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Cyclone Leon–Eline

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Intense Tropical Cyclone Eline
Intense tropical cyclone (SWIO scale)
Category 4 (Saffir–Simpson scale)
Cyclone Leon-Eline 22 feb 2000 0411Z.jpg
Cyclone Leon-Eline at landfall in Mozambique
Formed February 1, 2000
Dissipated February 29, 2000
Highest winds 10-minute sustained: 185 km/h (115 mph)
1-minute sustained: 215 km/h (130 mph)
Lowest pressure 928 mbar (hPa); 27.4 inHg
Fatalities 114–722[nb 1]
Areas affected Madagascar, much of southern Africa (mainly Mozambique)
Part of the 1999-00 Australian region, and the South-West Indian Ocean cyclone seasons

Cyclone Leon–Eline was the longest-lived Indian Ocean tropical cyclone on record, traveling over 11,000 km (6,800 mi) during its 29 day duration. It formed on February 1, 2000, in the Australian basin as Tropical Cyclone Leon. After crossing 90º E, the Météo-France office in Réunion (MFR) began tracking the system as Tropical Storm Eline on February 8. Late on February 17, Eline made landfall near Mahanoro, Madagascar, with 10 minute winds of 165 km/h (105 mph). The storm rapidly weakened over land, but restrengthened in the Mozambique Channel to reach peak 10 minute winds of 185 km/h (115 mph). On February 22, Eline made landfall about 80 km (50 mi) south of Beira, Mozambique, near peak intensity, and quickly weakened over land. The well-defined circulation moved across southern African, finally dissipating over eastern Namibia on February 29.

While moving across much of the Indian Ocean, Eline brought high waves, gusty winds, and rainfall to several islands. Later, Eline struck Madagascar while the country was in the midst of a cholera epidemic that had killed over 1,000 people. The storm directly killed at least 64 people, although Tropical Storm Gloria struck shortly thereafter, compounding upon the damage and making it difficult to discern the individual damage totals. Damage from Eline was estimated at $9 million (USD), and collectively the two storms killed 205 people and left another 10,000 homeless. In the region around Vatomandry, where Eline made landfall, 65% of houses were damaged, 90% of crops were lost, and 75% of health facilities were wrecked.

Before Eline's final landfall, Mozambique was experiencing the worst floods since 1951, killing about 150 people. The additional rainfall and flooding from Eline created the country's worst natural disaster in a century. The combined effects destroyed over 250,000 ha (620,000 acres) of crop fields and killed 40,000 cattle. Eline's passage disrupted ongoing relief efforts. High levels along the Limpopo River isolated the town of Xai-Xai, with water levels along the river reaching as high as 11 m (36 ft) above normal in some areas, as well as 15 km (9.3 mi) wide. A dam broke along the river, flooding the town of Chokwe in the middle of the night and trapping several unprepared residents; this accounted for nearly half of the death toll. About 55 people drowned in Sofala Province after rescue helicopters arrived too late to save them. Around 20,000 people in the capital city of Maputo lost their homes. In addition to the floods, strong winds blew away many roofs and some entire houses made of mud. The combined effects of the preceding floods and Eline left about 329,000 people displaced or homeless, about 700 deaths, and damage estimated at $500 million (USD). The cyclone and the floods disrupted much of the economic progress Mozambique had made in the 1990s since the end of its civil war.

Elsewhere in southern Africa, Eline brought strong winds and heavy rainfall when it crossed into eastern Zimbabwe, maintaining a well-defined structure. Rivers overflowed their banks in the country, damaging crops and houses while leaving 15,000 people homeless. The storm killed 12 people in the country. Flooding from the storm extended southward into Swaziland and South Africa. In the latter country, Eline dropped 503 mm (19.8 in) of rainfall in Levubu over three days, causing the Limpopo River to reach its highest level in 15 years. Officials opened dams along the river to prevent structural damage, which caused higher levels along the river to the east. At least 21 people died in the country, and about 80,000 people were left homeless, forcing many people into churches and schools. Damage in Limpopo Province alone was estimated at $300 million (USD). To the north, Eline dropped about 90 mm (3.5 in) of rainfall in southern Malawi, while gusty winds caused a power outage in Blantyre. Farther west, rainfall rates of 50–100 mm (2–4 in) were also reported in Botswana.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm according to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale

A low pressure area developed within the monsoon trough on February 1 about 250 km (155 mi) south of the Indonesian island of Bali.[1] Associated convection was initially sparse due to wind shear, although a developing anticyclone allowed the thunderstorms to persist.[2][3] At 22:00 UTC on February 3, the Perth Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (PTCWC)[nb 2] upgraded the low to a Category 1 on the Australian tropical cyclone scale,[5] naming it Tropical Cyclone Leon. On February 4, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC)[nb 3] began issuing advisories on the storm as Tropical Cyclone 11S while southeast of Christmas Island.[3] A ridge to the south steered the storm generally westward. Late on February 5, the PTCWC estimated an initial peak of 140 km/h (85 mph),[5] although increased shear caused weakening.[1] Leon crossed 90º E on February 8 into the south-west Indian Ocean,[7] and was renamed Eline by the Mauritius Meteorological Service.[3] Météo-France (MFR)[nb 4] estimated 10 minute winds of 65 km/h (40 mph) at that time.[7]

