Cuoi language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Cuói
Thổ
Hung
Native toVietnam, Laos
EthnicityThổ
Native speakers
71,000 (1999 census)[1]
Dialects
  • Cuối Chăm
  • Làng Lỡ
  • Pong (Toum, Liha, Phong)
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
hnu – Hung
tou – Thô
Glottologcuoi1242[2]
Linguasphere46-EAD-a

Cuói, known as Thổ in Vietnam and as Hung in Laos,[3] is a dialect cluster spoken by around 70,000 Thổ people in Vietnam and a couple thousand in Laos, mainly in the provinces of Bolikhamsai and Khammouane.

Phonology[edit]

Làng Lỡ dialect[edit]

Consonants[edit]

The consonant inventory of the Làng Lỡ dialect, as cited by Michel Ferlus:[4]

Initial consonants of Cuối Làng Lỡ
Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal [m] [n] [ɲ] [ŋ]
Stop tenuis [p] [t] [ʈ] [c] [k] [ʔ]
glottalized [ɓ] [ɗ] [ˀɟ]
aspirated [tʰ] [kʰ]
Fricative voiceless [f] [s] [ʂ] [h]
voiced [β] [v] [ð] [ɣ]
glottalized [ˀð]
Approximant [l] [ɽ ~ ʐ] [j]
  • [ʈ] is found in Vietnamese loanwords with initial /ʈ/ (orthographic [tr])
  • [β ð ɣ ˀð] originate in the borrowing of segments from a variety of Vietnamese that existed several centuries ago.

Vowels[edit]

Monothongs of Cuối Làng Lỡ
  Front Central Back
Close [i] [ɨ] [u]
Close-mid/
Mid
[e] [ə] [o]
Open-mid/
Open
[ɛ] [ʌ̆]
[ă] [a]
[ɔ]
Diphthongs of Cuối Làng Lỡ ɨə

Tones[edit]

There're eight tones in the Làng Lỡ. Tones 1 to 6 are found on sonorant-final syllables (a.k.a. ‘live’ syllables): syllables ending in a vowel, semi-vowel or nasal. Tones 7 and 8 are found on obstruent-final syllables (a.k.a. ‘stopped’ syllables), ending in -p -t -c -k.[4] This is a system comparable to that of Vietnamese.

Vocabulary[edit]

Datas taken from Cuoi Cham vocabulary and the Mon-Khmer Etymological Dictionary.

English Cuối Chăm Làng Lỡ Vietnamese
cloud mʌl¹ mʌn¹ mây
rain mɐː² mɨə¹ mưa
wind sɒː³ juə³ gió
thunder kʰrʌm⁴ ʂəm⁴ sấm
earth, land tʌt⁷ tʌt⁷ đất
cave haːŋ¹ haːŋ¹ hang
deep kʰruː² ʂuː² sâu
water daːk⁷ daːk⁷ nước
river kʰrɔŋ¹ ʂɔːŋ¹ sông
puddle puŋ⁶ - vũng
mud puːl² vuːn² bùn
rock, stone taː³ δaː³ đá
bark pɒː⁵ ʂɔː⁵⁶ vỏ
dog cɒː³ cɔː³ chó
cultivated field rɔːŋ⁴ ʂɔːŋ⁴ ruộng
to go tiː² tiː² đi
to have kɒː³ kɔː³

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hung at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Thô at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cuoi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "The Vietic Branch". sealang.net.
  4. ^ a b Ferlus, Michel 2015, I.2

Further reading[edit]

  • Ferlus, Michel (2015). Hypercorrections in the Thổ dialect of Làng Lỡ (Nghệ An, Vietnam): an example of pitfalls for comparative linguistics (Ph.D.).