Cutting tool material
Cutting tool materials must be harder than the material of the workpiece, even at high temperatures during the process.
The following properties are required for cutting tool
- hardness, hot hardness and pressure resistance
- bending strength and toughness
- inner bonding strength
- wear resistance
There is no material that shows all of these properties at the same time. Very hard materials, have lower toughness and break more easily. The following cutting tool materials are used:
- Tool steels. They are relatively cheap and tough. Their hardness is sufficient to machine other steels.
- cemented carbides. Harder than tool steels, but less tough. Can be used up to 900 °C. There are many sort of cemented carbides like ones made of tungsten carbide and cobalt or cermets.
- cutting ceramic. They are even harder than cemented carbides but have lower toughness. Aluminium oxide and silicon nitride are used. The latter has higher toughness, but can't be used for machining Steel, due to very high wear.
- "super hard materials":
- Fritz Klocke: Manufacturing Processes 1 - Cutting, Springer, 2011, p. 95.
- Trent, Wright: Metal Cutting. Butterworth Heinemann, 2000, 4. edition , p. 132-250.
- J. Paulo Davim: Machining - Fundamentals and Recent Advances, Springer, 2008, p. 37-48.
- Fritz Klocke: Manufacturing Processes 1 - Cutting, Springer, 2011, p. 95-196.
- Graham T. Smith: Cutting Tool Technology - Industrial Handbook, Springer, 2008, p. 1-32.