Cumbernauld

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Cumbernauld
Scottish Gaelic: Comar nan Allt
Cumbernauld - geograph.org.uk - 1470717.jpg
Skyline of Cumbernauld
Cumbernauld is located in North Lanarkshire
Cumbernauld
Cumbernauld
 Cumbernauld shown within North Lanarkshire
Population 52,270 [1] (2011 census)
OS grid reference NS763736
Council area North Lanarkshire
Lieutenancy area Dunbartonshire
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town GLASGOW
Postcode district G67, G68
Dialling code 01236
Police Scottish
Fire Scottish
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament Cumbernauld, Kilsyth and Kirkintilloch East
Scottish Parliament Cumbernauld and Kilsyth
List of places
UK
Scotland

Coordinates: 55°56′42″N 3°59′38″W / 55.945°N 3.994°W / 55.945; -3.994

Cumbernauld (/ˌkʌmbərˈnɔːld/; Scots: Cummernaud;[2][3] Scottish Gaelic: Comar nan Allt)[4] is the largest town in North Lanarkshire, Scotland. It was designated a New Town on 9th December 1955, the 3rd of 5 Scottish New Town's which were built. The three much older satellite villages at Abronhill, Condorrat and The Village were expanded and incorporated into the new town as a population overspill for the city of Glasgow. It is the ninth most populous settlement in Scotland and the 5th largest town with about 52 thousand people.

Early History[edit]

Cumbernauld's history stretches to Roman times, with a settlement near the Antonine Wall, the furthest and most northerly boundary of the Roman Empire. The security that the wall gave from possibly hostile tribes to the north probably allowed the foundation of a settlement.

The town's name comes from the Gaelic comar nan allt, meaning "meeting of the waters". There are differing views as to the etymology of this, one theory being that geographically, from its high point in the Central Belt, its streams flow both west to the River Clyde and east to the Firth of Forth so Cumbernauld's name is about it being a watershed. Another theory ascribes the name to the meeting point of the Red Burn and Bog Stank streams within Cumbernauld Glen.

Cumbernauld Castle was first built as a Norman-style motte and bailey castle. Owned by the Comyns, it was situated at the east end of the park, where the motte (mound) is still visible. The Fleming family built a second castle where the Cumbernauld House now sits at the end of the 14th century. One original wall can be seen in the allotment area. The castle played host to the royalty of Scotland. James IV (1473-1513) wooed Margaret Drummond at Cumbernauld Castle, where Margaret's sister was married to Lord Fleming. The Drummond sisters lie buried in Dunblane Cathedral following their poisoning, possibly by a government determined to marry an unwilling King James to the sister of Henry VIII of England, Margaret Tudor. The murders made James IV a frequent visitor to Cumbernauld, Margaret Tudor accompanying him on one occasion.

Mary, Queen of Scots visited the castle and planted a yew tree at Castlecary Castle, only a mile or two away, which still grows there. The whole great hall collapsed while the queen was staying there on 26 January 1562, and 7 or 8 men were killed. Most of the queen's party were out hunting.[5] Mary was not hurt and visited the relatives of those who were injured or killed in the village below. [6] Royalty often visited the town to hunt the mysterious Scottish ox, or white cattle, which roamed in the woods around Cumbernauld. These woods were a surviving fragment of the ancient Caledonian Forest, in which the oxen abounded at least till 1571 since Groome's Gazetteers quotes "the savage white cattle still ran wild, since in that year a writer complains of the havoc committed by the King's party on the deer in the forest of Cumbernauld and its 'quhit ky and bullis, to the gryt destructione of polecie and hinder of the commonweil. For that kynd of ky and bullis hes bein keipit this money yeiris in the said forest; and the like was not mentenit in ony uther partis of the Ile of Albion.' " [kye is auld Scots for cows (similar to swine for pigs)].[7] [8] [9]

In 1640, eighteen Scottish noblemen met at Cumbernauld to sign the Cumbernauld Bond to oppose the policies of Earl of Argyll who controlled the dominant political faction in Scotland. Cumbernauld was was created a Burgh of barony in 1649. [10] Cumbernauld Castle was besieged by Cromwell's General Monck in 1651. [11]

