Cumberland County, Maine

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Cumberland County
The Portland Head Light in Cape Elizabeth
Official seal of Cumberland County
Map of Maine highlighting Cumberland County
Location within the U.S. state of Maine
Map of the United States highlighting Maine
Maine's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 43°47′04″N 70°19′41″W / 43.784477°N 70.32798°W / 43.784477; -70.32798
Country United States
State Maine
FoundedNovember 1, 1760
Named forPrince William, Duke of Cumberland
SeatPortland
Largest cityPortland
Area
 • Total1,217 sq mi (3,150 km2)
 • Land835 sq mi (2,160 km2)
 • Water383 sq mi (990 km2)  31%%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total303,069
 • Estimate 
(2021)
305,231 Increase
 • Density250/sq mi (96/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district1st
Websitewww.cumberlandcounty.org

Cumberland County is a county in the U.S. state of Maine. As of the 2020 census, the population was 303,069,[1] making it the most populous county in Maine. Its county seat is Portland.[2] Cumberland County was founded in 1760 from a portion of York County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, and named for William, Duke of Cumberland, a son of King George II.[3] Cumberland County has the deepest and second-largest body of water in the state, Sebago Lake, which supplies tap water to most of the county. The county is the state's economic and industrial center, having the resources of the Port of Portland, the Maine Mall, and having corporate headquarters of major companies such as Fairchild Semiconductor, IDEXX Laboratories, Unum, and TD Bank. Cumberland County is part of the Portland–South Portland, ME Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,217 square miles (3,150 km2), of which 835 square miles (2,160 km2) is land and 382 square miles (990 km2) (31%) is water.[4]

Adjacent counties[edit]

Major highways[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
179025,530
180038,20849.7%
181042,83112.1%
182049,44515.4%
183060,10221.6%
184068,65814.2%
185079,53815.8%
186075,591−5.0%
187082,0218.5%
188086,3595.3%
189090,9495.3%
1900100,68910.7%
1910112,01411.2%
1920124,37611.0%
1930134,6458.3%
1940146,0008.4%
1950169,20115.9%
1960182,7518.0%
1970192,5285.3%
1980215,78912.1%
1990243,13512.7%
2000265,6129.2%
2010281,6746.0%
2020303,0697.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[5]
1790–1960[6] 1900–1990[7]
1990–2000[8] 2010–2019[9]

2000 census[edit]

As of the 2000 census, there were 265,612 people, 107,989 households, and 67,709 families living in the county. The population density was 318 people per square mile (123/km2). There were 122,600 housing units at an average density of 147 per square mile (57/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 95.74% White, 1.06% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 1.40% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.35% from other races, and 1.13% from two or more races. 0.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 107,989 households, out of which 30.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.10% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.30% were non-families. 28.40% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 23.30% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 31.30% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, and 13.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $44,048, and the median income for a family was $54,485. Males had a median income of $35,850 versus $27,935 for females. The per capita income for the county was $23,949. About 5.20% of families and 7.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.10% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over.

19.6% were of English, 15.5% Irish, 9.6% French, 7.8% United States or American, 7.7% Italian, 6.3% French Canadian and 5.9% German ancestry according to Census 2000. 94.4% spoke English and 2.1% French as their first language.

2010 census[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 281,674 people, 117,339 households, and 70,778 families living in the county.[11] The population density was 337.2 inhabitants per square mile (130.2/km2). There were 138,657 housing units at an average density of 166.0 per square mile (64.1/km2).[12] The racial makeup of the county was 92.8% white, 2.4% black or African American, 2.0% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.6% from other races, and 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population.[11] In terms of ancestry, 22.7% were English, 21.1% were Irish, 9.0% were German, 8.4% were Italian, 6.0% were Scottish, 5.5% were French Canadian, and 4.4% were American.[13]

Of the 117,339 households, 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.7% were non-families, and 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age was 41.0 years.[11]

The median income for a household in the county was $55,658 and the median income for a family was $71,335. Males had a median income of $48,158 versus $38,539 for females. The per capita income for the county was $31,041. About 6.9% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.4% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over.[14]

Government[edit]

Cumberland County courthouse in Portland, the county seat

Cumberland County is represented by county commissioners and the daily operations are run by a county manager. The county has several responsibilities, including running a Sheriff's department, the Cumberland County Jail, and a county court system. Cumberland County also has its own treasury department, emergency management agency and also has a district attorney office. The county also has a stake in the Cross Insurance Arena (formerly called the Cumberland County Civic Center), as well as programs in local economic development and tourism.

