Cuttack

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Cuttack
The Silver City
Metropolis
Clockwise from top left: Deity of Cuttack Chandi Temple, Barabati Fort Gate,Welcome arch for Baliyatra, Barabati stadium, Baba Dhabaleshwar Mahadev Temple, A view of the Jobra barrage on Mahanadi River, Odisha High Court
Clockwise from top left: Deity of Cuttack Chandi Temple, Barabati Fort Gate,Welcome arch for Baliyatra, Barabati stadium, Baba Dhabaleshwar Mahadev Temple, A view of the Jobra barrage on Mahanadi River, Odisha High Court
Nickname(s):
Silver City
ରୌପ୍ୟ ନଗରୀ
City of 1000 Years
Millennium City
Cuttack is located in Odisha
Cuttack
Cuttack
Cuttack is located in India
Cuttack
Cuttack
Location in Odisha, India
Coordinates: 20°31′25″N 85°47′17″E / 20.52361°N 85.78806°E / 20.52361; 85.78806Coordinates: 20°31′25″N 85°47′17″E / 20.52361°N 85.78806°E / 20.52361; 85.78806
Country  India
State Odisha
District Cuttack
Established 989 CE
Founded by King Markata Keshari
Named for Ancient military cantonment of Utkal
Government
 • Type Mayor–council
 • Body Cuttack Municipal Corporation (CMC)
 • Mayor Meenakshee Behera (BJD)[1]
 • Municipal Commissioner Bikash Mohapatra (IAS)
 • Commissioner of Police Yogesh Bahadur Khurania (IPS)
Area
 • Metro 192.5 km2 (74.3 sq mi)
Elevation 36 m (118 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Metropolis 606,007
 • Rank 72nd
 • Density 13,867.43/km2 (35,916.5/sq mi)
 • Metro 666,702
Demonym(s) Kataki
Languages
 • Official Odia
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
ZIP code(s) 7530xx/754xxx
Telephone code 0671
Vehicle registration OD-05 [before OR-05]
UN/LOCODE IN CUT
Website cmccuttack.gov.in

Cuttack/ˈkʌtək/ is the former capital and the second largest city in the eastern Indian state of Odisha. It is also the headquarters of the Cuttack district. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Katak which literally means The Fort, a reference to the ancient Barabati Fort around which the city initially developed. Cuttack is also known as the Millennium City as well as the Silver City due to its history of 1000 years and famous silver filigree works. It is also considered as the judicial capital of Odisha as the Odisha High Court[3] is located here. It is also the commercial capital of Odisha which hosts a large number of trading and business houses in and around the city.

The old and the most important part of the city is centred on a spit of land between the Kathajodi River and the Mahanadi River, bounded on the southeast by Old Jagannath Road.[4] The city, being a part of the Cuttack Municipal Corporation consisting of 59 wards. Cuttack stretches from Phulnakhara across the Kathajodi in the south to Choudwar in north across the Birupa River, while in the east it begins at Kandarpur and runs west as far as Naraj. Four rivers including Mahanadi and its distributaries Kathajodi, Kuakhai, Birupa run through the city. Further Kathajodi is distributed into Devi and Biluakhai which often makes the geographical area look like fibrous roots.

Cuttack and Bhubaneswar are often referred to as the Twin-Cities of Odisha. The metropolitan area formed by the two cities has a population of 1.68 million in 2014.[5] Cuttack is categorised as a Tier-II city as per the ranking system used by Government of India.[6][7][8][9]

Etymology[edit]

The name Cuttack is derived from Sanskrit meaning military establishment or a cantonment.[10] The city was known as Bidanasi Katak (meaning Bidanasi Military Base) during the days when Barabati Fort was in existence. Bidanasi is now one of the localities of the city.[11] In the ancient time Capitals were often called as Cuttack like Bidanasi Cuttack, Ayodhya Cuttack, Mathura Cuttack, Varanasi Cuttack, etc. Being the Capital it has been simply called as Cuttack instead of Bidanasi Cuttack.

Established in 989 CE, by Maharaja Markata Keshari, Cuttack was the seat of government in Odisha for close to a thousand years before its burgeoning size forced the creation of a new capital at Bhubaneswar in 1948. The two cities are collectively referred to as the Twin Cities. Cuttack is famous for its unique silver filigree works (Tarakasi), and woven textiles. It is famous for its Dussehra celebrations across India only after Kolkata. It is also famous for "Dahibara", a local delicacy made using black gram and potato curry and also for "Chhena poda" and "Rasagulla", local dessert made of unripened curd cheese made from water buffalo or regular cow milk.

History[edit]

The earliest written history of Cuttack may go back to the Keshari dynasty.[10] As stated by the distinguished historian Andrew Stirling, present-day Cuttack was established as a military cantonment by king Nrupa Keshari of Keshari dynasty in 989 CE. Stirling based his opinion on the Madala Panji, a chronicle of the Jagannath temple of Puri.[12] The reign of Maharaja Markata Keshari was distinguished for the stone embank built to protect the new capital from flood in 1002 CE.

Historical and archaeological evidence suggests Cuttack becoming capital of a kingdom founded by Raja Anangabhimadeva III of Ganga dynasty in 1211 CE.[13] After the end of Ganga rule, Odisha passed to the hands of the Suryavamsi Gajapati dynasty (1434–1541 CE) under whom Cuttack continued to be the capital of Odisha.[13] After the death of Raja Mukunda deva,[14] the last Hindu king of Orissa, Cuttack first came under Muslim rule and later under Mughals,[15] who made Cuttack the seat of the new Orissa Subah (imperial top-level province) under Shah Jahan.