Cumbernauld House which still survives was designed by William Adam and built in 1731 near the older castle. In 1746 the retreating Jacobite army was billeted for a night in Cumbernauld village. Rather than stay in Cumbernauld House, the commander, Lord George Murray, slept in the village's Black Bull Inn, where he could enforce closer discipline on his soldiers. After the new house was built, the castle was converted to stables, and was burnt down by dragoons posted there in 1746. The House's grounds are used today as a park, known as Cumbernauld Park.

A mining and quarrying industry flourished after the construction of the Forth and Clyde Canal in 1790, notably at Auchinstarry Quarry. This quarry is now a popular location for climbing and abseiling. Quarrying of limestone, coal and clay took place in Cumbernauld for example at Glencryan, where adits to the old clay mine are still clearly visible. Groome's Gazetteer states "A colliery is at Netherwood; ironstone has been mined to a small extent by the Carron Company; and limestone, brick-clay, sandstone, and trap are all of them largely worked, the sandstone for building, the trap for road-metal, paving, and rough masonry." Weaving was an important part of the town's industry before the Industrial Revolution (c. 1760), when bigger towns such as Glasgow became more dominant. Groome's Gazetteers states "Handloom weaving of checks and other striped fabrics is still carried on, but mining and quarrying are the staple industry." Cumbernauld was long a staging-post for changing horses between Glasgow and Edinburgh.

Historically Cumbernauld has variously been in several administrative jurisdictions including Stirlingshire, Dunbartonshire, and the Cumbernauld and Kilsyth District of Strathclyde region. Since 1995 it has been part of North Lanarkshire.

The New Town history of Cumbernauld began when it was designated such in 1955.

Cumbernauld on Film and TV[edit]

Film

  1. Cumbernauld (1957) colour 2 mins. Cutting turf silent - inaugural ceremony on 28th June 1957 with Viscount Muirshiel, Secretary of State for Scotland. [12]
  2. Building New Houses At Cumbernauld. (1959) colour 6 mins Seafar or Kidrum? [13]
  3. Glasgow (1963) colour 20 mins Douglas Gray Includes very brief footage of East Kilbride and Cumbernauld [14]
  4. British Movietone News (1965) B&W 2 min Roundabout International journalists visit Cumbernauld.[15]
  5. The Design of Space (1966) Dir: Don C. Chipperfield (minutes 1-3) [16] with incredible pronunciation of Cumbernauld.
  6. Pathe News (1967) B&W 1 min Princess Margaret In Cumbernauld to open Phase 1 [17]
  7. New Towns (1969) 22 mins colour. A study of the new towns of East Kilbride, Glenrothes, Cumbernauld and Livingston. [18]
  8. Cumbernauld, Town For Tomorrow (1970) 25 mins colour. Director Robin Crichton. Narrated by Magnus Magnusson [19]
  9. Marshall-Orr (1975) 17 mins colour silent Has some footage of the Town Centre and railway station.[20]
  10. Cumbernauld HIT (1977) 44 mins colour. A James-Bond type fiction film about an evil woman's plans to 'hi-jack' the New Town of Cumbernauld with a bio-weapon dir: Murray Grigor, Sponsor: CDC.[21] Has some chase sequences round the old Town Centre.
  11. Gregory's Girl Bill Forsyth's 1981 film set in Abronhill High and around the town. The name of the town in the film was Climackston New Town (sic) and it was signed as being 20 miles from Glasgow, 25 miles from Edinburgh and 9000 miles from Caracus.[22]
  12. In Peter Mullan's (1998) film Orphans some of the scenes were shot in Torbrex Road and other sites in North Carbrain.
  13. Bill Forsyth's sequel (from 1999), Gregory's Two Girls follows the original.
  14. New Town Year 2059 - A re-edit of footage (can be found with video search).

