Cupaniopsis

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Cupaniopsis
Cupaniopsis anacardioides Wyrrabalong National Park.jpg
Cupaniopsis anacardioides, Tuckeroo, foliage and flowers, Wyrrabalong National Park, NSW, Australia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae
Subfamily: Sapindoideae
Genus: Cupaniopsis
Radlk.[1][2]
Type species
Cupaniopsis anacardioides
(A.Rich.) Radlk.
Species

See text

Cupaniopsis is a genus of about 67 species of trees and shrubs known to science, of the soapberry plant family Sapindaceae.[3] They grow naturally in New Guinea, New Caledonia, Australia, Torres Strait Islands, Fiji, Samoa, Sulawesi, Micronesia.[2][3][4][5][6] Many species have been threatened with extinction globally or nationally, with official recognition by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and several national and state governments.

Tuckeroo is a common name suffix for some species in Australia.[7][8][9]

C. anacardioides has been introduced into the United States, where in some parts they are invasive plants, primarily in Florida and Hawaii, where the common name Carrotwood applies.[10]

Conservation[edit]

At global, national and government regional scales, many Cupaniopsis species have been threatened with extinction, as officially recognised by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), governments of Australia, New Caledonia and so on.

Globally, the New Caledonian endemic species C. crassivalvis has become extinct according to the IUCN's 1998 assessment.[11] Seven species endemic to New Caledonia have become endangered with global extinction according to the IUCN's 1998 assessments. Five species endemic to New Guinea, one endemic to New Caledonia and one endemic to Sulawesi have become vulnerable to global extinction according to the IUCN's 1998 and 2010 assessments.

In Australia, C. shirleyana and C. tomentella, small trees today found growing naturally only (endemic) in small areas of south eastern Queensland (Qld), have obtained the "vulnerable" species Australian government's national conservation status and together also with C. cooperorum, the Qld government's "vulnerable" species state conservation status.[12][13][14]:48 C. newmannii small trees in eastern Qld have obtained the Qld government's "near threatened" species state conservation status.[14]:67 C. serrata small trees in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW) have obtained the NSW government's "endangered" species state conservation status.[15]

Naming and classification[edit]

European science formally named and described this genus in 1879 using C. anacardioides for the type species, authored by Bavarian botanist Ludwig A. T. Radlkofer.[1][2][6]

In 1991 a 190-page monograph of the whole genus was published by Dutch botanist Frits Adema.[16]

Australian botanist Sally T. Reynolds, from 1984 to 1991 published new formal scientific names, descriptions, updates and species clarifications, in her scientific journal articles and the Flora of Australia treatment.[8][9][17]

Species[edit]

C. anacardioides fruits and foliage
C. baileyana leaves and flowers
C. flagelliformis var. australis seedling
C. newmanii young plant foliage
C. wadsworthii flowers
C. wadsworthii foliage and unripe fruit
C. wadsworthii foliage and ripe fruit

This listing was sourced from the Australian Plant Name Index and Australian Plant Census,[2] the Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants information system,[3] the Census of Vascular Plants of Papua New Guinea,[4] the Checklist of the vascular indigenous Flora of New Caledonia,[5] Flora Malesiana,[6] Fruits of the Australian Tropical Rainforest,[18] "The Endemic Plants of Micronesia",[19] Plants in Samoan Culture,[20] Flora Vitiensis (Fiji),[21] the 2013 Census of the Queensland Flora,[22] the Flora of New South Wales,[7] and the Flora of Australia.[9]

Species accepted by the official Census of the Queensland Flora 2013, while awaiting formal naming, description and publication[22]
  • Cupaniopsis sp. (Biggenden J.Randall 600) – Biggenden and Childers areas, SE. central Queensland
  • Cupaniopsis sp. (Watalgan A.R.Bean 8611) – Gladstone region, E. central Queensland