By 1750, Cuttack came under Maratha rule and it grew fast as a business centre being the convenient point of contact between the Marathas of Nagpur and the English merchants of Bengal. It was occupied by the British in 1803 and later became the capital of Odisha division in 1816. From 1948 onwards, when the capital was shifted to Bhubaneswar, the city remained the administrative headquarters for the state of Odisha.

The introduction of the Sharadiya Utsav tradition in the city dates back to the visit of Saint Chaitanya in the 16th century when the consecration of the idol of Durga by using the mask pattern was conducted in his presence at Binod Behari Devi Mandap.

The remains of the old moated Barabati Fort still exist in the heart of Cuttack.[16]

Geography[edit]

Cuttack is located at 20°31′23″N 085°47′17″E / 20.52306°N 85.78806°E / 20.52306; 85.78806[17] and has an average elevation of 36 metres (118 ft). The city is spread across an area of 192.5 km2 (74 sq mi). The city, being a Cuttack Municipal Corporation which consists of 59 wards. The city stretches from Phulnakhara in south to Choudwar in north and Kandarpur in east to naraj in west while main city is located at the apex of the Mahanadi River delta. Apart from Mahanadi, four of its distributaries also run through the city. The distributaries include Mahanadi, Kathajodi, Kuakhai and Birupa where Kathajodi further has two distributaries; the right being Devi while the left is Biluakhai. Mahanadi runs through the city on the northern side separating the main city from the Jagatpur Industrial Area. The Kathajodi river forms a riverine island of Bayalis Mouza after separating the main city from Gopalpur. The Kuakhai river separates the southern part of the city into two-halves, namely Pratap Nagri and the new township of Naranpur. The Kuakhai runs throughout the south of the city along Phulnakhara before entering Bhubaneswar. The Birupa river runs through the north of Jagatpur Industrial Area separating it from Choudwar. There are numerous ponds known as (pokharis) in the city that store rain water. The Mahanadi provides much of the drinking water to the city. Recent growth of the city has resulted in expansion across the Kathajodi River and a newer township towards the head of the delta formed between the tributary Kathajodi river and the main river Mahanadi has come up by the name of Markat Nagar (popularly known as CDA by the local residents) which is spread across 2000 acres. CDA has 15 sectors out of which 11 are residential & has population around 150,000. Jagatpur & Mahanadi vihar are the other two townships in the City. Mahanadi Vihar is the first satellite city project in Odisha. Cuttack is referred to as a city with Baaban Bazaar, Teppan Galee i.e. this is the city of 52 markets and 53 streets which is told by people of Odisha for the largeness of this city. Naranpur is another satellite township coming up in Trishulia, on the other side of Kathajodi River.

Climate[edit]

Cuttack experiences a tropical wet and dry climate. The summer season is from March to June when the climate is hot and humid. The temperature around this season is 35 °C to 40 °C Thunderstorms are common at the height of the summer. The monsoon months are from July to October when the city receives most of its rainfall from the South West Monsoon. The annual rainfall is around 144 cm. Temperatures are considerably lower during the rainy season, averaging around 30 °C. The winter season from November to February is characterised by mild temperatures and occasional showers. The winter months feature chilly northerly winds which bring down the temperature to around 15 °C, though the bright sunshine helps maintain the pleasant weather. Temperatures may exceed 45 °C at the height of summer and may fall below 10 °C in winter.

Due to the proximity to coast, the city is prone to cyclones from the Bay of Bengal. One such cyclone struck Cuttack in 1971, resulting in more than 10,000 deaths in the state.[18] The Bureau of Indian Standards places the city inside seismic zone III on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes.[19] The United Nations Development Programme reports that there is "very high damage risk" from winds and cyclones.[19] The 1999 Odisha cyclone caused major damage to the city claiming many lives.[20]

Climate data for Cuttack
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.2
(84.6)
32.3
(90.1)
35.4
(95.7)
37.0
(98.6)
37.5
(99.5)
34.7
(94.5)
32.3
(90.1)
31.8
(89.2)
32.3
(90.1)
32.0
(89.6)
30.7
(87.3)
29.0
(84.2)
32.85
(91.13)
Average low °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
18.7
(65.7)
22.6
(72.7)
25.0
(77)
26.2
(79.2)
26.1
(79)
25.5
(77.9)
25.3
(77.5)
25.0
(77)
23.3
(73.9)
19.1
(66.4)
15.0
(59)
22.25
(72.06)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41.3
(1.626)
26.0
(1.024)
27.8
(1.094)
48.5
(1.909)
130.6
(5.142)
243.4
(9.583)
340.6
(13.409)
401.1
(15.791)
269.5
(10.61)
195.8
(7.709)
37.2
(1.465)
38.5
(1.516)
1,800.3
(70.878)
Source: Cuttack Weather

Culture[edit]

Pilgrimage sites[edit]

  • Cuttack Chandi Deity
    Cuttack Chandi Temple: Dedicated to the Goddess Chandi, the presiding deity of Cuttack. The temple is located in proximity to the banks of the Mahanadi River. It is famous for its annual Durga Puja and Kali Puja festivals. The Durga Puja festivities are prominent in Maa Katak Chandi temple which takes place for 16 days starting from dark fortnight of Ashwina Krishna Ashtami till Ashwina Shukla navami and Vijayadashami. The Goddess popularly called as Maa Katak Chandi, sits and rules on the heart of the ancient city.
  • Gada Chandi Temple: Situated in the historic Barbati Fort, which is well known for its role in Odisha's history. Gada Chandi temple is one of the oldest temples in Cuttack and is believed to be the older temple of Cuttack Chandi before her shift to the present Cuttack Chandi Temple.
  • Dhabaleswar Temple: Dedicated to the worship of Lord Shiva. It is situated on an exotic island in the Mahanadi River and is embellished with stone carvings that date back to the early 10th and 11th century. It is one of the famous weekend tours from Cuttack. The serene ambiance, in which the temple is situated, inspires spiritual feeling among one and all. The island is connected to the mainland on the other side by a suspension bridge which is the first and only of its kind in the state.
  • Daatan Sahib Gurdwara: A holy historical Sikh shrine, the Daatan Sahib Gurdwara is where the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak, halted on his way to Puri. It is believed that a tree branch planted by him after using it as a tooth cleaner still flourishes here, hence the name Daatan Sahib.
  • Madhaba Temple, Niali
    Qadam Rasul: Believed to be for the veneration of Muhammad. It comes from the belief started early in Islam that when Muhammad stepped on a rock his footprint left an imprint. This belief was never accepted by orthodox brands of Islam. However, the idea was
    Dhabaleswara Bridge
    disseminated widely and led to the creation of many shrines around such imprints one of them being situated in Cuttack.
  • Jama Masjid: Built during the Mughal era. Earlier there used to be a Madrasa in this mosque. However, since a decade, the Madrasa is shifted out. The neighbourhood surrounding the Jama Masjid is inhabited predominantly by Hindus.
  • Niali Madhaba Temple: It is a religious centre famous for shrine of Radha Madhaba. It is 50 kms from Cuttack and is situated in Niali. Regular bus services are available from Cuttack to Niali Madhaba shrine via Phulnakhara.
  • Charchika Temple: The presiding deity is an eight-armed goddess Chamunda, locally known as Maa Charchika Devi. She is seated on a prostrate human body and wearing a garland of human skulls.This temple is situated on the top a small hillock Ruchika Parvata on the bed of the Renuka river in the small town of Banki in Cuttack district of Orissa.

Cuttack also houses several churches including Holy Rosary Church, Oriya Baptist Church, Church of Epiphany etc.

Festivals[edit]

Goddess Durga Idol in Chaudhury Bazar
  • Durga Puja: Cuttack is famous throughout the nation for its Durga puja celebrations. Nearly 200 earthen idols of Goddess Durga are prepared by the different Puja Committees of the city to worship Goddess Durga The speciality Cuttack Durga Puja are its Chandi o Suna Medhas, in which the idols are adorned with huge amounts of gold and silver, with localities trying to outsmart each other by constructing more attractive idols. Cuttack celebrates Durga Puja with full energy on Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and on Vijaya Dashami or Dussehra by burning an effigy of the demon Ravana. People from all of Odisha and nearby states visit Cuttack during this period observe the famous festival.
  • Bada Osha: Bada Osha festival is unique of Dhabaleswar Siba Temple, is very famous. Large number of people go to the Dhabaleswar Siba Temple on Bada Osha. Special Bhoga namely Gaja and Tarana is prepared on this day for worship of God Siba. People used to go to the Dhabaleswar Siba Temple by boats. To overcome heavy crowd in boats during this festival the Hanging Bridge was constructed which made better and alltime way to Dhabaleswar Siba Temple.
  • Boita Bandana: This festival is celebrated on the last day of the holy Hindu month of Kartik. On this auspicious day people flow miniature boitas or model boats in the Mahanadi and Kathajodi rivers to pay homage to the ancient merchants of Kalinga Kingdom. This day also marks the beginning of Bali Jatra. This festival is similar to the 'Masakapan Ke Tukad' festival of Bali, and to the 'Loi Krathong' festival of Thailand, both of which involve ritualistic floating of model boats around the same time of year.
  • Bali Jatra Entrance Gate
    Bali Jatra: The festival which Cuttackis look forward to most is the Bali Jatra.[21] Bali Yatra is supposedly the second largest trade festival in Asia and the largest in India. The name Bali Jatra literally means A Voyage to Bali. In olden times, merchants used to trade with South-East Asian Island Countries of Bali, Java, sumatra, Borneo. Whatever items they brought from those places after trading Oriya goods used to be put up for sale in the capital (which was then Cuttack). People from all over the state and beyond used to come to Cuttack to buy these items. Bali Jatra is the festival of continuing this ancient tradition. It is held every year in November on the banks of the Mahanadi. Many stalls are set up selling both local and exotic goods. People from all over Odisha come to the Bali Jatra to buy items, as was the custom back in those days.
  • Kali puja: This festival is dedicated to the Hindu Goddess Kali and is celebrated on the new moon day of the Hindu month of Kartik. It coincides with the pan-Indian festival of Diwali amidst the bursting of firecrackers.
  • Kartikeshwar Puja: The puja in Cuttack is organised by the puja committees of Cuttack. This festival is observed to worship Kartikeya, the eldest son of Lord Shiva. Nowhere else except Sabarimala is the Kartikeswar puja carried out with so much elan.
  • Kite flying is also celebrated with much enthusiasm and energy in the city. Kite-flying culminates with the Makar Sankranti, with kite-flying competitions being held all over. Cuttack is the first city in the Eastern India to introduce kite-flying.

All the other regular Indian festivals like Ratha Yatra, Raja, Ganesh Chaturthi, Vasant Panchami, Holi, Diwali, Chhath, Id, Good Friday, Christmas, and the numerous festivals are celebrated here.

Art and Literature[edit]

Cuttack has been the home to many notable personalities who have contributed a lot towards the culture and history of modern Odisha.

Theatres[edit]

Cuttack had been the centre of art and literature in the past. Annapurna Theatre is considered as the pioneer of Oriya theatre company. The B-Group of the Annapurna theatre, situated in Buxi Bazar is also one of the oldest theatres of Odisha. Kala Vikasa Kendra(KVK) in Cuttack is a premier institution for dance, drama and music in Odisha. It organises International theatre olympiad annually to showcase the talents of Odia artists.

Movie theatres[edit]

The city has several cinemas playing movies in Oriya, Hindi and English languages. To cater to the needs of a large Telugu audience in Cuttack, a few theaters also play Telugu movies. Cuttack once constituted also half of the number of cinema halls in the state but eventually, the numbers decimated. Some of the well-known theatres from the past include Ananda, Brindaban, Capital, Devi, Durga, Ganesh, Hind, Jayashree, Kalyani, Laxmi, Nishamani, Prabhat, Rajtarangini, Sagar, Samrat, Sangam etc. but the number of movie theatres existing presently has been limited to six with only Brindaban, Jayashree, Nishamani, Samrat, Sangam and Grand.

Cuisine[edit]

Cuttack Dahibara Aloodam

Cuttack is the street food capital of Odisha. It is famous for its Dahibara Aloodam, a local delicacy made using black gram and potato curry.Chhena poda and Rasagulla from Salepur by  Bikalananda Kar are local desserts made of unripened curd cheese made from buffalo or cow milk. Apart from Dahibara Aloodam, Chaat, Gupchup (panipuri) and samosas rule the streets. The city has major food joints like Chandini Chowk, Bidanasi, Stadium Road, Buxi Bazar, Dolamundai, Choudhary Bazar, etc. Thunka puri is a famous delicacy available only during Baliyatra. Traditional Oriya food such as Dahi-Pakhal (rice soaked in water with yogurt and seasonings) is considered as a body coolant, accompanied by Badi chura or saga are consumed during months of April–June.

Due to a large number of muslim households in the city, traditional Islamic and Mughlai cuisines like Biriyani, Tandoor, Sheer kurma, etc are also popular among the denziens. Due to its close proximity to Paradip and Mahanadi catchment area Cuttack is one of the big producers and consumers of fish. Fish curry is a popular dish among Odia households. There are many good restaurants and dhabas in and around Cuttack like Biriyani Zoint, KFC, Dominos, Bawarchi, Hashim's, Jungle View, Vyanjan, Bishal Inn, etc.

Population[edit]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census of India,[22] the population of Cuttack City in 2011 was 606,007: 331,246 male and 302,477 female. Its urban / metropolitan population was 658,986 of which 331,246 males and 327,740 are females. There were 48,585 children aged 0–6, 8.02% of total population of Cuttack City: 25,358 boys and 23,227 girls. The gender ratio of Cuttack City was 997 per 1000 males, for children 916 girls per 1000 boys.

Cuttack has an average literacy rate of 91.17% with male literacy at 97.87% and female literacy at 84.49%. The Cuttack ranks high in literacy rate among Top Cities of India.

Others include Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism
Religions in Cuttack
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
94.12%
Islam
  
4.88%
Christianity
  
1.35%
Others
  
0.65%

Around 94% of the city's population are Hindus while Muslims account for 4.88% and the rest constitute 2% of the total population.[23]

Languages[edit]

Odia is the primary language used in the city, besides which Hindi is widely spoken and understood. There are people who also speak Kosli, Santali, Bengali, Marwari, Telugu, Gujarati, Punjabi, Urdu, Arabic, Tibetan etc. English is widely used for commercial purposes. Most of the banners are written in Odia, English and Hindi.

Civic administration[edit]

CMC Headquarters

The City of Cuttack is administered by the Cuttack Municipal Corporation. CMC was established as a municipality on 4 June 1876 and was named as a corporation on 15 August 1994. This corporation covers an area of 192.5 km2.[24] The CMC is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the Metropolitan City.Meenakshee Behera is the Mayor of the Cuttack Municipal Corporation (CMC).[25][26] The Municipal Commissioner is the chief executive officer and head of the executive arm of the Municipal Corporation. All executive powers are vested on the Municipal Commissioner who is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the State Government.

Cuttack has been the seat of Odisha politics since a long time. In the Indian parliament, Cuttack parliamentary constituency is represented by Mr. Bhartruhari Mahatab of Biju Janata Dal (BJD). The Cuttack area is mostly dominated by BJD despite attempts made by the BJP to make people against the ruling party. People showed and showered enormous support to the Naveen Patnaik and Bhartruhari Mahatab.

Cuttack City is divided into three constituencies which are represented at the State Legislative Assembly viz. Barabati-Cuttack, Choudwar-Cuttack and Cuttack Sadar. Cuttack-Sadar is represented by Chandra Sarathi Behera (BJD) whereas Barabati-Cuttack is represented by Debasish Samantaray (BJD) while Choudwar-Cuttack is represented by Pravat Biswal (BJD).

Bhubaneswar–Cuttack Police Commissionerate, under the control of Commissioner of Police, looks after the law enforcement in Cuttack. Cuttack has 25 Police Stations in the City. The headquarters of the state police are situated in Cuttack.

Economy[edit]

Cuttack is widely known as the commercial capital of Odisha. It is believed to have the largest GDP among all cities in Odisha due to its large business houses and wide range of industries ranging from ferrous alloys, steel and logistics to agriculture and traditional industries like textiles and handicrafts. There are many trading houses in the city renowned nationally and internationally. The Paradip Port which is around 85 km from the city facilitates this process.[27]

Traditional cow horn sculpture

Traditional industries[edit]

The city is one of the largest hub for textiles in eastern India. The city's annual textile trade generates over a billion dollars of revenue. A large textile park is planned, giving a face lift to the erstwhile Orissa Textile Mills in city outskirts. Cuttack is famous for its silver filigree works and only because of these works it is also known as the silver city of India.[28][29] Cuttack is also famous for its handicraft works using cow and mostly Buffaloes horn.Cuttack has only one retail store for horn items named Utkal Gaurab Madhusudhan Horn Work.Its was greatly contributed by Late Kalandi Charana Behera. Generally the horn of dead cattle is used and is performed by licensed craftsmen only. This peculiar artefact is limited to Cuttack only and anything of such kind is found nowhere else in the world. These fine and unique handicraft works add significantly to the local economy.

Large scale industries[edit]

There are 11 large-scale industries in and around Cuttack mostly in Choudwar and Athagarh and many more in the pipeline. These industries include steel, power, automobile, alloys, fireclay, etc. Indian Metals & Ferro Alloys (IMFA), the country's largest producer of ferrous alloys is in Choudwar, Cuttack. A mega-auto complex is in implementation stages on the city's outskirts.

Tarakasi(Silver Filigree) Pendant and Ear rings

One Big Industries has been situated at Athagarh area Name AARTI STEELS LIMITED, it has 2 power Plant of 40MW & 50MW, ferro Alloys Plant, Melting unit, Iron Ore crusher and sponge Iron unit of 1000 TPD.

Logistics[edit]

Cuttack occupies a very significant place in the logistics map of the country.The number of medium- and small-scale industries concentrated around Cuttack is by far the largest among the cities in the state. The industrial estates in and around Cuttack numbers around eight. Jagatpur and Khapuria are industrial estates inside the city. A large chunk of these serve as ancillary industries for the big industrial houses in Odisha and other states.

The proximity to Paradip Port comes as an added advantage. OSL Group, one of the leading stevedore firms of the country is headquartered in Cuttack. Cuttack, being the largest business hub of the state is the nodal point of trade and transport. It also has the largest wholesale commodities market of the state at Malgodown and Chhatra Bazaar catering the whole state.

Service sector[edit]

The Odisha High Court

Being the former capital and now the partial capital of the state and a big business hub, many central and state government and corporate offices are in Cuttack. The service sector is quite large. The people of nearby districts are heavily depended on the city for their livelihood, contributing to the service sector and, thus, the floating population. The presence of Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), the largest rice research institute in Asia, adds to the importance of Cuttack in the agricultural map of the country. The presence of Odisha High Court and the SCB Medical & College, the largest medical institution in the state, further nourishes the service sector. Education is a major industry due to large number of universities, colleges, schools and coaching centres and caters to the neighbouring districts.

Media[edit]

The Samaja Office

Cuttack has a Doordarshan centre which telecasts Odia programs. The Cuttack station of All India Radio started post-independence in 1948 and broadcasts programs in AM as well as FM bandwidth catering the whole state.[30][31] At present Cuttack has five local radio stations broadcasting on FM, including two from AIR. The private FM stations include BIG 92.7 FM, RED 93.5 FM and Radio Choklate 104 FM.[32]

Among several print media houses located at Cuttack, the Oriya newspapers published here includes The Samaja (founded by Utkala Mani Gopabandhu Das), Prajatantra (founded by Harekrushna Mahatab, former Chief Minister of Odisha and former Governor of Maharashtra), Sambad, Dharitri and the Matrubhasha to name a few.

Odia film industry[edit]

The Odia Film Industry[33] has its base in Cuttack. The Oriya film industry is popularly known as Ollywood, the name is a portmanteau of the words Oriya and Hollywood. In 1974, the Government of Odisha declared film making and construction of cinema theatres as industry in the state,[34] and two years later in 1976, it established the Orissa Film Development Corporation in Cuttack.[35] One of the regional offices for Central Board of Film Certification is situated in Cuttack.

Healthcare[edit]

Cuttack is the healthcare hub of Odisha. Millions of people from different parts of Odisha and other states throng to the city with the hope of better medical facilities. Shri Ramachandra Bhanj Medical College (SCBMCH), the largest medical college of the state is located in Cuttack. The Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Centre (AHRCC), the only one of its kind in Eastern India, carries out high-end research and treatment in cancer. The Regional Spinal Injury Centre (RSIC) is also situated in the S.C.B. Medical College Campus which provides rehabilitation measures to persons with disabilities especially spinal injury. Swami Vivekananda National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research (SVNIRTAR) is the most prestigious institution in the field of rehabilitation located at Olatpur, 30 km from Cuttack. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel PG Institute of Paediatrics (SVPPIG), popularly known as Sishu Bhawan is an annexe hospital of SCBMCH. It is the largest hospital of its kind in eastern India.

Major hospitals in and around Cuttack are District Headquarters Hospital (City Hospital), Shanti Memorial Hospital, HCG Panda Cancer Hospital, Ashwini Hospital, Sun Hospital, Sabarmati General Hospital, Dr. Agarwal's Eye Hospital, JPM Rotary Eye Hospital and Melvin Jones Lion's Eye Hospital among others.

Education[edit]

Established in 1869 as Cuttack Normal School, converted to Cuttack Training School in 1875 and later in 1923 as Secondary Training School, later renamed as Radhanath Training School , after the eminent teacher and poet Radhanatha Roy, now known as Radhanatha Institute of Advanced Studies in Education (RNIASE) offers various teaching Courses, has made many good teachers is located adjacent to the campus wall of Ravenshaw Collegiate School and in front of Swaraja Asrama in Bakharabad is the Oldest and most Premier institute in the State is a great milestone in education is proud of Cuttack.

