|Piping plover (Charadrius melodus)|
|Water rail (Rallus aquaticus)|
Gruimorphae is a clade of birds that contains the orders Charadriiformes (plovers, gulls, and allies) and Gruiformes (cranes and rails) identified in 2014 by genome analysis. This grouping has had historical support, as various charadriiform families such as the families Pedionomidae and Turnicidae were classified as gruiforms. The relationship between these birds is due to similar anatomical and behavioral characteristics. A morphological study went further to suggest that the gruiforms might be paraphyletic in respect to the shorebirds, with the rails being closely related to the buttonquails.
- "TiF Checklist: GRUAE I: Opisthocomiformes & Gruiformes". www.jboyd.net. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Jarvis, E.D.; et al. (2014). "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds". Science. 346 (6215): 1320–1331. doi:10.1126/science.1253451. PMC 4405904. PMID 25504713.
- Huxley T.H. On the classification of birds; and on the taxonomic value of the modifications of certain of the cranial bones observable in that class. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1867;1867:415–472.
- Lowe P.R. An anatomical review of the ‘waders’ (Telmatomorphæ), with special reference to the families, subfamilies, and genera within the suborders Limicolæ, Grui-Limicolæ and Lari-Limicolæ. Ibis. 1931b; 73: 712–771
- Lowe P.R. On the relations of the Gruimorphæ to the Charadriimorphæ and Rallimorphæ, with special reference to the taxonomic position of Rostratulidæ, Jacanidæ, and Burhinidæ. Ibis. 1931a; 73: 491–534
- LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C.; ZUSI, RICHARD L. (2007). "Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 149 (1): 1–95. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x. PMC 2517308. PMID 18784798.
- "Neognathia". www.helsinki.fi. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
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