Cycling at the 2016 Summer Paralympics

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Cycling
at the XV Paralympic Games
Cycling (Road), Rio 2016 (Paralympics).pngCycling (Sprint), Rio 2016 (Paralympics).png
Pictograms for road (left) and track (right) cycling
Venue Rio Olympic Velodrome
Copacabana Cluster
Dates 8-11 September (Track)
14-17 September (Road)
Competitors 230
2012
2020
Cycling at the
2016 Summer Paralympics
Road cycling
Cycling (road) pictogram.svg
Road race
Men Women
B B
H2 H1–4
H3
H4
H5 H5
C1–3 C1–3
C4–5 C4–5
T1–2 T1–2
Cycling at the
2016 Summer Paralympics
Road cycling
Cycling (road) pictogram.svg
Time trial
Men Women
B B
H1–3
H2
H3
H4 H4–5
H5
C1 C1–3
C2
C3
C4 C4
C5 C5
T1–2 T1–2
Mixed H2–5
Cycling at the
2016 Summer Paralympics
Track cycling
Cycling (track) pictogram.svg
Time trial - Kilo
Men Women
B B
C1–3
C4–5
Time trial - 500 m
C1–3
C4–5
Team sprint
Mixed team sprint

Cycling at the 2016 Summer Paralympics consisted of 50 events in two main disciplines, track cycling and road cycling. The venues were the Rio Olympic Velodrome for track cycling in the Barra Cluster, and the Flamengo Park for the road cycling disciplines in the Copacapana Cluster.[1] Seventeen events were contested on the track, and 33 on the road.[2]

Classification[edit]

Cyclists are given a classification depending on the type and extent of their disability. This method is known as a functional system and was introduced in 2012. Athletes are classified according to their functional ability across four broad categories (blind or partially sighted tandem, handcycle, tricycle and standard bicycle).[3] The class number indicates the severity of impairment with "1" being most impaired. The classification system allows cyclists to compete against others with a similar level of function.

Riders with recovering or deteriorating conditions such as MS are eligible but must have been reclassified within six months of a World Championships or Paralympic Games to ensure their classification is correct. Specialised equipment including prostheses is only allowed where it has been specifically approved.

B – tandem bicycle

This class is for athletes who have visual impairments and therefore ride tandem bicycles with a guide (known as a pilot). They may have any level of visual impairment from no light perception in either eye through to a visual acuity of 6/60 and/or a visual field of less than 20 degrees.[4]

H (1-5) – handcycle

This class is for athletes who are lower limb amputees, have paraplegia or tetraplegia and ride a handcycle using arms to turn pedals for propulsion. H1–4 cyclists compete in a lying position, whereas H5 cyclists compete in a kneeling position.[3]

T (1-2) – tricycle

This class is for athletes who have a neurological condition or an impairment which has a comparable effect on their cycling so that they are not able to compete on a standard bicycle for reasons of balance.[3]

C (1-5) – standard bicycle

This class is for athletes with moderate locomotion impairment who do not require a tricycle. In many cases a modification will be allowed to accommodate a leg or arm prosthesis.[3]

Factored events[edit]

Some cycling events, 16 in total across track and road, are factored. This can happen when cyclists from different classes compete against each other and means that the results take into account the severity of the impairments of each competitor. As a result, some riders within an event will have their times ‘factored’ while other riders will not, or will have their time factored in a different calculation. The gold medal goes to the athlete with the fastest time after all the required times have been calculated. It is therefore possible for an athlete to break a paralympic or world record in their event for their specific classification, but to finish behind a differently classified athlete in that event after factoring. In such a case, the record is still treated as an official World, or as the case may be, Paralympic Games record within their classification for that event.

Factoring should not be confused with certain events where athletes with a greater impairment are entitled to compete in a race for athletes with a 'lesser' impairment, for example double amputees (such as Oscar Pistorius) in a single leg amputee athletics race alongside runners such as Jonnie Peacock or Richard Browne. In such races, no factoring is taken into account. In cycling, a number of the road races are cross-classification and non-factored despite factoring taking place in the time trial for the same classifications.

Events[edit]

Events in each classification, including factored events in joined classifications are set out below.