ABIT Main Academic Building

Schools in Cuttack are either run by the CMC or by private trusts and individuals. The Oriya medium schools in Cuttack are affiliated to the Board of Secondary Education, Odisha whilst the English medium affiliated to either ICSE or the CBSE . Apart from English and Odia medium schools, certain Hindi, Urdu, Gujrati, Bengali and Telugu medium schools are also present in Cuttack. Ravenshaw Collegiate School, the oldest school of Odisha which proudly boasts many eminent personalities in its alumni including Netaji Subash Chandra Bose, Biju Patnaik, Harekrishna Mahatab, etc. is situated in Cuttack. Some of the other prominent Oriya medium schools of the city include Secondary Board High School, Jobra High School, Ravenshaw Girls High School, Ranihat High School, Nua Bazar High School, Odisha Police High School, Christ Collegiate School, Kamalakanta Vidayapitha, Peary Mohan Academy, Badambadi New Colony High School, Matrubhaban, Buckley Girls School, CRRI High School.

The city has a number of Saraswati Shishu Mandirs and CBSE schools. The prominent public schools are D.A.V. Public School, Sector-6, CDA, L.R.D.A.V Public School, Gandarpur, D.A.V. Public School, Rajabagicha, D.A.V. Public School, Tulsipur, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1, Kendriya Vidyalaya No.2, Mahanadi Vihar, Kendriya Vidyalaya No.3, Kendriya Vidyalaya Arc Charbatia, Stewart School, New Stewart School, Delhi Public School Kalinga, St. Xavier's High School, Sri Sathya Sai School, St. Joseph's Girls High School, Sector-9, S.C.B. Medical Public School, Cambridge School, Joharimall High School, Modern Public School, Queen Mary's School etc.

Sri Sri University

Under the 10+2+3/4 plan, students complete ten years of schooling and then enroll for two years in junior college, where they select one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science. This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine. Most of the colleges in the city are affiliated to the Council of Higher Secondary Education. Some of the prominent colleges include Ravenshaw College, Kandarpur College, Kishorenagar College, Choudwar College, Choudwar womens' college, Cuttack College, Jatiya Kabi Bira Kishore (J.K.B.K.) College, Netaji City College, Raghunathjew College, Sailabala Womens' College, Emarti Devi Womens' College, Indira Gandhi Womens' College, City Womens' College, Sri Aurobindo Institute of Higher Studies & Research, Stewart Science college, Christ College etc.

The Twin Cities account for around 100 engineering colleges. Cuttack is home to several technical institutions which include Institute of Management and Information Technology (IMIT), Bhubananda Orissa school of Engineering(BOSE), Institute of Textile Technology (ITT), Dhaneshwar Rath Institute of Engineering & Management Studies (DRIEMS), Image Institute of Technology & Management (IITM), Ajay Binay Institute of Technology (ABIT), Institute of Professional Studies and Research (IPSAR), Jagannath Institute of Engineering and Technology, Barabati Institute of Management Studies etc.

Some of the other institute include Biju Pattnaik Institute of Film and Television and the Madhusudan Law College.

Shri Ramachandra Bhanj Medical College (SCB), the largest medical college of the state is located in Cuttack. The S.C.B. Medical College also has a dental wing which offers bachelor's degree in dental sciences. Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Centre (AHRCC), the only one of its kind in Eastern India, carries out high-end research and treatment in cancer. The Regional Spinal Injury Centre (RSIC) is also situated in the S.C.B. Medical College Campus. RSIC is an autonomous organisation under the administrative and financial control of Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of Odisha and is headed by the director of the RSIC which provides rehabilitation measures to persons with disabilities especially spinal injury.

Ravenshaw Convention Centre

Asia's largest rice research institute, the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI)[36] is situated in Cuttack.

Ravenshaw University[37] is one of the oldest institutes of India and the oldest college of the state which was founded by Thomas Edward Ravenshaw in 1868 and was granted University status on 15 November 2006.

Cuttack is also home to the prestigious National Law University Odisha, one of the 14 NLU's in India, which was established under the National Law University Odisha Act of 2008, the National Law University(NLU Cuttack).[38] It is one of the premier institutes for legal education in India funded by the Central as well as the State government. Housed in a sprawling campus the university sees a host of legal luminaries who impart education to the students.

Sri Sri University established by Sri Sri Ravi Shankar and Art of Living is situated at the far end of the city in Naraj.[39][40]

Panoramic view of Ravenshaw University

Transport[edit]

Air[edit]

Cuttack has an Air Base named Charbatia Air Base for the exclusive use of the Indian Air Force. The nearest commercial airport is the Biju Patnaik Airport at Bhubaneswar, about 28km away but establishment of an Airport in Cuttack, at Choudwar or Naraj to serve such a large population in and around the city is needed.

Road[edit]

On 28 April 2010, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways officially published a new numbering system for the National highway network in the Gazette of the Government of India. As per the new numbering National Highway 16 (former National Highway 5) runs from North to South of the City. As a part of the Golden Quadrilateral project, this highway runs from Chennai to Kolkata.National Highway 55 (former National Highway 42) connects Cuttack with Sambalpur. Also Asian Highway 45 passes through the city. Feeder State Highways connect Cuttack to Jajpur, Paradeep, Talcher, Angul, Kendrapara and nearby towns in Cuttack district. Intra city transport is primarily through Auto rickshaws. Nowadays DTS city buses ply in the city to join different places in the city and the state capital. Cuttack is a major junction connecting all the major parts of the state. The bus terminus at Cuttack is located at Badambadi, and is one of the largest bus terminus in India, and thousands of private and government buses ply to hundreds of destinations everyday. A new bus terminus at Balikuda is under construction to relieve pressure off the Badambadi Bus Terminus.

