Cyathea

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Cyathea
Cyathea-med3.jpg
Cyathea medullaris growing in New Zealand
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Cyatheales
Family: Cyatheaceae
Genus: Cyathea
J. E. Smith, 1793
Species

See text.

Cyathea is a genus of tree ferns, the type genus of the fern order Cyatheales.

The genus name Cyathea is derived from the Greek kyatheion, meaning "little cup", and refers to the cup-shaped sori on the underside of the fronds.

Description[edit]

The species of Cyathea are mostly terrestrial ferns, usually with a single tall stem. Rarely, the trunk may be branched or creeping. Many species also develop a fibrous mass of roots at the base of the trunk.

The genus has a pantropical distribution, with over 470 species. They grow in habitats ranging from tropical rain forests to temperate woodlands.

Classification[edit]

Conant et al. in 1996, concluded on molecular cpDNA and morphological evidence that a system of three clades – Alsophila, Cyathea and Sphaeropteris was the most accurate reflection of evolutionary lineages within the Cyatheaceae, Alsophila being the most basal and Cyathea and Sphaeropteris derived sister groups.[1] In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I), these are accepted as separate genera, Alsophila, Cyathea and Sphaeropteris.[2]

Species[edit]

Uncertain or dubious taxa[edit]

Misassigned taxa[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Conant, D.S.; Raubeson, L.A.; Attwood, D.K.; Perera, S.; Zimmer, E.A.; Sweere, J.A.; Stein, D.B. (1996). "Phylogenetic and evolutionary implications of combined analysis of DNA and morphology in the Cyatheaceae". In Camus, J.M.; Gibby, M.; Johns, R.J. (eds.). Pteridology in perspective. Kew, U.K.: Royal Botanic Gardens. pp. 231–248. ISBN 9781900347099.
  2. ^ PPG I (2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cyathea gardneri (W. J. Hooker) Lellinger 1987, not C. gardneri W. J. Hooker 1844.
  2. ^ Cyathea microphylla (Klotzsch) Tryon 1970, not C. microphylla Mettenius 1856.
  3. ^ Cyathea parva (Maxon) Tryon 1976, not C. parva Copeland 1942.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Christenhusz, M.J.M. (2009). New combinations and an overview of Cyathea subg. Hymenophyllopsis (Cyatheaceae). Phytotaxa 1: 37–42.
  • Large, M.F. and J.E. Braggins (2004). Tree Ferns. Timber Press, Inc. ISBN 0-88192-630-2
  • Lehnert, M. (2006). New species and records of tree ferns (Cyatheaceae, Pteridophyta) in the northern Andes. Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 6: 321–322, electronic supplement 13: 1-11.
  • Lehnert, M. (2009). Three new species of scaly tree ferns (Cyathea-Cyatheaceae) from the northern Andes. Phytotaxa 2: 43–56.
  • The International Plant Names Index

External links[edit]