Culture of life
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The phrase "culture of life" is a term used in discussion of moral theology, especially that of the Catholic Church. Its proponents describe it as a way of life based upon the theological truth that human life at all stages from conception through natural death is sacred. As such, a "culture of life" opposes practices destructive of human life, often including abortion, euthanasia, studies and medicines involving embryonic stem cells, contraception, capital punishment, unjust war, sadistic humiliation, narcissism, and excessive selfishness.
In United States politics, social conservatives frequently use the term "culture of life" in opposition to abortion and embryonic stem cell research. In 2005, 68% of White evangelical Protestants in the United States opposed abortion, 58% opposed euthanasia and 15% opposed the death penalty.
Although various authors used the term from time to time, the expression "culture of life" entered popular parlance from Pope John Paul II, who first used it in a World Youth Day tour of the United States in 1993. Speaking to journalists at Stapleton International Airport near Denver, Colorado, the Pope denounced abortion and euthanasia, stating that "The culture of life means respect for nature and protection of God's work of creation. In a special way, it means respect for human life from the first moment of conception until its natural end." Cardinal Bernard Law reiterated the theme, urging Americans to "spread the culture of life over the culture of death."
Beyond Holy Scripture, one possible source for this philosophy is the Didache, a first-century Christian document which exposes the doctrine of two ways: the way of life and the way of death. This work is part of the Magisterium of the Catholic Church, and Popes often cite it.
The Pope returned to the theme in April 1995 through the encyclical Evangelium vitae ("Gospel of Life"):
In our present social context, marked by a dramatic struggle between the culture of life and the culture of death, there is need to develop a deep critical sense capable of discerning true values and authentic needs.
Some of the issues that are included in the Catholic Church's description of the culture of life include:
- Opposition to abortion
- Opposition to human sterilization (Pope Paul VI, Humanae vitae, no. 14) (CCC no. 2399) (CCC nos. 2374-2375, 2379)
- Opposition to human cloning (CCC no. 2378)
- Opposition to contraception (Pope Paul VI, Humanae vitae, nos. 15-18)
- Opposition to human embryonic stem cell and fetal research, coupled with support for adult stem cell research
- Opposition to euthanasia (CCC nos. 2276-2279)
- Opposition to murder and suicide (CCC nos. 2268-2269) (CCC nos. 2280-2283)
- Opposition to capital punishment (CCC no. 2267) (St. John Paul II, Evangelium vitae, no. 56)
- Opposition to unjust war (CCC nos. 2307-2317)
- Promotion of agape love and charity
- Promotion of matrimony, maternity, fatherhood, life, chastity, fidelity, and virtue
- Promotion of organ donation (CCC no. 2296)
United States politics
Following the promulgation of the Pope's encyclical, advocates of a culture of life founded Culture of Life Foundation and Institute in the United States to promote the concepts behind Evangelium vitae. Pope John Paul II recognized and blessed the foundation in 1997. The "culture of life" entered the mainstream of United States politics on 3 October 2000, during the U.S. presidential election campaign. Texas Governor George W. Bush cited the term during a televised debate against Vice President Al Gore; Bush expressed concerns that Mifepristone, then newly approved as an abortifacient pill, would cause more women to abort their pregnancies, whereas his goal was to make abortions more rare and to "promote a culture of life." Bush said:
Surely this nation can come together to promote the value of life. Surely we can fight off these laws that will encourage doctors or allow doctors to take the lives of our seniors. Sure, we can work together to create a culture of life so some of these youngsters who feel like they can take a neighbor's life with a gun will understand that that's not the way America is meant to be.
As the media then noted, Governor Bush directly borrowed this language from Pope John Paul II. They saw his invocation of the phrase as an attempt to gain support of "moderate" Catholics who dislike abortion, while not coming out so strongly against the practice that it would alienate voters. Some Catholics, however, criticized Bush for apparent inconsistency between his support of a "culture of life" and his strong support for the death penalty, which Catholic social doctrine only permits if there is no other means for society to protect itself. As Governor of Texas, Bush repeatedly authorized executions of convicted murderers. He returned to the same theme on a number of other occasions during his campaign, stating, "I think the next president must talk about a culture of life."
George W. Bush narrowly won that election for President of the United States and took office on 20 January 2001. During his eight-year Presidency, politicians repeatedly invoked the "culture of life." Notable instances included:
- The summer of 2001, when a political controversy occurred over the position of the federal government on stem cell research, and President Bush faced accusations of backtracking on his earlier "culture of life" rhetoric;
- March 2003, when the United States Congress passed a bill prohibiting partial-birth abortion, which proponents cited as advancing the "culture of life";
- The Unborn Victims of Violence Act in April 2004, which defined a violent attack on a pregnant woman as two distinct crimes: one against the woman, and the other against her fetus. Politicians promoted this act as improving the rights of the "unborn", hence advancing the culture of life;
- The US presidential election, 2004, when the Republican Party incorporated the phrase into its official platform, referring to the opposition of the Party against abortion, stem cell research involving the destruction of human embryos, and euthanasia.
- The Terri Schiavo controversy of March 2005, when the phrase was used in support of legislative and legal efforts to prolong the life of a brain-damaged woman in an alleged persistent vegetative state.
