|- left||Martin's Fork, Clear Fork, Big South Fork, Obey River, Caney Fork, Stones River, Harpeth River|
|- right||Clover Fork, Poor Fork, Laurel River, Rockcastle River, Red River, Little River|
|Source||Confluence of Clover Fork and Martins Fork|
|- location||Baxter, Kentucky|
|- elevation||1,158 ft (353 m)|
|- location||Livingston County, Kentucky|
|- elevation||302 ft (92 m)|
|- coordinates||Coordinates: |
|Length||688 mi (1,107 km) |
|Basin||17,728 sq mi (45,915 km2) |
|Discharge||for below Barkley Dam, about 31 mi (50 km) from the mouth|
|- average||37,250 cu ft/s (1,055 m3/s) |
|- max||209,000 cu ft/s (5,918 m3/s)|
|- min||6,085 cu ft/s (172 m3/s)|
The Cumberland River is a major waterway of the Southern United States. The 688-mile-long (1,107 km) river drains almost 18,000 square miles (47,000 km2) of southern Kentucky and north-central Tennessee. The river flows generally west from a source in the Appalachian Mountains to its confluence with the Ohio River near Paducah, Kentucky, and the mouth of the Tennessee River. Major tributaries include the Obey, Caney Fork, Stones, and Red rivers.
Although the Cumberland River basin is predominantly rural, there are also some large cities on the river, including Nashville and Clarksville, both in Tennessee. In addition, the river system has been extensively developed for flood control, with major dams impounding both the main stem and many of its important tributaries.
Its headwaters are three separate forks that begin in Kentucky and converge in its Harlan County. Martin's Fork starts in Hensley Settlement on Brush Mountain in Bell County and snakes its way north through the mountains to Baxter. Clover Fork starts on Black Mountain in Holmes Mill, near the Virginia border, and flows west in parallel with Kentucky Route 38 until it reaches Harlan. Clover Fork once flowed through downtown Harlan and merged with Martin's Fork at the intersection of Kentucky Route 38 and US Route 421, until a flood control project in 1992 diverted it through a tunnel under Little Black Mountain, from which it emerges in Baxter and converges with Martin's Fork. Poor Fork begins as a small stream on Pine Mountain in Letcher County near Flat Gap, Virginia. It flows southwest in parallel with Pine Mountain until it merges with the other two forks in Baxter.
From there, the wider river continues flowing west through the mountains of Kentucky and then turns northward toward Cumberland Falls. The 68-foot (21 m) falls is one of the largest waterfalls in the southeastern United States and is one of the few places in the Western Hemisphere where a moonbow can be seen.
Beyond Cumberland Falls, the river turns abruptly west once again and continues to grow as it converges with other creeks and streams. It receives the Laurel and Rockcastle Rivers from the northeast and then the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River from the south. From here it flows into the man-made Lake Cumberland, formed by Wolf Creek Dam. The more than 100-mile (160 km) reservoir is one of the largest artificial lakes in the eastern US.
Near Celina, the river crosses south into Tennessee, where it is joined by the Obey River and Caney Fork. Northeast of Nashville, the river is dammed twice more, forming Cordell Hull Lake and Old Hickory Lake. After flowing through Nashville and picking up the Stones River, the river is dammed to form Cheatham Lake. The river turns northwest toward Clarksville, where it is joined by the Red River, and then flows back into Kentucky at the Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area, a section of land nestled between Lake Barkley, which is fed by the Cumberland River, and Kentucky Lake. Finally, the river flows north and merges with the Ohio River at Smithland, northeast of Paducah.
The Cumberland River was called Wasioto by Native Americans and Riviere des Chaouanons, or "river of the Shawnee," by French traders. The river was also known as the Shawnee River (or Shawanoe River) for years after Walker's trip.
Important first as a passage for hunters and settlers, the Cumberland River also supported later riverboat trade which reached to the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Villages, towns, and cities were located at landing points along its banks. Through the middle of the 19th century, settlers depended on rivers for trading and travel.
In more recent history, a number of severe floods have struck various regions that the river flows through. In April 1977, Harlan, Kentucky, and many surrounding communities were inundated with floodwaters, destroying most of the homes and businesses within the flood plain of the river. This event led to the building of the Martins Fork Dam for flood control and the diversion of the Clover Fork around the city of Harlan, Kentucky as well as the diversion of the river through a mountain cut in Loyall, Kentucky.
- Quadrula tuberosa — Cumberland River endemic 'Rough rockshell' freshwater mussel.
- List of longest rivers of the United States (by main stem)
- List of rivers of Kentucky
- List of rivers of Tennessee
- "Cumberland River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1979-09-20. Retrieved 2013-11-09.
- U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map, accessed June 8, 2011
- "Boundary Descriptions and Names of Regions, Subregions, Accounting Units and Cataloging Units". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2013-11-09.
- "USGS Gage #03438220 on the Cumberland River near Grand Rivers, KY". National Water Information System. U.S. Geological Survey. 1965–1997. Retrieved 2013-11-09.
- Cumberland Falls Moonbow Retrieved on 2010-05-29
- The Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society, Volume 1. Kentucky State Historical Society. 1903. p. 35.
- "At least 3 dead in Ky., hundreds of roads flooded". Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- Albright, Edward. "Early History of Middle Tennessee". (1908).
- Stewart, George R. "Names on the Land". (Boston: 1967) (See George R. Stewart)
- Arthur Benke & Colbert Cushing, "Rivers of North America". Elsevier Academic Press, 2005 ISBN 0-12-088253-1
- Myers, Fred (2004) Cumberland River CruiseGuide, ISBN 0-9704962-3-0
- Duthie, Bob & Mavis (2008) What to Expect Cruising the Cumberland River,CD-ROM
- Hay, Jerry (2010) Cumberland River Guidebook, ISBN 978-1-4507-2458-6
- Kohrs, Randy (2009) 'Cumberland', Album, 'Quicksand' ASIN: B002N1AEI2
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Cumberland River