On February 11, wind shear began decreasing as convection refired.[1] Early on February 14, the JTWC upgraded Eline to the equivalent of a minimal hurricane.[7] That day, the storm passed about 85 km (55 mi) south of St. Brandon and 180 km (110 mi) northwest of Mauritius, although its small structure limited the strongest winds. Early on February 16, Eline attained tropical cyclone status while passing about 160 km (100 mi) northwest of Réunion.[1] The eye became better defined, and while approaching eastern Madagascar on February 17, Eline intensified to reach 10 minute winds of 165 km/h (105 mph).[1][7] Around that time, the cyclone made landfall near Mahanoro.[1] Eline rapidly weakened into a tropical depression over land.[3] After crossing Madagascar for 26 hours, Eline emerged into the Mozambique Channel near Belo,[1] quickly re-intensifying into a moderate tropical storm on February 19.[7] The storm rapidly intensified as it approached eastern Mozambique, becoming an intense tropical cyclone early on February 22 with 10 minute winds of 185 km/h (115 mph). The JTWC estimated peak 1 minute winds of 215 km/h (130 mph), the equivalent of a Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale.[7] While at peak intensity, Eline made landfall about 80 km (50 mi) south of Beira, Mozambique with gusts of 260 km/h (160 mph), making it the strongest storm to hit the nation in several decades.[1] Although the winds rapidly decreased after landfall,[7] the storm maintained a well-defined structure as it crossed into Zimbabwe late on February 22 and progressed across southern Africa. It eventually reached eastern Namibia, where the circulation dissipated on February 29 and merged with an approaching cold front.[1][8]

Throughout its duration, Leon-Eline lasted 29 days, a record longevity for a storm in the southern Indian Ocean. The track was over 11,000 km (6,800 mi), or about 25% of the Earth's circumference.[1] However, Eline was in the south-west Indian Ocean for 21 days, which is the third most on record since the start of satellite imagery. It was behind Cyclone Alibera in 1989 and Cyclone Georgette in 1968, the latter of which lasted 24 days in the basin.[9]

Preparations and impact[edit]

Early in its duration while it was still in the Australian basin, the cyclone produced high waves near Christmas Island, forcing a boat of about 500 refugees to be escorted to port.[3] Later, Eline brought wind gusts of 76 km/h (47 mph) to St. Brandon. On Mauritius, the cyclone produced wind gusts of 137 km/h (85 mph), along with heavy rainfall that peaked at 405 mm (15.9 in) at Sans Souci. This rainfall was about 70% of the average February precipitation total. After Eline began restrengthening and turned more to the southwest, officials on Réunion declared a red alert, but this was dropped when the cyclone passed the island. Ultimately, the storm brushed the island with gusts of 101 km/h (63 mph) along the coast, and 187 km/h (116 mph) in the mountainous peak of Maïdo. Rainfall was heaviest in the mountainous peaks, as well, reaching 1,500 mm (59 in) at Bébourg. Significant wave heights remained below 3 m (9.8 ft).[1]

Madagascar[edit]

Moving ashore in eastern Madagascar, Eline produced strong winds along its path, with gusts estimated at 250 km/h (155 mph) by MFR at landfall. However, the storm blew away local weather stations, which made the true landfall intensity unknown. Winds remained strong farther inland; Ivato International Airport near the capital Antananarivo reported winds of 100 km/h (60 mph), and winds in the capital were likely stronger. Eline also dropped heavy rainfall, with a 24‑hour total of 131 mm (5.2 in) at Ivato airport.[1] The rains also caused flooding along Madagascar's west coast, which is usually spared from precipitation by mountains.[10] Eline struck while Madagascar was in the midst of a cholera epidemic that had killed over 1,000 people.[11]

In Mahanoro, the biggest city near the cyclone's landfall in Madagascar, Eline disrupted power and water supplies while also leaving the town isolated.[12] About 80% of buildings were damaged or destroyed there.[1] In Marolambo, a village in eastern Madagascar, Eline killed six people.[12] Heavy rainfall in the central portion of the nation caused landslides and flooding.[1] Flooding also occurred in the west coast near Belo. The storm disrupted portions of at least three highways.[12] The storm left about 10,000 people homeless, with about 1,500 people forced to stay in storm shelters. Damage to public buildings was estimated at $300,000 (2000 USD),[13] Nationwide, Eline killed at least 64 people and affected about a half-million people affected.[1]

Only 13 days after Eline struck the country, Cyclone Gloria also hit northeastern Madagascar, bringing additional damage and flooding.[1] The two storms collectively killed at least 140 people,[14] although there was initial uncertainty in the toll due to disrupted communications.[15] Floods from the two storm inundated 70% of homes and wrecked 70% of the crops in the districts of Andapa, Sambava, Antalaha, and Vohemar.[16] About 12,000 people in 114 villages were isolated.[17][18] Rice fields were flooded for over a week, and coffee and banana crops had severe losses.[19] Collectively, 12,230 people were left without access to clean water.[20]