Rail[edit]

Cuttack Junction is one of the important stations on the Howrah, Kolkata-Chennai mainline of the East Coast Railway and falls under the Khurda Road division. A branch line to Paradeep starts from Cuttack. It is connected to all parts of India through trains run by the Indian Railways.The Cuttack Railway station is selected to be developed as a multi-functional railway station with food courts shopping plaza, theatres to be developed . Other railway stations in the city are Baranga Junction, Balikuda, Matagajpur, Kandarpur, Kathajodi, Kendrapara Road, Kapilas Road, Manguli, Nergundi and Naraj.

Metro[edit]

The Government of Odisha has proposed a rapid transit system for the cities of Cuttack and Bhuabneswar. On 23 August 2014, Government of Odisha's Housing and Urban Development Department signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Balaji Railroad Systems Ltd (BARSYL) for preparation of a detailed project report (DPR) for mass rapid transit system (MRTS) between Cuttack and Bhubaneswar. The Balaji Railroad Systems Ltd (BARSYL) would get Rs 2.52 crore for preparation of DPR for approximately 30 km within a period of ten months. The government officials said it would be a testing for them to evict encroachments for expansion of roads in the twin cities.[41][42]

Monorail[edit]

The Government of Odisha is working on introduction of Monorail service in Cuttack. The Housing and Urban Development Department has taken up the issue for exploring Monorail system in Cuttack to make it the first city in the state to have Monorail service. A study on the viability of launching the monorail over an eight to 10 km stretch in the city is expected to be carried out soon. The Engineering Projects (India) Ltd would conduct a comprehensive survey of the city's capacity to host the system as well as the traffic and congestion problems and submit a proposal.The initially proposed route of circular Ring Road has been ruled out as it was not considered feasible on traffic considerations. While Badambadi-Madhupatana Link Road stretch is the most congested with traffic density crossing 300 per minute, thoroughfares like College Square, Mangalabag, Buxi Bazaar, Chandni Chowk, CDA Square see peak flow of over 100 vehicles per minute are more likely to be taken into consideration.[43][44]

Sports[edit]

Barabati Stadium: The Horse Gate Entrance
Sachi Tendulkar Indoor Hall

Cuttack is the home to the Barabati Sports Complex. The Barabati Stadium is an important venue for international cricket and football matches.[45][46] The Barabati Sports Complex hosts the head offices of most of the sports bodies of the state. Apart from cricket and football, the sports complex also has facilities for Lawn Tennis, Basketball, Volleyball, Swimming. The sports complex also houses a state-of-the-art indoor hall christened as Sachin Tendulkar Indoor Hall, dedicated to legendary cricketer Sachin Tendulkar. The construction of the indoor hall was a joint venture of the Odisha Cricket Association and the Board of Control for Cricket in India which was formally inaugurated on the auspicious occasion of Utkal Divas. The centrally air-conditioned 185 feet long, 65 feet wide and 44 feet high four-storied complex has been built primarily to provide practise facility to cricketers during off season. The complex is also be used to stage competitions in different indoor sports including basketball, volleyball, badminton, table tennis, fencing, judo, weight-lifting and wrestling. Cuttack also possesses Satyabrata Stadium, primarily used for athletics. The DRIEMS Stadium at Tangi has also hosted international cricket matches and is a regular venue for Ranji Trophy matches. Cuttack also has some very good sporting grounds like Nimpur Grounds, Bidanasi Grounds, Sunshine Grounds, Ravenshaw Grounds, SCB Medical Grounds, BOSE Grounds which are the venues for annual state cricket and football championships and some of which are often used as additional venues for Ranji Trophy and Santosh Trophy matches.

East India's second and Odisha's only indoor arena, Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium is situated in Cuttack. The indoor arena is primarily used for Gymnastics and Martial Arts. It has hosted many international and national sporting events in the past. It is also used to host musical concerts and award shows.

Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium

Cuttack is also the only hub in Odisha for Water Sports. The Rowing & Sculling Association of Odisha is situated in Cuttack at Jagatpur. The water sports events are facilitated in the River Birupa.

Cuttack along with Mumbai has hosted the 2013 Women's Cricket World Cup. Apart from it, Cuttack has also hosted matches in 1987 Cricket World Cup and 1996 Cricket World Cup. The 18th and 24th National Games were held in Cuttack in 1958 and 1970 respectively.

Cuttack has a branch of Sports Authority Of India (SAI) training centres, which was established on 26 March 1987 under Sports Hostel Scheme in the Barabati Sports Complex. The authority is responsible for training in Athletics, Basketball, Football, Volleyball, and Gymnastics.

Places of interest[edit]

Barabati Fort[edit]

Barabati Fort Ruins

The Barabati Fort is a 14th-century castle built by the Ganga dynasty ruler Maharaja Markata Keshari. The ruins of the fort still remain with its moat, gate and the earthen mound of the nine-storied palace, which evokes the memories of past days.

Chudangagarh Fort[edit]

Chudangagarh, otherwise called Sarangagarh by the Muslim and British historians, is located near the Barang railway station and is 8 km. south-west of Cuttack city on a fair-weather road. Like Barabati Fort this fort also played a significant role in the medieval history of Orissa. Chodagandadeva of Ganga dynasty selected this site and built the fort for effective safeguard of his vast empire. Remains of fort walls, stepped wells, dilapidated temples, tanks with stone revetments, granary house, watch towers and dressed stones are abundantly noticed within the fortified area. A ruined palace containing sixteen rooms called Solapura Uasa is located inside the fort. The granary of the fort is indicated at a place called Chaula Ghara Banks. Chudangagarh is now a protected monument of the Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi.