Culture of death
Pope John Paul II used the opposing term "culture of death" in Evangelium vitae (April 1995):
12. In fact, while the climate of widespread moral uncertainty can in some way be explained by the multiplicity and gravity of today's social problems, and these can sometimes mitigate the subjective responsibility of individuals, it is no less true that we are confronted by an even larger reality, which can be described as a veritable structure of sin. This reality is characterized by the emergence of a culture which denies solidarity and in many cases takes the form of a veritable 'culture of death.' This culture is actively fostered by powerful cultural, economic and political currents which encourage an idea of society excessively concerned with efficiency. Looking at the situation from this point of view, it is possible to speak in a certain sense of a war of the powerful against the weak: a life which would require greater acceptance, love and care is considered useless, or held to be an intolerable burden, and is therefore rejected in one way or another. A person who, because of illness, handicap or, more simply, just by existing, compromises the well-being or life-style of those who are more favoured tends to be looked upon as an enemy to be resisted or eliminated. In this way a kind of 'conspiracy against life' is unleashed. This conspiracy involves not only individuals in their personal, family or group relationships, but goes far beyond, to the point of damaging and distorting, at the international level, relations between peoples and States.
Cardinal Cormac Murphy-O'Connor reiterates Evangelium vitae, for example, that without morals, "it is the strong who decide the fate of the weak," and "Human beings therefore become instruments of other human beings. ... We are already on that road: for what else is the termination of millions of lives in the womb since the Abortion Act was introduced, and embryo selection on the basis of gender and genes ?”
Advocates of a "culture of life" argue that a "culture of death" results in political, economic, or eugenic murder. They point to historical events like the USSR's Great Purges, the Nazi Holocaust, China's Great Leap Forward and Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge as examples of devaluation of human life taken to an extreme conclusion. The term is used by those in the pro-life movement to refer to supporters of embryonic stem cell research, legalized abortion and euthanasia. As pro-life advocates, proponents of a "culture of life" sometimes compare their opponents to the perpetrators of the Nazi genocide. They claim that their opponents share the same disregard for human life.
The Catholic Church defends the right of life for all persons from conception to natural death. The Church consequently disapproves of certain medical procedures that may harm or kill a fetus, which the Church holds to be a person with an inviolable right to life. Some Catholic hospitals and medical institutions regularly obstruct such procedures. The Catholic Church also always opposes contraception and abortion. This can be verified in Humanae vitae, the encyclical written during the papacy of Pope Paul VI in 1968.
Disputes surrounding the term
Opposition to abortion and euthanasia as part of the culture of life are not undisputed. For example, Leonard Peikoff argues that "Sentencing a woman to sacrifice her life to an embryo is not upholding the 'right-to-life'.
- David Masci (11 April 2007). "The Culture War and the Coming Election". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life.
- "Abortion and Rights of Terror Suspects Top Court Issues". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 3 August 2005.
- Barry, Vincent (2011). Bioethics in a Cultural Context. Cengage Learning. p. 192. ISBN 9780495814085.
- United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (2008). United States Catechism for Adults. USCCB Publishing. p. 392–393. ISBN 978-1-57455-450-2.
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- "Presidential Candidates Debates: "Presidential Debate in Boston"". The American Presidency Project.
- Hanson, Mark J. "Culture of Life, Culture of Death" (PDF). University of Montana.
- EVANGELIUM VITAE Archived October 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- Pook, Sally. "Cardinal attacked over abortion link to Nazi eugenics". The Telegraph.
- Dennehy, Raymond. "Liberal Democracy as a Culture of Death: Why John Paul II Was Right" (PDF). IgnatiusInsight.com.
- Blanke, Hermann-Josef; Villalón, Pedro Cruz; Klein, Tonio; Ziller, Jacques (2015). Common European Legal Thinking. Springer. pp. 391–402. ISBN 9783319193007.
- Smith, Wesley J. (2000). Culture of Death: The Assault on Medical Ethics in America. Encounter Books. ISBN 9781893554061.
- Watson, Bradley C. S. (2002). Courts and the Culture Wars. Lexington Books. pp. 45–62. ISBN 9780739104156.
- Pasquini, John J. (2003). Pro-Life: Defending the Culture of Life Against the Culture of Death. iUniverse. ISBN 9780595297795.
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- Dowbiggin, Ian (2003). A Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America. Oxford University Press. p. i-xix. ISBN 9780198035152.
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- Slane, Andrea (2001). A Not So Foreign Affair. Duke University Press. p. 80. ISBN 9780822380849.
- Mason, Carol (2002). Killing for Life: The Apocalyptic Narrative of Pro-life Politics. Cornell University Press. p. 124. ISBN 9780801488191.
- "HUMANAE VITAE OF THE SUPREME PONTIFF". Archived from the original on 2011-03-19.
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- "Pope ends visit with frank talk", State Journal Register, Springfield, Illinois (August 16, 1993)
- "Bush Woos Catholics On Abortion Nominee, Echoes Pope's 'Culture Of Life' Phrase", Boston Globe (October 9, 2000)
- White House statement on Terri Schiavo "It should be our goal as a nation to build a culture of life, where all Americans are valued, welcomed, and protected..."
- USCCB - The United States Council of Catholic Bishops Pro-Life site including many articles on the Catholic Church's varied aspects on the Culture of Life.
- Bush Hails Progress Towards "Culture of Life" "President Bush told thousands of antiabortion marchers yesterday that his administration is making progress toward fostering a "culture of life" by enacting measures that limit abortion and stem cell research while expanding the legal definition of life."