|Native to||Vietnam, Laos|
|71,000 (1999 census)|
Cuói, known as Thổ in Vietnam and as Hung in Laos, is a dialect cluster spoken by around 70,000 Thổ people in Vietnam and a couple thousand in Laos, mainly in the provinces of Bolikhamsai and Khammouane.
Làng Lỡ dialect
The consonant inventory of the Làng Lỡ dialect, as cited by Michel Ferlus:
Initial consonants of Cuối Làng Lỡ Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal Nasal [m] [n] [ɲ] [ŋ] Stop tenuis [p] [t] [ʈ] [c] [k] [ʔ] glottalized [ɓ] [ɗ] [ˀɟ] aspirated [tʰ] [kʰ] Fricative voiceless [f] [s] [ʂ] [h] voiced [β] [v] [ð] [ɣ] glottalized [ˀð] Approximant [l] [ɽ ~ ʐ] [j]
- [ʈ] is found in Vietnamese loanwords with initial /ʈ/ (orthographic [tr])
- [β ð ɣ ˀð] originate in the borrowing of segments from a variety of Vietnamese that existed several centuries ago.
Monothongs of Cuối Làng Lỡ Front Central Back Close [i] [ɨ] [u] Close-mid/
[e] [ə] [o] Open-mid/
|Diphthongs of Cuối Làng Lỡ||iə||ɨə||uə||eə||oə|
There're eight tones in the Làng Lỡ. Tones 1 to 6 are found on sonorant-final syllables (a.k.a. ‘live’ syllables): syllables ending in a vowel, semi-vowel or nasal. Tones 7 and 8 are found on obstruent-final syllables (a.k.a. ‘stopped’ syllables), ending in -p -t -c -k. This is a system comparable to that of Vietnamese.
Datas taken from Cuoi Cham vocabulary and the Mon-Khmer Etymological Dictionary.
|English||Cuối Chăm||Làng Lỡ||Vietnamese|
- Ferlus, Michel (2015). Hypercorrections in the Thổ dialect of Làng Lỡ (Nghệ An, Vietnam): an example of pitfalls for comparative linguistics (Ph.D.).