TV

  1. STV Town Planning - The New Town of Cumbernauld (1966) Geoff Rimmer [23]
  2. STV - Gallimaufrey (c. 1970) 3 mins colour – A Cumbernauld Poem - A vision of a new town [24]
  3. It's a Knockout (1981) BBC 45 mins Dunfermline vs Cumbernauld vs Glenrothes (can be found with video search).[25]
  4. What's it Called? - TV advert. voice over includes Bill McLaren (can be found with video search)
  5. St. Mungo's church building features very briefly in Jonathan Meades' atheistic polemic Absentee Landlord where he compares God to a Ku Klux Klansman.
  6. Demolition (2005 - Channel 4). Episode 4 [26]
  7. Craig Ferguson returns to Cumbernauld High School and his old haunts in Torbrex Road, North Carbrain. (Craig Ferguson 5/16/12A Late Late Show in Scotland)
  8. BBC Scotland's Limmy had a short sketch about moving to Cumbernauld.[27]
  9. STV had a short short piece about the positives of the town: Reasons Cumbernauld is possibly the best place in Scotland.[27]

Wardpark Studios

The Outlander TV series used Wardpark Studios as its base for sets. Several scenes from the TV series were shot in local woodland. In May 2016 approval was given to expand the site from 30,000 sq ft to 78,000 sq ft. [28]

New Town History[edit]

Cumbernauld was designated a New Town on 9th December 1955. Being in the post-war era there are abundant film and paper records of this which are now being digitized. There was an inaugural ceremony on 28th June 1957 with Viscount Muirshiel, Secretary of State for Scotland of which some silent, colour footage survives.

After the Second World War Glasgow was suffering from chronic shortages of housing and poor housing conditions, particularly in areas such as the Gorbals. As a direct result the Clyde Valley Regional Plan 1946 allocated sites where satellite new towns were to be constructed to help alleviate the problem through an overspill agreement.[29] Glasgow would also undertake the development of its peripheral housing estates. Cumbernauld was designated a new town in 1955, the third to be designated in Scotland. The others were East Kilbride, Glenrothes, Livingston and Irvine (Cowling 1997).

South Carbrain viewed from Cumbernauld railway station

The development, promotion and management was undertaken, until 1996, by the Cumbernauld Development Corporation (CDC). This was a quango appointed by the Secretary of State for Scotland (Cowling 1997).

Cumbernauld is the most clear example of a modernist new town vision in the UK.[30] Housing was originally delivered through constructing a series of satellite neighbourhoods which were clustered around the hilltop town centre. Separation of people and cars was a major element of the first town masterplan and this was carried through for much of the development of the town. Cumbernauld pioneered designs for underpasses and pedestrian footbridges as well as segregated footpaths. Early neighbourhoods were designed by the CDC and were constructed at Kildrum, Cumbernauld Village, Seafar, North Carbrain and Greenfaulds. Other neighbourhoods were later developed at Condorrat, South Carbrain and Abronhill. Much of the housing of these areas won awards for their innovative designs.

Cumbernauld town centre's lead designer was Geoffrey Copcutt. Phase 1 was opened by Princess Margaret in 1967 of which some footage survives.

When originally designated a New Town the target population was 50,000. In 1961, only five years after becoming a new town, the Area to the north of the A80 was included in the town's area with new planned neighbourhoods at Balloch, Dullatur, Westerwood and Eastfield. As a result, a revised target population of 70,000 was predicted.[31] However, the 2011 census still only shows about 52 thousand residents.

St Enoch's station clock

When Raymond Gillies a local businessman gifted Cumbernauld the St. Enoch's station clock, in 1977, the Queen was celebrating her Silver Jubilee. To mark the occasion, the Queen started the clock using the pendulum motion and unveiled a commemorative plaque at Cumbernauld Town Centre, at the staircase joining the upper mall area with the old Woolco store. The clock is featured in Gregory's Girl and is now in the Antonine Centre.

After the creation of the new town, diverse industries such as high-tech, electronics, and chemical and food processing became large employers, along with Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs. The main industrial estates were developed to the east and west along the A80 at Castlecary, Wardpark and Westfield. Areas at Luggiebank and South Carbrain to the south of the town have also been developed for industry.

