chicago. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Berg, Ted (March 3, 2015). "Chicago Has the Best Sandwich in the World and Most People Don't Even Know It". USA Today. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
- Zeldes, Leah A. (2008). "Smoke 'Em If You Got 'Em". Dining Chicago. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
On the West and South sides, barbecue joints tend to be strictly take-out places, and the style is typically smokier and chewier, cooked in aquarium smokers. (Developed in the 1950s and unique to Chicago, these rectangular cookers with transparent doors get their name from their resemblance to fish tanks.)
- Freeman, Sarah (June 15, 2015). "What Is Chicago-Style Barbecue, Anyway?", Chicago Eater. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
- Chu, Louisa (June 12, 2013). "Chicago Food and Drink Destinations: The Intangible Cultural Heritage List", WBEZ. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Podmolik, Mary Ellen (September 2, 2014). "Garrett Popcorn Sued over Chicago Mix", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Thompson, Aimee (March 16, 2014). "Little Saigon: An Afternoon Exploring Chicago's Vietnamese Neighborhood with Your Family", ChicagoNow. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Ruscitti, Titus (July 2, 2014). "The 10 Best Fried Shrimp Shacks in Chicago", Thrillist. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- Dolinsky, Steve (February 10, 2011). "Top 5 Shrimp Shacks in Chicago", WBEZ 91.5. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- "The 15 Best Places for a Fried Shrimp in Chicago", Foursquare, January 20, 2016. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- "Staff". Alinea Restaurant.
- "Review". metromix.com.
- "History of the Taste of Chicago", City of Chicago. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Kaplan, Jacob (August 20, 2009). "Bygone Breweries", Forgotten Chicago. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
- "Illinois Breweries", RateBeer. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
- "Updated: Chicago Brewery List", The Hop Review. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
- Noel, Josh (May 14, 2014). "Chicago Craft Beer Week Begins", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- Montoro, Philip (November 18, 2013). "The Festival of Wood and Barrel Aged Beer: Still Completely Ridiculous, Still Definitely Great", Chicago Reader. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- Sudo, Chuck (March 27, 2012). "Chicago Beer Festival: Does Location Make the Festival?", Chicagoist. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- Thiel, Julia (May 15, 2013). "Drinking on Soldier Field: The First American Beer Classic", Chicago Reader. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Peters, Mark (November 20, 2012). "In Chicago, a Spirit Rises Despite Bitter Reviews", Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- "Brew Dogs – Episode Descriptions", Esquire Network, May 20, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
- Sawyer, R Keith (September 30, 2002). Improvised Dialogue. Ablex/Greenwood. p. 14. ISBN 1-56750-677-1.
- Burghart, Tara (January 16, 2007). "Study Outlines Chicago Theater Impact", San Francisco Chronicle.
- "About the Lithuanian Opera Company, Inc. in Chicago". Lithuanian Opera Co. Retrieved 2006-09-14.
- Marsh, Robert C. (2006-07-10). "Author's Preface". In Pellegrini, Norman (ed.). 150 Years of Opera in Chicago. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press. xii. ISBN 0-87580-353-9.
- "Posters by Ada Sutkus for the Lithuanian Opera Company of Chicago". Lituanus.org. Retrieved 2011-05-30.
- Doster, Adam (August 9, 2012). "Gloves Off: The History and Uncertain Future of the Second City's Mutant Strain of Softball", The Classical. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- Raye-Stout, Cheryl (October 9, 2012). "What Is the Deal with Chicago's Ginormous 16-inch Softballs?", WBEZ. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- Levine, Jay (July 26, 2006). "Chicago in the Running to Host 2016 Summer Games", CBS. Archived from the original on November 10, 2006. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
- "Official Chicago 2016 Website." Retrieved on December 1, 2006.
- Joann Loviglio, "Chicago Art Stars in Philly Exhibition", Chicago Sun-Times, Wednesday, February 22, 2006, p. 49
- Warren, Lynn, Art in Chicago 1945-1995, Thames & Hudson, 1996 ISBN 978-0-500-23728-1
- Nance, Kevin (June 10, 2007). "Artists Plan Protest on Public Art Policy", Chicago Sun-Times, p. 10A.
- McGeehan, Patrick; Baglinov, Charles V. (November 12, 2013). "By a Spire, Manhattan Regains a Title from Chicago", New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- Centerstage Media, LLC. "19th Century - Chicago City Life in Chicago, Illinois". Centerstagechicago.com. Retrieved 2011-05-30.