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Long Wharf (Boston)

Coordinates: 42°21′37″N 71°2′59″W / 42.36028°N 71.04972°W / 42.36028; -71.04972
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(Redirected from Custom House Block (Boston))
Long Wharf and Custom House Block
LocationBoston, Massachusetts
Coordinates42°21′37″N 71°2′59″W / 42.36028°N 71.04972°W / 42.36028; -71.04972
Area3 acres (1.2 ha)
NRHP reference No.66000768
Significant dates
Added to NRHPNovember 13, 1966
Designated NHLNovember 13, 1966

Long Wharf is a historic American pier in Boston, Massachusetts, built between 1710 and 1721. It once extended from State Street nearly a half-mile into Boston Harbor; today, the much-shortened wharf (due to land fill on the city end) functions as a dock for passenger ferries and sightseeing boats.[1]


A wide view of a port town with several wharves. In the foreground there are eight large sailing ships and an assortment of smaller vessels. Soldiers are disembarking from small boats onto a long wharf. The skyline of the town, with nine tall spires and many smaller buildings, is in the distance. A key at the bottom of the drawing indicates some prominent landmarks and the names of the warships.
Boston in 1768, with Long Wharf extending into the harbor. Engraving by Paul Revere.

18th century[edit]

Construction of the wharf began around 1710. As originally built the wharf extended from the shoreline adjacent to Faneuil Hall and was one-third of a mile long, thrusting considerably farther than other wharves into deep water and thus allowing larger ships to tie up and unload directly to new warehouses and stores. "Constructed by Captain Oliver Noyes, it was lined with warehouses and served as the focus of Boston's great harbor."[2] Over time the water areas surrounding the landward end of the wharf were reclaimed, including the areas now occupied by Quincy Market and the Customs House.[3]

"At the wharf's head in the 18th century was the Bunch-of-Grapes Tavern. The painter John Singleton Copley spent his childhood on the wharf, where his mother had a tobacco shop."[4] The 1760s Gardiner Building, once home to John Hancock's counting house and now a Chart House restaurant, is the wharf's oldest surviving structure.[5]

19th century[edit]

Long Wharf, c.19th century

Among several similar structures, a grand granite warehouse known as the Custom House Block was built in 1848 atop the wharf; it has survived into the 21st century.[6] The mid-19th century was the height of Boston's importance as a shipping center, lasting roughly until the American Civil War. Long Wharf was the central focus of much of this economic activity.[7]

In the late 1860s, as the city's port began to decline in importance as an international shipping destination,[7] Atlantic Avenue was cut through this and other wharves, changing the face of the waterfront.

20th century[edit]

The construction of the elevated Central Artery along Atlantic Avenue in the 1950s separated Long Wharf from Boston's business district.

The wharf and the 19th-century Custom House Block were recognized as a National Historic Landmark in recognition for the role they played in the history of Boston and its importance as a major 19th-century shipping center.[7]

21st century[edit]

Custom House Block, 2023
Gardiner Building, 2023
Viewing plaza at end of the wharf

The Big Dig put the Central Artery below ground level, which partially restored the original close relationship between Long Wharf and downtown. Since ca.1990, Long Wharf has been transformed from a failing commercial waterfront area into a recreational and cultural center.[3]

Today, Long Wharf is adjacent to the New England Aquarium, and is served by the Aquarium station on MBTA's Blue Line subway. MBTA boat services link the wharf to the Boston Navy Yard in Charlestown, Logan International Airport, Hull, and Quincy. Other passenger ferry services operate to the islands of the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, and to the cities of Salem and Provincetown. Cruise boats operate various cruises around the harbour. The wharf itself is occupied by a hotel, several restaurants and shops. At the seaward end, there is a large plaza with extensive views of the harbor. Now much shortened by land reclamation at its landward end, today it serves as the principal terminus for cruise boats and harbor ferries operating on Boston Harbor.

Custom House Block[edit]

The Custom House Block (42°21′35.95″N 71°2′58.53″W / 42.3599861°N 71.0495917°W / 42.3599861; -71.0495917) was built in 1845-87.[8] A former warehouse, architect Isaiah Rogers designed the four-storey building, constructed of granite and brick. In its 19th-century heyday, it contributed to the life of "Boston's busiest pier, commercial port, and embarkation point for travelers." Today private owners maintain the site.[9][10]

The building was renovated in 1973 by Anderson Notter Associates.[8]

Gardiner Building[edit]

The Gardiner Building (42°21′36″N 71°03′00″W / 42.360°N 71.050°W / 42.360; -71.050) is a brick Colonial style warehouse built in 1763 and rebuilt in 1812. At one time it was used as John Hancock's counting house. Long Wharf was once filled with this kind of building, but this is the only one remaining;[8] it is the wharf's oldest surviving structure.[5] The building was renovated in 1973 by Anderson Notter Associates.[8] It is currently a Chart House seafood restaurant.

The Gardiner Building features a slate roof and "six-over-six" windows with shutters. The lintels and sills are granite.[8]


The following marine services operate from the Long Wharf:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
  2. ^ Southworth & Southworth. AIA Guide to Boston, 3rd ed. 2008; p.74.
  3. ^ a b "Learn about history". The Boston Harborwalk. Archived from the original on August 25, 2006. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
  4. ^ Southworth & Southworth. 2008; p.74.
  5. ^ a b "Long Wharf". The Boston Harborwalk. Archived from the original on November 15, 2006. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
  6. ^ Southworth & Southworth. 2008.
  7. ^ a b c "NHL nomination for Long Wharf and Custom House Block". National Park Service. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  8. ^ a b c d e Southworth, Susan & Southworth, Michael (2008). AIA Guide to Boston (3rd ed.). Guilford, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press. p. 74-75. ISBN 978-0-7627-4337-7.
  9. ^ Boston Directory. 1848
  10. ^ Southworth, Susan & Southworth, Michael (2008) AIA Guide to Boston (3rd ed.) p.74
  11. ^ "Salem Ferry". cityexperiences.com. Retrieved July 10, 2022.
  12. ^ "Bay State Cruise Company: Boston to Provincetown Fast Ferry".
  13. ^ "Boston Harbor City Cruises". cityexperiences.com. Retrieved July 10, 2022.

External links[edit]