Cusco Quechua

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Cusco Quechua
Qosqo runasimi
Native toPeru
Native speakers
(1.5 million cited 1989)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
quz – Cusco
qve – Eastern Apurímac
Glottologcusc1236  Cusco[2]
east2551  Eastern Apurímac[3]

Cusco Quechua (Quechua: Qusqu qhichwa simi) is a dialect of Southern Quechua spoken in Cusco and the Cusco Region of Peru.

It is the Quechua variety used by the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua in Cusco, which also prefers the Spanish-based five-vowel alphabet.[4] On the other hand, the official alphabet used by the ministry of education has only three vowels.[5]

Phonology[edit]

There is debate about whether Cusco Quechua has five /a, e, i, o, u/ or three vowels: /a, i, u/.[6]

Consonants
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Stop plain p t t͡ʃ k q
aspirated t͡ʃʰ
ejective t͡ʃʼ
Fricative s ʃ x χ h
Nasal m n ɲ
Approximant plain j w
lateral l ʎ
Flap ɾ

Grammar[edit]

Pronouns[7][edit]

Cusco Quechua Northern Quechua Ancash Quechua English
noqa / ñoqa ñuka nuqa I
qan kan qam you
pay pay pay he, she, it
noqanchis / ñoqanchis ñukanchik (ñukapash kanpash) nuqantsik we (inclusive)
noqayku / ñoqayku ñukanchik (shinapash mana kan/kikin) nuqakuna we (exclusive)
qankuna qamkuna qamkuna you (plural)
paykuna paykuna paykuna they

Nouns[edit]

Examples using the word wasi (house)wasi
Function Suffix Example (translation)
suffix indicating number plural -kuna wasikuna houses
possessive suffix 1.person singular -y wasiy my house
2.person singular -yki wasiyki your house
3.person singular -n wasin his/her/its house
1.person plural (incl) -nchis wasinchik our house (incl.)
1.person plural (excl) -y-ku wasiyku our house (excl.)
2.person plural -yki-chis wasiykichis your (pl.) house
3.person plural -n-ku wasinku their house
suffixes indicating case nominative wasi the house (subj.)
accusative -(k)ta wasita the house (obj.)
instrumental -wan wasiwan with the house, and the house
abessive -naq wasinaq without the house
dative -paq wasipaq to the house
genitive -q / -pa wasiq of the house
causative -rayku wasirayku because of the house
benefactive -paq wasipaq for the house
locative -pi wasipi at the house
directional -man wasiman towards the house
inclusive -piwan, puwan wasipiwan, wasipuwan including the house
terminative -kama, -yaq wasikama, wasiyaq up to the house
transitive -(rin)ta wasinta through the house
ablative -manta, -piqta wasimanta, wasipiqta off/from the house
comitative -(ni)ntin wasintin along with the house
immediate -raq wasiraq first the house
intrative -pura wasipura among the houses
exclusive -lla(n) wasilla(n) only the house
comparative -naw, -hina wasinaw, wasihina like the house

Adjectives[edit]

Verbs[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cusco at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
    Eastern Apurímac at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cusco Quechua". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Eastern Apurímac Quechua". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Nancy Hornberger & Kendall King, "Authenticity and Unification in Quechua Language Planning" Language, Culture and Curriculum 11 3 (1998): 390 - 410. http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1059&context=gse_pubs
  5. ^ Nonato Rufino Chuquimamani Valer. Yachakuqkunapa Simi Qullqa - Qusqu-Qullaw Qhichwa Simipi Archived 2011-08-24 at the Wayback Machine (Quechua-Quechua-Spanish dictionary). Lima: Ministerio de Educación, 2005.
  6. ^ "SAPhon – South American Phonological Inventories". linguistics.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2018-08-10.
  7. ^ "Personal pronouns in Quechua Cusco". Quechua Language. 2019-12-23. Retrieved 2020-03-05.

External links[edit]