Mozambique[edit]

Flooded Limpopo River in Mozambique in March 2000
Main article: 2000 Mozambique flood

Before Eline struck Mozambique, storm warnings and later hurricane warnings were issued on February 21.[8] Flooding had affected the nation since January, with some areas receiving a year's worth of rainfall in two weeks. Widespread areas were inundated, with about 220,000 people displaced,[21] and about 150 people killed.[22] Eline moved ashore with very powerful winds, although there were no direct observations of the strongest winds. In Beira, the closest major city to the landfall point, winds reached storm force. However, the rainfall from Eline was the most impacting following the preexisting flooding, which were the worst since 1951.[1] The floods were beginning to recede by the time Eline arrived,[23] and by the end of February 2000, the situation was considered the country's worst natural disaster in a century.[24] Flooding continued for days after Eline moved through southern Africa due to waters flowing downstream from neighboring countries.[25] By early March the floods were beginning to recede again, leaving behind a deep layer of mud,[26] ponds of contaminated water, and piles of rotten corpses.[27]

While Eline moved ashore, high winds knocked over coconut trees,[28] destroying over 250,000 ha (620,000 acres) of crop fields in conjunction with the floods.[29] The floods killed 30% of the cows in Gaza Province,[30] and about 40,000 cattle died nationwide,[29] with many chickens and goats also killed.[31] Many schools were closed after the storm, including 308 due to damage and others that housed storm victims.[32][33] The storm knocked over telegraph power lines and caused widespread power and water outages from Inhambane to Beira, while also disrupting ongoing relief efforts.[28] The cities of Chokwe, Chibuto, and Xai Xai all had damage to their water systems.[34]

After the storm knocked over 90 power poles,[35] about two-thirds of Beira was without power and water,[36] and two people were killed due to downed power lines.[37] Flooding damaged the World Food Program warehouse in the city.[35] Also in Beira, the combination of strong winds and waves sank five ships in the harbor, including one at the entrance; this halted port traffic for about two weeks.[1] Floods submerged the primary highway connecting the north and south of the country,[38] and damaged several other roads and rail lines, halting the region's economy by preventing movement of goods. About 4 km (2.5 mi) of the rail line between Maputo and Zimbabwe was under water.[39] The swollen Limpopo River isolated the town of Xai-Xai after all connecting roads and the airport were inundated, and the bridge connecting the rest of the region to the south was damaged.[35] Water levels along the river reached as high as 11 m (36 ft) above normal in some areas, as well as 15 km (9.3 mi) wide,[40] which broke the record for highest crest by 3 m (9.8 ft).[25] A dam broke along the river, flooding the town of Chokwe in the middle of the night and trapping several unprepared residents.[41] Flooding there surpassed the previous water depth record by 2 m (6.6 ft), set in 1977, thus inundating the town up to ceiling of one story buildings.[25] In the city of Inhambane, the flooded Save River swept away several houses.[35] Along the river, 50,000 people were unaccounted for as of March 1, many of whom were washed away.[42] In nearby Nova Mambone, thousands of people became homeless due to storm flooding, killing at least ten people.[43] About 55 people drowned in Sofala Province after rescue helicopters arrived too late to save them.[44] Around 20,000 people in the capital city of Maputo lost their homes.[29]

In addition to the floods, strong winds blew away many roofs and some entire houses made of mud,[45] leaving thousands of people homeless.[46] The combined effects of the preceding floods and Eline left about 463,000 people displaced or homeless,[47] including 46,000 children five years old or younger.[32] Overall, the preceding floods and Eline caused about 700 deaths,[1] half of whom in Chokwe.[48] with damage estimated at $500 million (2000 USD).[1] At least 17 people died directly due to Eline,[43] although many bodies were washed away and unable to be counted.[27] The cyclone and the floods disrupted much of the economic progress Mozambique had made in the 1990s since the end of its civil war.[49]

Elsewhere in mainland Africa[edit]

Mankonkoni Bridge on the Thuli River, Zimbabwe, destroyed by Cyclone Eline

The MFR issued a gale warning for Zimbabwe in anticipation of strong winds well inland. However, the Zimbabwe government did not issue any storm warnings until the storm moved over the country.[8] Due to Eline maintaining a well-defined structure, it brought strong winds and heavy rainfall when it crossed into eastern Zimbabwe.[1] The heavy rains caused rivers to overflow their banks. Officials opened flood gates along several dams to maintain their integrity, which increased flooding downstream,[30] including in Mozambique.[50] However, eight dams were destroyed that were used for irrigation purposes.[31] The storm destroyed over 3,800 homes in the eastern portion of the country while killing 17,000 heads of livestock.[51] Flooding also washed away roads, bridges, and some power lines.[30] Mutare, the country's third largest city, lost power during Eline's passage.[46] