COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns

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Map of national and subnational lockdowns as of 27 May 2020 (table; more details)
  National lockdown
  Subnational lockdown
  No lockdown

This article provides an overview of worldwide curfews, quarantines, and similar restrictions (known as stay-at-home orders, shelter-in-place orders, shutdowns/lockdowns) related to the COVID-19 pandemic and established to prevent further spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19.[1]

Countries and territories around the world have enforced lockdowns of varying degrees. Some include total movement control while others have enforced restrictions based on time. Mostly, only essential businesses are allowed to remain open. Schools, universities and colleges have closed either on a nationwide or local basis in 177 countries, affecting approximately 98.6 per cent of the world's student population.[2]

All types of recreational venues and most public places have been affected.[citation needed]

Table of pandemic lockdowns[edit]


COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns
Countries and territories Place Start date End date Level
Albania 2020-03-13[3] National
Algeria 2020-03-23[4] 2020-05-14[5] City
Argentina 2020-03-19[6] 2020-05-24[7] National
Armenia 2020-03-24[8] 2020-05-04[9]
Australia 2020-03-23[10]
Austria 2020-03-16[11] 2020-04-13[12]
Azerbaijan 2020-03-31[13] 2020-04-20[13]
Bangladesh 2020-03-26[14] 2020-05-16[15]
Barbados 2020-03-28[16] 2020-05-03[16]
Belgium 2020-03-18[17] 2020-05-04 [18]
Bermuda 2020-04-04[19] 2020-05-02[20]
Bolivia 2020-03-22[21] 2020-04-15[21]
Botswana 2020-04-02[22] 2020-04-30[22]
Brazil Santa Catarina 2020-03-17[23] 2020-04-07[23] State
São Paulo 2020-03-24[24] 2020-05-10[25]
Colombia 2020-03-25[26] 2020-06-30[27] National
Republic of the Congo 2020-03-31[28] 2020-04-20[28]
Costa Rica 2020-03-23[29]
Croatia 2020-03-18[30] 2020-04-19[31]
Czech Republic 2020-03-16[11] 2020-04-12[32]
Ecuador 2020-03-16[33] 2020-03-31[33]
El Salvador 2020-03-12[34] 2020-04-02[34]
Eritrea 2020-04-02[35] 2020-04-23[35]
Fiji Lautoka 2020-03-20[36] 2020-04-07[37] City
Suva 2020-04-03[38] 2020-04-17[39]
Finland Uusimaa 2020-03-27[40] 2020-04-16[40] Region
France 2020-03-17[41] 2020-05-11[42] National
Georgia 2020-03-31[43] 2020-04-21[43]
Germany 2020-03-23[a][45] 2020-04-20[46]
to 2020-05-10[47]
Ghana Accra 2020-03-30[48] 2020-04-12[49] Metropolitan Area
Kumasi
Greece 2020-03-23[50] 2020-05-04[51] National
Guernsey 2020-03-25[52]
Honduras 2020-03-20[53] 2020-05-17[54]
Hungary 2020-03-28[55] 2020-04-10[55]
India 2020-03-25[56] 2020-05-31[57]
Iran 2020-03-14[58] 2020-04-20[59]
Iraq 2020-03-22[60] 2020-04-11[61]
Ireland 2020-03-12[62] 2020-05-18[63]
Israel Bnei Brak 2020-04-02[64] City
Italy 2020-03-09[b][65] 2020-05-18[66] National
Jamaica Saint Catherine 2020-04-15[67] 2020-04-22[67] Parish
Jordan 2020-03-18[68] 2020-04-30[69] National
Kosovo 2020-03-14[70] 2020-05-04 [71]
Kuwait 2020-03-14[72] 2020-03-29[72]
Lebanon 2020-03-15[73] 2020-03-28[73]
Liberia Margibi 2020-03-23[74] 2020-04-11[74] County
Montserrado
Libya 2020-03-22[75] National
Lithuania 2020-03-16[76] 2020-04-27[77]
Madagascar Antananarivo 2020-03-23[78] 2020-04-20[79] City
Toamasina
Malaysia 2020-03-18[80] 2020-06-09[81] National
Mongolia 2020-03-10[82] 2020-03-16[82]
Montenegro Tuzi 2020-03-24[83] Municipality
Morocco 2020-03-19[84] 2020-06-10[85] National
Namibia 2020-03-27[c][86] 2020-05-04[87]
Nepal 2020-03-24[88] 2020-06-02[89]
New Zealand 2020-03-26[90] 2020-05-14[91]
Nigeria Abuja 2020-03-30[92] 2020-04-12[92] City
Lagos
Ogun State
Northern Cyprus 2020-03-30[93] National
Oman Muscat 2020-04-10[94] 2020-05-29[95] Governorate
Jalan Bani Bu Ali 2020-04-16[96] TBD[96] Province
Pakistan 2020-03-24[97] 2020-05-09[98] National
Panama 2020-03-25[99]
Papua New Guinea 2020-03-24[100] 2020-04-07[100]
Paraguay 2020-03-20[101] 2020-05-03[102]
Peru 2020-03-16[103] 2020-06-30[104]
Philippines Cebu 2020-03-27[105] 2020-05-15[d][106]
to 2020-05-31[e][107]
Province
Davao Region 2020-03-19[108] 2020-05-15[106] Region
Luzon 2020-03-15[f][109] 2020-04-30[g][110]
to 2020-05-15[h][111]
to 2020-05-31[e][107]
Island group
Soccsksargen 2020-03-23[108] Region
Poland 2020-03-13[112] 2020-04-11[113] National
Portugal 2020-03-19[114] 2020-04-02[113]
Qatar Doha Industrial Area 2020-03-11[115] Industrial park
Romania 2020-03-25[116] 2020-05-12[117] National
Russia Moscow 2020-03-30[118] 2020-05-12[119][120] Metropolitan area
Rest of the country[i] 2020-03-28[121] 2020-04-30[121] National
Rwanda 2020-03-21[122] 2020-04-19[123]
Samoa 2020-03-26[124] 2020-04-08[125]
San Marino 2020-03-14[126] 2020-05-05[127]
Saudi Arabia Jeddah 2020-03-29[128] City
Mecca 2020-03-26[128]
Medina
Qatif 2020-03-09[129] Area
Riyadh 2020-03-26[128] City
Serbia 2020-03-15[113] 2020-04-21[130]
to 2020-05-04[131]
National
Singapore 2020-04-07[132] 2020-06-01[133]
South Africa 2020-03-26[134] 2020-04-30[135]
Spain 2020-03-14[136] 2020-05-09[137]
Thailand 2020-03-25[138] 2020-05-31[139]
Trinidad and Tobago 2020-03-17[140] 2020-03-31[140]
Tunisia 2020-03-22[141] 2020-04-19[142]
Turkey 2020-04-23[143] 2020-04-27[143] Only in 30 metropolitan cities and Zonguldak.
Ukraine 2020-03-17[113] 2020-04-24[113] National
United Arab Emirates 2020-03-26[144] 2020-04-17[145]
United Kingdom 2020-03-23[146]
United States California 2020-03-19[147] State
Clark County, NV 2020-03-20[148] County
Connecticut 2020-03-23[149] 2020-04-22[150] State
Illinois 2020-03-21[151] 2020-05-30[152]
Kansas City, KS 2020-03-24[153] 2020-04-19[154] City
Massachusetts 2020-03-24[155] 2020-05-04[155] State
Michigan 2020-03-24[156] 2020-04-13[150]
New York 2020-03-22[157] 2020-06-13[158]
Oregon 2020-03-24[159]
Wisconsin 2020-03-24[160]
Venezuela 2020-03-17[161] 2020-05-13[162] National
Vietnam 2020-04-01[163] 2020-04-22[164]
Zimbabwe 2020-03-30[165] 2020-05-02[166]
Outbreak ongoing: Lockdown data as of May 31, 2020

Notes

  1. ^ Lockdown was started in Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria on 20 March 2020. Three days later, it was expanded to the whole of Germany[44]
  2. ^ Lockdown was first started in Northern Italy on 8 March 2020, then expanded to the rest of Italy the following day
  3. ^ Lockdown was started in the regions of Erongo and Khomas but effectively enforced countrywide. On 14 April the lockdown was extended to 4 May and to all of Namibia.
  4. ^ Except in Cebu City only where it was extended to 16 days
  5. ^ a b Lockdown was extended to areas under high risk COVID-19 zones
  6. ^ Lockdown was started in Metro Manila, but expanded to the rest of Luzon two days later, 17 March 2020
  7. ^ In most Luzon areas only, except Metro Manila and selected areas of Luzon are on high risk COVID-19 zones
  8. ^ Lockdown was extended to Metro Manila and remaining areas of Luzon
  9. ^ Applies for mandatory holidays and further measures in each Russian region

In the table pandemic lockdowns are defined as the shutdown of parts of the economy,[167] due to non-pharmaceutical anti-pandemic measures and are enforceable by law like:

These measures are considered to have caused the coronavirus recession in 2020.[168] The table does not contain:

The pandemic has resulted in the largest number of shutdowns/lockdowns worldwide at the same time in history.[citation needed]. By 26 March, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown,[169] which increased to 3.9 billion people by the first week of April — more than half of the world's population.[170][171]

Restrictions first began in China,[172] with other countries in East Asia like Vietnam soon following it in implementing widespread containment measures. Much of Europe, North America and Africa took much longer to bring in tough measures. Lockdowns between and within nations are of varying stringency.[173]

By mid April, nearly 300 million people, or about 90 per cent of the population, were under some form of lockdown in the United States,[174] around 100 million in the Philippines,[175] about 59 million in South Africa,[176] and 1.3 billion were under lockdown in India; the largest of all lockdowns.Check the list of COVID-19 Hotspots or containment Zones of India.[177][178]

By the end of April, around 300 million people were under lockdown in various countries of Europe, including but not limited to Italy, Spain, France, and the United Kingdom; while around 200 million people were under lockdown in Latin America.[175]

Countries and territories with lockdowns[edit]

China[edit]

China, where the pandemic originated, was the first country to enforce the quarantine and lockdown of cities and later whole provinces, starting at the end of January. Although such measures are a very old tool of epidemic control,[179][180] their use at the scale of a large city such as Wuhan or the even larger scale of provinces was controversial among experts at the time, with questions on their effectiveness[181][182][183] and their ethics.[184][180][185] Some public health experts, while not always condemning the measure, raised the issue of the inevitable psychological toll such measures would have.[186][187][188] An ex-World Health Organization (WHO) official who headed the organization’s Western Pacific Region during the SARS outbreak said that "the containment of a city [hadn’t] been done in the history of international public health policy".[182] The WHO called the decision to quarantine Wuhan "new to science".[189] By early April, all lockdowns had ended or relaxed to a certain degree as the cases started to dwindle and the outbreak had come under control.[172][190]