The Cumbernauld Development Corporation (C.D.C.) disbanded in 1996. [32]

Modern times[edit]

Entrance to Cumbernauld Shopping Centre

The Modern era for the town can be dated from the disbanding of the C.D.C. in 1996. Since then, the outlook has changed dramatically and the New Town has won a number of very unflattering awards including Urban Realm's "Plook on a Plinth" in both 2001 and 2005.[33] In December 2005 the entire Town Centre won a public nomination for demolition in the Channel 4 series Demolition, where it was voted "the worst building in Britain".[34] As a result of this, it was featured on the BBC Radio 2 comedy programme It's Been a Bad Week, where it won the show's fictional "Worst Week of the Week Award, Awarded Weekly, on a Week-By-Week Basis" in 2003.

The intended core of Cumbernauld remains the Town Centre buildings, all of which is essentially contained within one structure, segmented into "phases", the first of which was completed in 1967, the latest of which began construction in May 2003 for completion around September 2004.[citation needed] Initially the basic groundwork for the new shops began in 1997 and were finally completed in summer 2007. Designed to be a commerce centre, an entertainment and business venue and a luxury accommodation site, it was widely accepted as Britain's first shopping centre and was the world's first multi-level covered town centre.[30] However, the town never developed to its planned size, and the town centre has never had the life envisaged by town planners. Wealthy occupiers for the penthouses situated within the "Alien's Head" (locals' acrid moniker for the top section of the building[35][36]) never materialised. Further expansion has been primarily to provide further space for shops. A substantial portion of the original Shopping Centre was demolished due to structural damage and has been redeveloped as a new shopping and leisure complex.[37]

As well as the unfulfilled ambitions for the town, the passage of time has exposed serious defects in post-war concepts of centrally-planned retail and civic centres developed in the absence of proper community consultation or sensitivity to local environmental and economic conditions. This has been reflected in a country-wide backlash against modernist architecture in general.[citation needed] Cumbernauld's Town Centre is widely regarded as one of the ugliest and least-loved examples of post-war design in Scotland.[citation needed] The confusing layout is an abiding source of frustration for both visitors and residents, many of whom are the descendants of skilled workers who aspired to escape the frequently appalling social and housing conditions of the Glasgow conurbation in the 1960s and 70s.

West Elevation, Cumbernauld Shopping Centre 2005
OKI Electric manufacturing plant seen from the air.

Despite its bad press, from a purely aesthetic standpoint Cumbernauld is regarded as representing a significant moment in town design, and in 1993 it was listed as one of the sixty key monuments of post-war architecture by the international conservation organisation DoCoMoMo.

The residential structure of Cumbernauld is noteworthy in that there were no pedestrian crossings, i.e. zebra or pelican crossings — pedestrians originally traversed roads by bridge or underpass (although). This has led to the perception that the town is car-centric, and difficult to navigate by foot. In 2004 a set of traffic lights was erected in the Condorrat Village neighbourhood, soon followed by pelican crossings beside the new Tesco Extra.[citation needed]

Cumbernauld in the last few years has seen a surge of business activity with the New OKI UK headquarters in Wardpark and Yaskawa Electronics too. Irn-bru makers A.G. Barr also has its World Headquarters there. The old Isola-Werke factory in the Wardpark area has been converted into film studios and production facilities for the TV series Outlander which frequently films within the town's greenspaces. In particular, the Scottish Wildlife Trust's Cumbernauld Glen reserve, has been used as a backdrop whose ancient oak forest remnant provides a convenient stand-in for 18th Century Highlands' scenes. In May 2016 North Lanarkshire Council agreed to the expansion the Wardpark site if funding could be found.

Housing[edit]

Much of the town's original housing was very poorly designed for the Scottish climate. Flat roofs routinely let in water, and long narrow terraced streets with deep gullies which collect litter and debris make some areas dark, windy and visually unappealing. Although the town was designed around the motorcar there are inadequate provisions for parking and road signage.