Ravenshaw University and Its Solar Clock[edit]

Janakinath Bhawan

The Historic Ravenshaw College (Now University) and its popular Solar Clock at the center of the yard surrounded by main building blocks is unique which attracts many visitors and film makers.

Netaji Birthplace Museum[edit]

Cuttack takes pride in being the birthplace of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, the prominent Indian freedom-fighter and founder of Azad Hind Fauj. The birthplace of Netaji is situated in Oriya Bazar known as Janakinath Bhawan. The place has now been converted into a museum named Netaji Birth Place Museum. The museum showcases the original letters written by Netaji along with other important materials used by Netaji.

Madhusudan Sangrahalaya[edit]

Cuttack is the birthplace of Utkala Gaurav Madhusudan Das. His former residence and workplace Madhusmruti was converted to Sailabala Women's College in 1952. A small hall within the college premises has been preserved as Madhusudan Sangrahalaya, that contains works and memoirs of the great architect of Odisha.

Odisha State Maritime Museum[edit]

Odisha State Maritime Museum

The Odisha State Maritime Museum was inaugurated by the Odisha chief minister Shri Naveen Pattnaik on 1 April 2013.[47]It has been set up at the erstwhile Jobra workshop on the banks of river Mahanadi near Jobra. It has 10 number of galleries and an aquarium.

Old Jail Complex and the Freedom Fighter's Memorial[edit]

It was inaugurated by Honorable Chief Minister of Odisha Mr. Naveen Patnaik on 23 January 2010, on the occasion of Netaji Jayanti. It is situated at the Old Jail complex. The old jail complex of Cuttack near Ganga Mandir tank and Dargha Bazar was a British period jail cellular jail where many notable freedom fighters were imprisioned during the swaraj movement.

Swaraj Ashram[edit]

The Swaraj Ashram at Telengapentha is synonymous with Mahatma Gandhi's relationship with Odisha, Cuttack in particular. The double-storey Ashram, located opposite the banks of river Kathajodi. was in the thick of the Non Cooperation Movement in the 1920s. This is where Gandhi stayed during his visits to Odisha. The ashram that spreads over 1100 sq ft area has been converted into a protected monument by the Government of Odisha. There are around 200 photographs in the ashram that captured Gandhi's visit to Odisha beginning with the one in 1921, the first of his seven trips to Odisha's 69 sites till 1946. Historians say that Cuttack was the seat of the Freedom Movement in Odisha and the Swaraj Ashram played a pivotal role in paving the way for Swaraj Movement.

A rare picture from 1873

Recreation and Entertainment[edit]

Malls and Multiplexes[edit]

Sangam is the first multiplex in the city and will soon be having its second multiplex in the form of a national player namely INOX with construction work for the same well underway at the site of Durga and Devi theatres. The city has numerous malls and shopping complexes the largest one being Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Arcade near the Old Jail complex.

Parks[edit]

Water park[edit]

The city constitutes the state's only water park named Ocean World. Due to the strategic location of the water park being situated on the midway of Cuttack and Bhubaneswar, it is a popular outing location for the people of both cities.

Deer park[edit]

A deer park is situated beside the Mahanadi Ring Road at Madhusudan Nagar, overseeing the beautiful Mahanadi River. The park has about 200 deers. The Park is maintained by the CMC.

Recreational parks[edit]

The city is filled with numerous social parks. Biju Pattnaik park, Gouri Shankar park, Kathajodi river view park, Saheed park, Khannagar park, Jobra park, Sector-6 Jayaprakash park, Sector-11 Biren Mitra park, Gopabandhu park are some of the prominent existing parks.

Anshupa Lake

Lakes and Reservoirs[edit]

Anshupa Lake[edit]

Anshupa lake is a 141-hectare horseshoe shaped fresh water lake on the left bank of the Mahanadi river. It is 40 km from the city and acts as a shelter for the migratory birds in the wintry weather season. This small but extremely picturesque lake holds a prominent position in the tourist map of Odisha for its beauty and proximity to both Cuttack and Bhubaneswar. Some bamboo cottages are made on the top of Saranda hill for tourist refreshments. Boating facilities are available.

Jobra Anikut

Jobra Reservoir[edit]

Jobra Barrage or Jobra Anikut as widely called is a major source of water for the Mahanadi delta region. Taladanda canal, a major irrigation and flood canal in coastal area starts from here. IOCL's Paradip Refinery has its water intake point from this barrage. The barrage is a very picturesque spot for watching sunsets and thus attracts locals.

Naraj Reservoir[edit]

Situated at the bifurcation point of Mahanadi and Kathajodi rivers, it marks the westernmost tip of Cuttack city. It is a major irrigation dam on Kathajodi river that ensures the water level in Mahanadi river and thereby preventing flood situations in Cuttack. Near to the Naraj Barrage is the Mundali barrage that is the starting point of Puri Canal. Naraj is a major railway station apart from Cuttack railway station. The area surrounding Naraj has a large number of industries.

Stone Revetment on Mahanadi[edit]

Idea of Embankment and fund contribution given by Cuttack Raksaka Baimundi to Maharaja Markata Keshari to save Cuttack from Flood . The King then constructed the Historic Embankment and named as Baimundi Embankment.

Notable personalities[edit]

The following are a selected notable people who were born or have spend a major part of their life in Cuttack.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]