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Radlkofer, L. A. T. (1879). "Ueber Cupania und damit verwandte Pflanzen.". Sitzungsberichte der mathematisch-physikalischen Classe der K. b. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu München (in German). 9: 457–678. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Cupaniopsis%". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) database (listing by % wildcard matching of all taxa relevant to Australia). Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. Retrieved 15 Dec 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Sapindaceae". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Conn, Barry J. (2008+). "Cupaniopsis". Census of Vascular Plants of Papua New Guinea. (search result listing, matching all starting with "Cupaniopsis", via www.pngplants.org). Retrieved 15 Dec 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Morat, P.; Jaffré, T.; Tronchet, F.; Munzinger, J.; Pillon, Y.; Veillon, J.-M.; Chalopin, M. (Dec 2012). "The taxonomic database "Florical" and characteristics of the indigenous Flora of New Caledonia" (PDF). Adansonia. sér. 3. 34 (2): 177–219. Retrieved 7 Nov 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis Radlk.". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Harden (2001) New South Wales Flora Online. "Cupaniopsis". July 2001. Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Reynolds, Sally T. (1984). "Notes on Sapindaceae in Australia, III". Austrobaileya. 2 (1): 29–64. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis Radlk.". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  10. ^ University of Florida: Cupaniopsis anacardioides as a weed in Florida
  11. ^ a b "Cupaniopsis crassivalvis Radlk.". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  12. ^ a b Cupaniopsis shirleyana — Wedge-leaf Tuckeroo, Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australia. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013
  13. ^ a b Cupaniopsis tomentella — Boonah Tuckeroo, Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australia. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013
  14. ^ a b Queensland Government (27 Sep 2013). "Nature Conservation (Wildlife) Regulation 2006" (PDF). Nature Conservation Act 1992. Online, accessed from www.legislation.qld.gov.au. Australia. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  15. ^ a b "Smooth Tuckeroo - profile". Threatened Species. New South Wales, Australia: Department of Environment and Heritage. 7 Sep 2012 [7 Nov 2003]. Retrieved 19 Dec 2013. 
  16. ^ Adema, Frits (Fredericus) A. C. B. (1991). Cupaniopsis Radlk. (Sapindaceae): a monograph. Leiden Botanical Series. 15. pp. 1–190. 
  17. ^ Reynolds, Sally T. (1991). "New species and changes in Sapindaceae from Queensland". Austrobaileya. 3 (3): 489–501. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Cooper, Wendy; Cooper, William T. (June 2004). "Cupaniopsis Radlk.". Fruits of the Australian Tropical Rainforest. Clifton Hill, Victoria, Australia: Nokomis Editions. pp. 481–484. ISBN 9780958174213. Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  19. ^ a b Costion, Craig M.; Lorence, David H. (2012). "The Endemic Plants of Micronesia: A Geographical Checklist and Commentary" (PDF). Micronesica. 43 (1). pp. (51 – 100). Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  20. ^ a b Whistler, W. Arthur (2000). "Cupaniopsis samoensis Christoph.". Plants in Samoan Culture: The Ethnobotany of Samoa (only Google Books snippet online). Honolulu: Isle Botanica. p. 202. ISBN 9780964542662. Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Smith, Albert C. (1985). "Cupaniopsis Radlk.". Flora Vitiensis nova: a new Flora of Fiji (Digitised, online, via biodiversitylibrary.org). 3. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. pp. 603–608. Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  22. ^ a b Bostock, Peter D.; Holland, Ailsa E., eds. (16 Aug 2013). "Cupaniopsis". 2013 Census of the Queensland Flora. Brisbane: Queensland Herbarium, Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts. Retrieved 1 Jan 2014. 
  23. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis acuticarpa Adema". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  24. ^ "Cupaniopsis acuticarpa Adema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  25. ^ Harden (2001) New South Wales Flora Online. "Cupaniopsis anacardioides". July 2001. Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  26. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Cupaniopsis anacardioides". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  27. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A.Rich.) Radlk.". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  28. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A.Rich.) Radlk.". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  29. ^ Harden (2001) New South Wales Flora Online. "Cupaniopsis baileyana". Oct 2002. Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  30. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis baileyana Radlk.". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  31. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis bilocularis Adema". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  32. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis bullata Adema". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  33. ^ "Cupaniopsis bullata Adema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  34. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis celebica Adema". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  35. ^ Forster, Paul I. (2002). "Cupaniopsis cooperorum (Sapindaceae), a new species from the Wet Tropics, Queensland". Austrobaileya. 6 (2): 267–271. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  36. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Cupaniopsis cooperorum". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  37. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis cooperorum P.I.Forst.". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  38. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis curvidens Radlk.". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  39. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Cupaniopsis dallachyi". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  40. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis dallachyi S.T.Reynolds". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  41. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Cupaniopsis diploglottoides". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  42. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis diploglottoides Adema". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  43. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis euneura Adema". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  44. ^ "Cupaniopsis euneura Adema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  45. ^ Harden (2001) New South Wales Flora Online. "Cupaniopsis flagelliformis". Aug 2002. Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  46. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Cupaniopsis flagelliformis". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  47. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis flagelliformis (F.M.Bailey) Radlk.". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  48. ^ Harden (2001) New South Wales Flora Online. "Cupaniopsis flagelliformis var. australis". July 2001. Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  49. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis flagelliformis var. australis S.T.Reynolds". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  50. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis flagelliformis var. flagelliformis". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  51. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Cupaniopsis fleckeri". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  52. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis fleckeri S.T.Reynolds". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  53. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Cupaniopsis foveolata". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  54. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis foveolata (F.Muell.) Radlk.". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  55. ^ "Cupaniopsis glabra Adema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  56. ^ "Cupaniopsis globosa Adema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 3.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2010. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  57. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis macropetala Radlk.". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  58. ^ "Cupaniopsis mouana Guillaumin". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  59. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis napaensis Adema". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  60. ^ "Cupaniopsis napaensis Adema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  61. ^ Harden (2001) New South Wales Flora Online. "Cupaniopsis newmanii". July 2001. Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  62. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis newmanii S.T.Reynolds". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  63. ^ Forster, Paul I. (2006). "Cupaniopsis papillosa P.I. Forst. (Sapindaceae), a new species from the 'Wet Tropics' of north-east Queensland". Austrobaileya. 7 (2): 293–298. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  64. ^ Hyland et al. (2010) [RFK 6.1] "Factsheet – Cupaniopsis papillosa". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  65. ^ Harden (2001) New South Wales Flora Online. "Cupaniopsis parvifolia". July 2001. Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  66. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis parvifolia (F.M.Bailey) L.A.S.Johnson". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  67. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis phanerophlebia Merr. & L.M.Perry". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  68. ^ "Cupaniopsis phanerophleibia Merr. & L.M.Perry". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  69. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis platycarpa Radlk.". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  70. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis rhytidocarpa Adema". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  71. ^ "Cupaniopsis rosea Adema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  72. ^ "Cupaniopsis rotundifolia Adema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  73. ^ Harden (2001) New South Wales Flora Online. "Cupaniopsis serrata". July 2001. Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  74. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis serrata (F.Muell.) Radlk.". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  75. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis shirleyana (F.M.Bailey) Radlk.". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  76. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis simulata S.T.Reynolds". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  77. ^ "Cupaniopsis squamosa Adema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  78. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis stenopetala Radlk.". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  79. ^ Adema (1994) Flora Malesiana. Digitised, online "Cupaniopsis strigosa Adema". Retrieved 16 Dec 2013. 
  80. ^ "Cupaniopsis strigosa Adema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  81. ^ "Cupaniopsis subfalcata Adema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  82. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis tomentella (F.Muell. ex Benth.) S.T.Reynolds". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  83. ^ "Cupaniopsis tontoutensis Guillaumin". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 1998. Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 
  84. ^ Reynolds (1985) Flora of Australia. Online "Cupaniopsis wadsworthii (F.Muell.) Radlk.". Retrieved 17 Dec 2013. 

Cited works[edit]

External links[edit]