Cumbernauld North is home to more modern, upmarket and large detached homes, many of which are surrounded by a golf course and have a backdrop of the Campsie Fells.

Awards[edit]

In 1967 the Institute of American Architects voted Cumbernauld the world's best new town conferring the Reynold's Memorial Award.[38] Cumbernauld is a two-time winner of the Carbuncle Awards,.[39] Cumbernauld scooped a silver prize at the Beautiful Scotland 2012 awards. The town has since received the award of 'Best Town' at the Scottish Design Awards 2012.[39] The Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI) awarded the town a certificate in March 2014 for its success as a New Town.

Sport[edit]

Cumbernauld hosts many sporting clubs including Clyde F.C, who currently play football in the Scottish League Two and reside at Broadwood Stadium, which has been their home since they relocated from their traditional base of Glasgow in February 1994.

In 2012 Broadwood Stadium's grass pitch was replaced by a new artificial FIFA standard 3G surface in a partnership between fellow tenants and Lowland League club Cumbernauld Colts, North Lanarkshire Leisure and the local council. Cumbernauld is home to Junior football side Cumbernauld United who play at Guy's Meadow.

The town's rugby team, Cumbernauld RFC, were formed in 1970 and quickly grew to have 3 senior men's teams and several junior teams. The club and council agreed in the late 70's to develop the Auchenkilns area in South Condorrat. The multi-sports facility opened in 1979 and is now shared with Kildrum United FC. They currently play in West regional league 2, the 5th tier of club rugby.[40]

There has been a gymnastics team, Cumbernauld Gymnastics Club, in the town for many years, and in the early 1990s it moved into its present base at Broadwood Gymnastics Academy, a purpose built building at the same site as Broadwood Stadium. There is also the Cumbernauld Handball Team, Tryst 77 which in 2007 came second in the British Handball Championships. The Tryst houses the Cumbernauld swimming team with many age groups competing in galas around the country, along with the Tryst Lions wrestling club.

There is an archery club, Palacerigg Field Archers, that meets for practice at the Tryst Sports Centre every Saturday morning. The club has an archery course at the nearby Palacerigg Country Park where competitions are held.

Palacerrig also has one of the town's three golf courses. The other two courses are Dullatur Golf Club (where Cumbernauld Chess Club also meet), and Westerwood, which was designed by Seve Ballesteros and Dave Thomas.

Environment[edit]

In contrast to its reputation as a "Concrete Jungle" Cumbernauld is well provisioned for environmental amenities and actually consists of more than 50% green space.

The town was designed to incorporate green spaces as a resource for the community, but this network was often poorly planned, fragmented and planted with (by modern standards) an insensitive mix of non-native trees and plants. More modern management techniques are slowly seeing much of this planting replaced with native species.

The Scottish Wildlife Trust owns four wildlife reserves in the town - Cumbernauld Glen, Luggiebank, Seafar Woods, and Forestwood. These cover a multitude of habitats including ancient Oak forest (with attendant spectacular bluebell displays in early summer) and large areas of Scots Pine coverage.

Bridge over the Bog Stank at the Glen by Texas Radio and the Big Beat.
The Bog Stank at the Glen by Texas Radio and the Big Beat.
Viaduct over the Red Burn in the Glen by Texas Radio and the Big Beat.

Cumbernauld (like Ben Lomond) lies on the Scottish watershed, the drainage divide which separates river systems that flow to the east from those that flow to the west. There are two main waterways which flow out of Cumbernauld: the Red Burn (from which the town's Gaelic name is derived) and the Luggie Water (immortalised by David Gray). The Red Burn flows through the Glen and there are pleasant walkways alongside this and the Bog Stank which is much more appealing than the name suggests. There is also a footpath along the Glencryan Burn with miles of quiet pathways up towards Pallacerigg and Fannyside Lochs.

Pine Marten by SurreyJohn

Fannyside Muir, to the south of the town, is part of the Slamannan plateau, an area of 183 hectares of lowland bog. This rare and important habitat has been historically mismanaged but is now being restored by a variety of organisations including the national insect charity Buglife. The plateau is deisgnated as a SSSI (Site of Special Scientific Interest) and an SPA (Special Protection Area), partly because of its nationally important population of Taiga Bean Geese (Anser fabialis fabialis).

