Cyanea (plant)

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Cyanea lobata full.jpg
Cyanea lobata
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Campanulaceae
Subfamily: Lobelioideae
Genus: Cyanea

about 78, see text



Cyanea is a genus of flowering plants in the family Campanulaceae. The name Cyanea in Hawaiian is hāhā.[1] These Hawaiian lobelioids are endemic to Hawaii with over 90% of Cyanea species are found only on one island in the Hawaiian chain.[2] They grow in moist and wet forest habitat[3] and are largely pollinated by birds[2] such as the Hawaiian honeycreepers,[4] and the seeds are dispersed by birds that take the fruits.[2] Most Cyanea are trees with few branches or none. The inflorescence is a raceme of 4 to 45 flowers which grows from the leaf axils. The fruit is a fleshy berry.[3][2] There have been several theories regarding the evolution of large prickles on plants endemic to islands that lack any mammalian or reptilian herbivores. One such theory suggests that the prickles are a defense against herbivory by the moa-nalo, a few taxa of flightless ducks that went extinct on the islands within the last 1600 years.[4]


Cyanea angustifolia
Cyanea duvalliorum
Cyanea fissa
Cyanea lobata
Cyanea rivularis
Cyanea superba
Cyanea truncata

There are about 78 species in the genus.[5] Species include:[6]


  1. ^ "Hawaiian Native Plant Genera - Campanulaceae: Cyanea". Dr. Gerald Carr, University of Hawaiʻi. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d Givnish, T. J., et al. (2009). Origin, adaptive radiation and diversification of the Hawaiian lobeliads (Asterales: Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276(1656), 407-16.
  3. ^ a b Lammers, T. G. (2004). Five new species of the endemic Hawaiian genus Cyanea (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Novon 14(1) 84-101.
  4. ^ a b Givnish, T. J., et al. (1994). Thorn-like prickles and heterophylly in Cyanea: adaptations to extinct avian browsers on Hawaii? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 91(7), 2810-14.
  5. ^ a b Oppenheimer, H. and D. H. Lorence. (2012). A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands. PhytoKeys (13), 15-23.
  6. ^ Cyanea. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
  7. ^ "Native Plants Hawaii - Viewing Plant : Cyanea angustifolia".
  8. ^ "Plants Profile for Cyanea angustifolia ('aku)".