Cumberland County is divided into five districts of approximate equal population, each of which elects one county commissioner. The sheriff is elected countywide and runs the Cumberland County Sheriff's office and the Cumberland County Jail.

Politics[edit]

Like the rest of Maine, Cumberland County was a solid Republican county after the Civil War. Between 1860 and 1960, the Republican presidential nominee won Cumberland County in every election except 1912 when the county was won by Democrat Woodrow Wilson following a split in the Republican vote between incumbent president William Howard Taft and Progressive nominee, the former Republican president Theodore Roosevelt. The county remained steadfastly and overwhelmingly Republican even in Franklin D. Roosevelt's huge Democratic landslide win in 1936.

In 1964 Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson won Cumberland County and Maine's 15 other counties as part of a 44-state landslide over controversial Republican nominee Barry Goldwater. Cumberland remained in the Democratic column in 1968, backing Hubert H. Humphrey, who had chosen Maine Senator Edmund Muskie as his running mate. These Democratic victories were a sign of things to come for Cumberland County. Though it would snap back into the Republican column for Richard Nixon in 1972, Republican victories in Cumberland grew increasingly narrower with Republican Gerald Ford winning it by less than 2,000 votes over Democrat Jimmy Carter in 1976. Carter would narrowly win the county in 1980, marking the first time Cumberland had diverged from the rest of Maine in a presidential election, as the state would be carried by Republican nominee Ronald Reagan.

Reagan would easily carry Cumberland in his 49-state landslide re-election in 1984, however it was Maine's closest county, with Democrat Walter Mondale losing it by a relatively narrow 13.7%. In 1988, George H. W. Bush would become the last Republican, as of 2020, to carry Cumberland County at the presidential level, winning it by less than seven points. In 1992, Democrat Bill Clinton would win the county with nearly 43% of the vote against Bush and independent Ross Perot; it would be the last time a Democrat would receive less than 50% of the vote in Cumberland County in a presidential election. In 2004, Cumberland would become the most Democratic county in Maine, a position it has retained through 2020. In 2008, over 105,000 ballots would be cast for the Democratic candidate, Barack Obama; it would be the first time a candidate received 100,000 votes in Cumberland County in history. Democrats have exceeded 100,000 votes in Cumberland in each subsequent presidential election. In 2020, Democrat Joe Biden would win Cumberland County with 66% of the vote, the most lopsided presidential election result in the county since Lyndon Johnson won 69% of the vote in 1964.

In 2012, the county voted 65% to legalize same-sex marriage.[15]

Voter registration[edit]