There are also a large number of parks, LNRs (Local Nature Reserves) and SINCS (Sites of Importance for Nature Conservation) owned and managed by North Lanarkshire Council.

A flagship landscape scale conservation partnership led by the Scottish Wildlife Trust, the Cumbernauld Living Landscape (CLL), operates in the town with the aim of enhancing, connecting and restoring the greenspaces and improving people's perceptions of and access to them.

In 2014 the CLL obtained camera trap footage of Pine Martens living in the woods within Cumbernauld and the return of this rare and iconic species (formerly extinct across the Central belt of Scotland) has become a central plank of the organisation's strategy to improve perceptions of nature in the town.

Transport[edit]

Nearby motorway links include the M8, M73, M74, M80, M876 and M9. A local campaign was recently initiated to protest at the proposed extension of the M80 within the town limits. The A80 was recently upgraded to the M80.

In terms of public transport, Cumbernauld has bus links to Glasgow, Stirling, Falkirk, Dunfermline and St Andrews, which are operated by FirstGroup and Stagecoach. The town has rail links to Glasgow, Falkirk, Motherwell and Edinburgh via Cumbernauld railway station. Croy railway station to the north of the town has rail links to Edinburgh, Alloa, Dunblane and Glasgow. Various parts of the town are linked by local bus services, operated by smaller companies such as Canavan Travel and Dunn's Coaches. Rail services to and from the town are provided by Abellio ScotRail.

Cumbernauld Airport main building and part of runway.

Cumbernauld Airport (EGPG) is primarily used for the training of fixed wing and rotary wing pilots, it also has an aircraft maintenance facility. The airport has a CAA Ordinary Licence that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction as authorised by the licensee, Cormack Aircraft Services Limited. The airport was opened by the Cumbernauld Development Corpororation in the late 1980s. Before the airport was constructed there was a grass strip in use on the same site.

Media[edit]

The local Cumbernauld newspaper is the Cumbernauld News.

Education[edit]

The Town has many primary and secondary schools to cater for the needs of the town and others surrounding it. The Cumbernauld College provides further education in the town.

Religion[edit]

Historically Groome's Gazetteer stated "pre-Reformation chapels are thought to have existed at Achenbee, Achenkill, Chapelton, Kildrum, Kilmuir, and Croy."

There are currently about 17 churches in the town. These include:

Church of Scotland

  • Abronhill Parish
  • Condorrat Parish
  • Cumbernauld Old - The historical Groome's Gazetteer has "The parish church here is an old building, containing 660 sittings."
  • Kildrum Parish
  • St Mungo's

Roman Catholic

  • Sacred Heart
  • St. Joseph's
  • St. Lucy's

Other Churches

Islam

  • A purpose built mosque opened in 2011

Famous residents[edit]

Areas of the town[edit]

Nearby towns and villages[edit]

Towns[edit]

Villages[edit]

Twin towns[edit]

Notable buildings[edit]

Sacred Heart Church in Kildrum, Cumbernauld.

Cumbernauld has many works by well-known architects. Gillespie, Kidd & Coia designed a number of buildings in the New Town, including:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Specific references:

  1. ^ http://www.northlanarkshire.gov.uk/index.aspx?articleid=9060
  2. ^ "Scots Culture - Names in Scots - Places in Scotland - Scots Language Centre". Scotslanguage.com. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  3. ^ The Online Scots Dictionary
  4. ^ "Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba - Gaelic Place-Names of Scotland - Database". Gaelicplacenames.org. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  5. ^ Calendar State Papers Scotland, vol. (1898), no. 1071, p. 598.
  6. ^ http://www.derelictplaces.co.uk/main/residential-sites/10294-cumbernauld-house-april-2009-a.html#.V5o72aJGQ6o Historic Timeline
  7. ^ http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/kye ky definition see also Kyne
  8. ^ http://www.scottishmining.co.uk/157.html link to Gazetteer
  9. ^ in modern language "'white cows and bulls, to the great destruction of policy and hinder of the common good. For those kind of cows and bulls have been kept this many years in the said forest; and the like was not maintained in any other parts of the UK.'
  10. ^ http://www.scottishmining.co.uk/157.html
  11. ^ https://cumbernauldhousetrust.wordpress.com/about/history/ Monke's Seige
  12. ^ http://movingimage.nls.uk/film/5020?search_term=cumbernauld&search_join_type=AND&search_fuzzy=yes
  13. ^ http://movingimage.nls.uk/film/5343?search_term=cumbernauld&search_join_type=AND&search_fuzzy=yes
  14. ^ http://movingimage.nls.uk/film/0915
  15. ^ http://bufvc.ac.uk/newsonscreen/search/index.php/story/327715
  16. ^ http://www.eafa.org.uk/catalogue/6067
  17. ^ http://www.britishpathe.com/video/princess-margaret-in-cumbernauld/
  18. ^ http://movingimage.nls.uk/film/1826 National Library of Scotland Ref:1826
  19. ^ http://movingimage.nls.uk/film.cfm?fid=2227&search_term=cumbernauld&search_join_type=AND&search_fuzzy=yes
  20. ^ http://movingimage.nls.uk/film/8241?search_term=cumbernauld&search_join_type=AND&search_fuzzy=yes
  21. ^ http://movingimage.nls.uk/film/4294?search_term=Cumbernauld%20HIT&search_join_type=AND&search_fuzzy=yes
  22. ^ http://www.hiddenglasgow.com/forums/search.php?keywords=film&t=5996&sf=msgonly Gregory's Girl New Town
  23. ^ http://www.bfi.org.uk/films-tv-people/4ce2b75b7d4c0
  24. ^ https://scotlandonscreen.org.uk/browse-films/007-000-000-409-c
  25. ^ http://www.bfi.org.uk/films-tv-people/4ce2b8755fbbb
  26. ^ http://www.channel4.com/programmes/demolition/episode-guide/
  27. ^ a b http://stv.tv/news/west-central/1345854-reasons-cumbernauld-is-possibly-the-best-place-scotland/ STV one minute of footage
  28. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-glasgow-west-36290779 Wardpark Studios expansion
  29. ^ Fraser, W Hamish. "Modern Times: 1950s to The Present Day - Neighbourhoods -New Towns". TheGlasgowStory. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  30. ^ a b "From Here To Modernity Buildings - Cumbernauld Town Centre". Open2.net. 1955-12-09. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  31. ^ "Site Record for Cumbernauld, Cumbernauld Town Centre, General Town Centre Details". Canmore.rcahms.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  32. ^ https://cumbernauldhousetrust.wordpress.com/about/ End of the C.D.C.
  33. ^ "UK | Scotland | Officials condemn 'Carbuncle' tag". BBC News. 2005-10-21. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  34. ^ "Demolition". Channel 4. 2005. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  35. ^ "What's it called? Carbuncle-nauld". Airdrie & Coatbridge Advertiser (Scottish and Universal Newspapers). 21 November 2001. [T]he centre is topped by a rather unsightly block...Cumbernauld residents dubbed [it] the 'Alien's Head', in homage to ET. 
  36. ^ Caro Ramsay (6 December 2013). "What's it called? Cumbernauld!". Murder is Everywhere. Retrieved 9 February 2014. ...the centre's penthouses located within the 'alien's head' lie empty and derelict. 
  37. ^ "Antonine Centre website". 
  38. ^ http://www.scotlandsplaces.gov.uk/record/rcahms/70556/cumbernauld-seafar-general/rcahms Reynold's Aware
  39. ^ a b "Cumbernauld voted best town after double 'plook' shame". BBC News. 2012-05-25. 
  40. ^ http://www.pitchero.com/clubs/cumbernauldrugbyclub/a/history-9604.html
  41. ^ http://www.scottishmining.co.uk/157.html Groome's Gazetteer

General references:

External links[edit]