Classification →

Event
B C T H
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 T1 T2 H1 H2 H3 H4 H5
Road cycling
Men's road race
Women's road race
Men's time trial
Women's time trial
Mixed relay
Track cycling
Men's 1 km time trial
Men's individual pursuit
Women's 500m time trial
Women's 1000m time trial
Women's individual pursuit
Mixed team sprint

Medal summary[edit]

As at the Olympic Games, Great Britain had a clear lead in the medal table based on dominance within the velodrome, particularly in the female events where Kadeena Cox became the first British paralympian in 32 years to win golds in two different sports at the same Games, and Sarah Storey confirmed herself as the most successful female paralympian from Great Britain, overtaking the record set by fellow peer Tanni Grey-Thompson.

On the road, Germany, the Netherlands and Italy were dominant, with racing driver turned handcyclist Alex Zanardi winning two gold medals and a silver to add to an identical haul from London in 2012. The United States, Australia and China also won more than ten medals each across the 50 events.

Medal table[edit]

after 50 of 50 events
Key

  *   Host nation (Brazil)

Rank NPC Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Great Britain (GBR) 12 3 6 21
2  Germany (GER) 8 3 4 15
3  Netherlands (NED) 5 5 6 16
4  Italy (ITA) 5 2 5 12
5  United States (USA) 4 9 5 18
6  Australia (AUS) 3 7 3 13
7  China (CHN) 3 3 4 10
8  Poland (POL) 2 3 0 5
9  Ireland (IRL) 2 2 1 5
10  Slovakia (SVK) 2 1 1 4
11  Ukraine (UKR) 2 0 0 2
12  Canada (CAN) 1 3 5 9
13  South Africa (RSA) 1 0 0 1
14  Austria (AUT) 0 2 0 2
 Japan (JPN) 0 2 0 2
16  Spain (ESP) 0 1 2 3
17  Brazil (BRA)* 0 1 1 2
 New Zealand (NZL) 0 1 1 2
 Belgium (BEL) 0 1 1 2
20  South Korea (KOR) 0 1 0 1
21  Colombia (COL) 0 0 2 2
22  France (FRA) 0 0 1 1
 Switzerland (SUI) 0 0 1 1
Total (23 NPCs) 50 50 50 150

Road cycling[edit]

Men's events[edit]

Event Class Gold Silver Bronze
Time trial
details
B Steve Bate
 Great Britain
Vincent Ter Schure
 Netherlands
Kieran Modra
 Australia
H2 Luca Mazzone
 Italy
William Groulx
 United States
Brian Sheridan
 United States
H3 Vittorio Podestà
 Italy
Walter Ablinger
 Austria
Charles Moreau
 Canada
H4 Rafał Wilk
 Poland
Thomas Fruhwirth
 Austria
Vico Merklein
 Germany
H5 Alessandro Zanardi
 Italy
Stuart Tripp
 Australia
Oscar Sanchez
 United States
C1 Michael Teuber
 Germany
Ross Wilson
 Canada
Giancarlo Masini
 Italy
C2 Tristen Chernove
 Canada
Colin Lynch
 Ireland
Liang Guihua
 China
C3 Eoghan Clifford
 Ireland
Masaki Fujita
 Japan
Michael Sametz
 Canada
C4 Jozef Metelka
 Slovakia
Kyle Bridgwood
 Australia
Patrik Kuril
 Slovakia
C5 Yegor Dementyev
 Ukraine
Alistair Donohoe
 Australia
Lauro César Chaman
 Brazil
T1–2 Hans-Peter Durst
 Germany
Ryan Boyle
 United States
David Stone
 Great Britain
Road race
details
B Vincent Ter Schure
 Netherlands
Ignacio Ávila
 Spain
Steve Bate
 Great Britain
H2 William Groulx
 United States
Luca Mazzone
 Italy
Tobias Fankhauser
 Switzerland
H3 Paolo Cecchetto
 Italy
Maximilian Weber
 Germany
Charles Moreau
 Canada
H4 Vico Merklein
 Germany
Rafał Wilk
 Poland
Joël Jeannot
 France
H5 Ernst van Dyk
 South Africa
Alessandro Zanardi
 Italy
Jetze Plat
 Netherlands
C1-3 Steffen Warias
 Germany
Kris Bosmans
 Belgium
Fabio Anobile
 Italy
C4-5 Daniel Abraham Gebru
 Netherlands
Lauro César Chaman
 Brazil
Andrea Tarlao
 Italy
T1–2 Hans-Peter Durst
 Germany
David Stone
 Great Britain
Néstor Ayala Ayala
 Colombia

Women's events[edit]

Event Class Gold Silver Bronze
Time trial
details
B Katie George Dunlevy
 Ireland
Yurie Kanuma
 Japan
Lora Turnham
 Great Britain
H1–3 Karen Darke
 Great Britain
Alicia Dana
 United States
Francesca Porcellato
 Italy
H4–5 Dorothee Vieth
 Germany
Andrea Eskau
 Germany
Laura de Vaan
 Netherlands
C1–3 Alyda Norbruis
 Netherlands
Denise Schindler
 Germany
Zeng Sini
 China
C4 Shawn Morelli
 United States
Megan Fisher
 United States
Susan Powell
 Australia
C5 Sarah Storey
 Great Britain
Anna Harkowska
 Poland
Samantha Bosco
 United States
T1–2 Carol Cooke
 Australia
Jill Walsh
 United States
Shelley Gautier
 Canada
Road race
details
B Iwona Podkoscielna
 Poland
Katie George Dunlevy
 Ireland
Emma Foy
 New Zealand
H1-4 Christiane Reppe
 Germany
Lee Do-yeon
 South Korea
Francesca Porcellato
 Italy
H5 Andrea Eskau
 Germany
Laura de Vaan
 Netherlands
Jennette Jansen
 Netherlands
C1-3 Jamie Whitmore
 United States
Zeng Sini
 China
Denise Schindler
 Germany
C4-5 Sarah Storey
 Great Britain
Anna Harkowska
 Poland
Crystal Lane
 Great Britain
T1–2 Carol Cooke
 Australia
Jill Walsh
 United States
Jana Majunke
 Germany

Mixed events[edit]

Event Class Gold Silver Bronze
Team Relay
details
H2-5 relay  Italy
Vittorio Podesta
Luca Mazzone
Alessandro Zanardi
 United States
William Lachenauer
William Groulx
Oscar Sanchez
 Belgium
Jean-François Deberg
Christophe Hindricq
Jonas Van De Steene

Track cycling[edit]

Men's events[edit]

Event Class Gold Silver Bronze
1 km time trial
details
B Tristan Bangma
 Netherlands
Neil Fachie
 Great Britain
Kai-Christian Kruse
 Germany
C1–3 Li Zhangyu
 China
Arnoud Nijhuis
 Netherlands
Tristen Chernove
 Canada
C4–5 Jody Cundy
 Great Britain
Jozef Metelka
 Slovakia
Alfonso Cabello
 Spain
Individual pursuit
details
B Steve Bate
 Great Britain
Vincent ter Schure
 Netherlands
Stephen de Vries
 Netherlands
C1 Li Zhangyu
 China
Ross Wilson
 Canada
Arnoud Nijhuis
 Netherlands
C2 Liang Guihua
 China
Tristen Chernove
 Canada
Louis Rolfe
 Great Britain
C3 David Nicholas
 Australia
Joseph Berenyi
 United States
Eoghan Clifford
 Ireland
C4 Jozef Metelka
 Slovakia
Kyle Bridgwood
 Australia
Diego Dueñas
 Colombia
C5 Yegor Dementyev
 Ukraine
Alistair Donohoe
 Australia
Edwin Fabian Matiz Ruiz
 Colombia

Women's events[edit]

Event Class Gold Silver Bronze
Time trial
details
C1–3 (500 m) Alyda Norbruis
 Netherlands
Amanda Reid
 Australia
Song Zhenling
 China
C4–5 (500 m) Kadeena Cox
 Great Britain
Zhou Jufang
 China
Ruan Jianping
 China
B (1 km) Sophie Thornhill
 Great Britain
Larissa Klaassen
 Netherlands
Jessica Gallagher
 Australia
Individual pursuit
details
B Lora Turnham
 Great Britain
Emma Foy
 New Zealand
Sophie Thornhill
 Great Britain
C1–3 Megan Giglia
 Great Britain
Jamie Whitmore
 United States
Alyda Norbruis
 Netherlands
C4 Shawn Morelli
 United States
Susan Powell
 Australia
Megan Fisher
 United States
C5 Sarah Storey
 Great Britain
Crystal Lane
 Great Britain
Samantha Bosco
 United States

Mixed events[edit]

Event Class Gold Silver Bronze
Team Sprint
details
C1–5  Great Britain
Louis Rolfe
Jon-Allan Butterworth
Jody Cundy
 China
Xie Hao
Wei Guoping
Liu Xinyang
 Spain
Amador Granados
Eduardo Santas
Alfonso Cabello

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rio2016 confirm Paralympic road race routes.
  2. ^ "Paralympic Cycling Road". rio2016.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Paralympic Cycling Road and Track – overview, rules and classification". paralympics.org.uk. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  4. ^ "Paralympics GB – Classification of cycling events". paralympics.org.uk. 

External links[edit]