Cities under quarantine in China
Place Province Start date End date City level Population Cases Deaths Recoveries Active
Border shutdown[191]
Wuhan Hubei 2020-01-23 2020-04-08[192][193][194] Sub-provincial 11,081,000 50,333 3,869 46,464 0
Xiaogan Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[195] Prefectural 4,920,000 3,518 129 3,389 0
Huanggang Hubei 2020-01-23 2020-03-25[195] Prefectural 6,330,000 2,907 125 2,782 0
Jingzhou Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-17[196] Prefectural 5,590,200 1,580 52 1,528 0
Ezhou Hubei 2020-01-23 2020-03-25[195] Prefectural 1,077,700 1,394 59 1,335 0
Suizhou Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[195] Prefectural 2,216,700 1,307 45 1,262 0
Xiangyang Hubei 2020-01-28[197] 2020-03-25[195] Prefectural 5,669,000 1,175 40 1,135 0
Huangshi Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-13[198] Prefectural 2,470,700 1,015 39 976 0
Yichang Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[195] Prefectural 4,135,850 931 37 894 0
Jingmen Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[195] Prefectural 2,896,500 928 41 887 0
Xianning Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[195] Prefectural 2,543,300 836 15 821 0
Shiyan Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[195] Prefectural 3,406,000 672 8 664 0
Xiantao Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[195] Sub-prefectural 1,140,500 575 22 553 0
Tianmen Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[195] Sub-prefectural 1,272,300 496 15 481 0
Enshi Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[195] Prefectural 3,378,000 252 7 245 0
Qianjiang Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-13[199] Sub-prefectural 966,000 198 9 189 0
Shennongjia Hubei 2020-01-27 2020-03-25[195] Sub-prefectural 78,912 11 0 11 0
Quarantine total 59,172,000 68,128 4,512 63,616 0
Outbreak ongoing: Infection and fatality data as of 08:14 (UTC+8) 27 April 2020.[200][201] Totals will evolve.

France[edit]

As of 23 March 2020,[202] all people are required to complete and carry an exemption form to leave their homes and can be fined for non-essential journeys.[202] Essential journeys include shopping for food, travelling to work, accessing healthcare, and exercising within 1 km of the home for up to 1 hour. Police around the country have set up road blocks to check people who were out and about had good reason and that their exemption declarations were in order.

India[edit]

On 22 March 2020, the Government of India decided to completely lockdown 82 districts in 22 states and Union Territories of country where confirmed cases have been reported till 31 March.[203] Essential services and commodities were allowed. 80 cities including major cities such as Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, Pune and Kolkata were also put under lockdown until 31 March.[204] The country entered complete lockdown from 25 March 2020 for 21 days amid increase in number of cases.[205]

Ireland[edit]

On 12 March, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar announced a lockdown in Ireland to close all schools, colleges and childcare facilities until 29 March.[206] On 27 March, Varadkar announced a series of measures ordering the public to stay at home in all circumstances. All non-essential shops and services, including all pubs, bars, hotels and nightclubs closed and all public and private gatherings of any number of people was banned.[207][208] The Garda Síochána were given power to enforce the measures, which were repeatedly extended until 18 May.[209] A roadmap to easing restrictions in Ireland that includes five stages was adopted by the government on 1 May 2020 and subsequently published online.[210][211] On 18 May, phase one of easing the COVID-19 restrictions begun.[212] Thousands of shops, businesses and construction sites reopened.[213]

Italy[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Namibia[edit]

Beginning 27 March, a 21-day lockdown of the regions of Erongo and Khomas was announced.[86] On 14 April the lockdown was extended to 4 May. It now officially applied to all regions, although the stay-at-home order was already enforced countrywide. Only essential businesses remained open. Schools were closed, parliamentary sessions suspended, and generally all gatherings of more than 10 people were prohibited.[214] Formal and informal bars were closed and the sale of alcohol prohibited. This "stage 1" of the lockdown was in force until 4 May 2020. From then on, regulations are to be gradually eased.[215]

New Zealand[edit]

On 23 March 2020, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern raised New Zealand's COVID-19 alert level[216] to three and announced the closure of all schools beginning on that day, and two days later moved to Level 4 to four at 11:59 p.m. on 25 March 2020 – a nationwide lockdown. While all sporting matches and events as well as non-essential services such as pools, bars, cafes, restaurants, playgrounds closed, essential services such as supermarkets, petrol stations, and health services remained open.[217][218][219]

The alert level was moved back down to Level 3 at 11:59 pm on 27 April, and moved to Level 2 at 11:59 pm on 13 May, lifting the rest of the lockdown restrictions while maintaining physical distancing.[220]

Philippines[edit]

Reduced pedestrian and vehicle traffic in Baliuag, Philippines as a result of the enhanced community quarantine

Singapore[edit]

On 3 April 2020, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong announced that Singapore will be strengthening its restrictions as a movement control in view of evidence of growing spread within the community and the risk of asymptomatic spread from 7 April to 1 June. All non-essential services such as retail, recreation, sports and attractions, as well as schools are required to close during this period. Some essential services will remain open.[221] These measures include the prohibition of dining-in in eateries, suspending and/or reducing the frequency of bus and MRT services, and requiring almost all commercial and educational services to work and study from home respectively. All mid-year exams in primary, secondary schools and junior colleges, as well as graduation ceremonies during this period are cancelled. Military in-camp training for NSmen are also postponed till further notice.[222] On 8 April 2020, it was announced in Parliament that all residents have to serve a de-facto stay-at-home order, and wearing masks will be compulsory when going out for essentials and exercise. All gatherings, regardless of any size and in any area nationwide are totally banned, with enforcement by police, military and officers from the relevant government agencies.[223]

United Kingdom[edit]

At 8:30 p.m. on 23 March 2020, Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced a stay-at-home order effective immediately. All non-essential shops and services were ordered to close, and police were given discretion to break up gatherings of more than two people. The British public was told that they must stay at home, except for exercise (such as running, walking or cycling), shopping for essential items, any medical need, providing care to a vulnerable person, or travelling to work where the work in question was vital and could not be done from home. Johnson stated that the stay-at-home order would be reviewed after three weeks.[224]

United States[edit]

States, territories, and counties that issued a stay-at-home order:
  Came into effect before 22 March
  Came into effect before 29 March
  Came into effect before 5 April
  Came into effect before 12 April
Full map including municipalities

Stay-at-home orders in the United States have come from several states and a large number of local jurisdictions, sometimes leading to conflicts between different levels of government and a patchwork of inconsistent dates and rules.[225][226][227]

On 15 March 2020, Puerto Rico governor Wanda Vázquez Garced signed an executive order to order all citizens to stay home starting at 9 p.m. with exceptions in limited circumstances between 5 a.m. and 9 p.m. Governmental operations and non-essential businesses were to be closed until 30 March.[228]

The first order within the states was simultaneously imposed by health authorities in heart of the San Francisco Bay Area (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Mateo, and Santa Clara counties and the cities of San Francisco and Berkeley) effective 17 March 2020, affecting nearly 6.7 million people.[229] Other cities and counties across the state followed suit over the next two days, until Gavin Newsom, the governor of California, issued a statewide order effective 19 March 2020.[230]

On 20 March 2020, New York governor Andrew Cuomo announced the statewide stay-at-home order with a mandate that 100% of non-essential workforce to be conducted as working from home effective 22 March.[231] Illinois governor J. B. Pritzker followed that lead on the same day with a statewide order which would go into effect on 21 March at 5 p.m.[232] Ned Lamont, the governor of Connecticut, signed an executive order called "Stay Safe, Stay At Home" to take effect statewide on 23 March at 8 p.m.

On 21 March 2020, New Jersey governor Phil Murphy announced a statewide stay-at-home order effective at 9 p.m. on the same day.[233]

On 22 March 2020, Ohio governor Mike DeWine and Ohio Department of Health director Amy Acton issued a statewide stay-at-home order effective 23 March.[234] In the afternoon, the Louisiana governor John Bel Edwards announced a statewide stay-at-home order in a press conference.[235] Delaware governor John Carney followed suit with a stay-at-home order for his state.[236]

On 23 March 2020, several state governors announced their statewide stay-at-home order:

  • Massachusetts governor Charlie Baker ordered non-essential businesses to close in-person operations effective 24 March until 7 April and directed the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to issue a stay-at-home advisory.[237]
  • Michigan governor Gretchen Whitmer announced her statewide executive order to stay-at-home at 11:00 am for all non-essential businesses effective 24 March until 28 May.[238]
  • Indiana governor Eric Holcomb announced statewide stay-at-home order effective 25 March until 7 April.[239]
  • West Virginia governor Jim Justice ordered non-essential businesses to be closed immediately, and stay-at-home order effective at 8 p.m.[240]
  • After growing calls from local officials on Sunday, Oregon governor Kate Brown issued a stay-at-home order on Monday effective immediately with class C misdemeanor charges for violators.[241]
  • New Mexico governor Michelle Lujan Grisham announced a statewide stay-at-home order that requires 100% of non-essential business workforce to work from home effective 24 March until 10 April.[242]
  • Washington governor Jay Inslee signed a statewide stay-at-home proclamation and ordered to close non-essential businesses effective 25 March for two weeks.[243]
  • Hawaii governor David Ige issued a statewide stay-at-home order effective 25 March which was similar to the orders that were previously issued for Maui and Honolulu counties.[244][245]

On 24 March 2020, Wisconsin governor Tony Evers issued a statewide stay-at-home order to close all non-essential businesses and ordered no gatherings of any size effective 25 March until 24 April.[246] Vermont governor Phil Scott signed a stay-at-home order and directed closure of in-person operations of non-essential businesses effective 25 March until 15 April.[247]

On 25 March, Idaho governor Brad Little and Minnesota governor Tim Walz issued stay-at-home orders for their respective states.[248][249] Colorado Governor Jared Polis issued a stay at home order effective on Thursday the 26th at 6 a.m. through 11 April 2020.[250]

On 2 April, Georgia governor Brian Kemp issued stay-at-home order effective Friday, April 3, 2020, until Monday, April 13, 2020.[251] It overrules any local stay-at-home restrictions previously in place, and instructs residents to stay at home unless they're conducting "essential services," meaning either traveling to and from jobs or other exceptions, including buying groceries; purchasing medical equipment; going out to exercise; and visiting medical facilities.[252] The same day, Dr. Anthony Fauci publicly questioned why all states were not under stay-at-home orders.[253][254]

Native American Nations[edit]

On 20 March 2020, Navajo Nation announced that it broadened the stay-at-home order to cover the entire reservation, which is the largest reservation in the country.[255]

On 23 March 2020, Yakama Nation announced its "Stay Home, Stay Healthy" order.[256]

Countries and territories without lockdowns[edit]

Almost all countries and territories affected with COVID-19 have introduced and enforced some form of lockdown. However, countries like South Korea and Taiwan, which relied on contact tracing by cellphones, have far fewer cases and death. Among the ones not following this strategy are, most notably, Sweden (the only European country with Belarus not to do so).[257] Measures in Sweden included the closing of universities and high schools and asking older and at-risk residents to avoid social contact, while keeping restaurants, primary schools and kindergartens open.[258][259]

Countries in Asia without lockdowns include, Japan,[260] South Korea[261] and Indonesia.[262][263] These countries have not enforced any strict lockdowns but have rather implemented large-scale social distancing and face mask wearing measures.[citation needed]

Nicaragua[264] is also yet to impose a lockdown while a proposed lockdown by the government has been ordered to be delayed by the High Court in Malawi.[265]

In the United States, a handful of states have not introduced any lockdown-type measures (commonly known as "stay-at-home orders").[266][267]

Countries and territories without lockdowns
Countries and territories Ref
Belarus [268]
Indonesia [262]
Japan [260]
Malawi [265]
Nicaragua [264]
South Korea [261]
Sweden [258]
Taiwan [269]
United States Arkansas [266][267]
Iowa
Nebraska
North Dakota
South Dakota

See also[edit]


References[edit]

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