Voter registration and party enrollment as of May 2019 [needs update][16]
Democratic 97,759 40.17%
Unenrolled 80,276 32.99%
Republican 55,163 22.67%
Green Independent 10,128 4.16%
Libertarian 20 0.01%
Total 243,350 100%
United States presidential election results for Cumberland County, Maine[17][18]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 59,584 30.75% 128,759 66.45% 5,422 2.80%
2016 57,709 33.59% 102,981 59.94% 11,128 6.48%
2012 57,821 35.30% 101,950 62.25% 4,015 2.45%
2008 56,186 34.23% 105,218 64.10% 2,747 1.67%
2004 65,384 40.12% 94,846 58.20% 2,732 1.68%
2000 58,543 41.05% 74,203 52.03% 9,874 6.92%
1996 42,620 32.88% 69,496 53.62% 17,494 13.50%
1992 45,752 32.33% 60,781 42.95% 34,989 24.72%
1988 63,028 52.93% 55,220 46.37% 827 0.69%
1984 65,842 56.75% 49,894 43.00% 290 0.25%
1980 45,820 42.64% 47,337 44.05% 14,304 13.31%
1976 48,959 49.64% 47,007 47.66% 2,660 2.70%
1972 51,268 60.59% 33,326 39.38% 23 0.03%
1968 32,275 41.35% 44,697 57.27% 1,076 1.38%
1964 22,365 30.52% 50,844 69.39% 63 0.09%
1960 47,271 58.49% 33,553 41.51% 1 0.00%
1956 49,696 71.88% 19,438 28.12% 0 0.00%
1952 46,957 69.16% 20,831 30.68% 110 0.16%
1948 30,284 60.71% 18,913 37.91% 688 1.38%
1944 29,349 52.15% 26,857 47.72% 72 0.13%
1940 29,795 52.47% 26,911 47.39% 76 0.13%
1936 30,021 55.56% 22,895 42.37% 1,114 2.06%
1932 32,864 60.82% 20,655 38.23% 514 0.95%
1928 33,190 67.74% 15,648 31.94% 158 0.32%
1924 26,187 73.31% 7,078 19.82% 2,454 6.87%
1920 24,623 69.19% 10,484 29.46% 478 1.34%
1916 11,768 53.59% 9,795 44.60% 398 1.81%
1912 5,154 24.95% 8,480 41.04% 7,027 34.01%
1908 10,593 61.81% 5,735 33.46% 810 4.73%
1904 9,356 62.15% 4,989 33.14% 709 4.71%
1900 8,824 58.59% 5,770 38.31% 466 3.09%
1896 11,017 65.32% 5,175 30.68% 674 4.00%
1892 9,165 51.85% 8,050 45.54% 462 2.61%
1888 9,880 53.80% 7,975 43.43% 508 2.77%
1884 9,510 50.44% 8,170 43.33% 1,175 6.23%
1880 10,167 50.75% 9,339 46.62% 528 2.64%
1876 8,831 54.22% 7,456 45.78% 0 0.00%
1872 7,491 62.31% 4,531 37.69% 0 0.00%
1868 9,138 60.18% 6,046 39.82% 0 0.00%
1864 7,728 54.84% 6,365 45.16% 0 0.00%
1860 7,934 59.04% 4,815 35.83% 690 5.13%
1856 8,211 58.34% 5,258 37.36% 605 4.30%
1852 4,471 36.19% 6,504 52.65% 1,379 11.16%
1848 4,797 38.28% 5,989 47.80% 1,744 13.92%
1844 4,483 39.52% 6,167 54.36% 695 6.13%
1840 6,790 51.22% 6,438 48.57% 28 0.21%
1836 3,608 42.85% 4,812 57.15% 0 0.00%

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Towns[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Other unincorporated communities[edit]

Education[edit]

School districts include:[19]

Governor Baxter School for the Deaf, a state-owned school, is in the county.

In popular culture[edit]

The fictional town of Jerusalem's Lot, featured in the vampire novel 'Salem's Lot by Stephen King, is situated in Cumberland County. King makes passing reference to other nearby towns and cities, including Portland, Falmouth, and Westbrook.

The video game Trauma Team takes place in Cumberland County in the year 2020, referencing Portland and its Back Cove neighborhood. Neither actual hospital housed in Portland is mentioned in-game; instead, a fictional trauma center called Resurgam First Care is fabricated for the plot (in real life, Portland's city motto is "Resurgam," Latin for "I will rise again"). Two other fictional places are mentioned that reference the county name: "Cumberland College" and "Cumberland Institute of Forensic Medicine".

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Cumberland County, Maine". Archived from the original on April 27, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
  4. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on September 9, 2014. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
  5. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
  6. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
  7. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
  8. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 27, 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
  9. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  10. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved July 31, 2019.
  11. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  12. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  13. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  14. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  15. ^ "2016 Election Results: President Live Map by State, Real-Time Voting Updates". Election Hub. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  16. ^ Bureau of Corporations, Elections & Commissions (May 5, 2019). "Registered & Enrolled Voters - Statewide" (PDF). Department of the Secretary of State, State of Maine. p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 7, 2019. Retrieved November 13, 2019.
  17. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  18. ^ "Our Campaigns - Container Detail Page".
  19. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Cumberland County, ME" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 22, 2022. Retrieved July 22, 2022. - Text list

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 43°49′N 70°20′W / 43.81°N 70.33°W / 43.81; -70.33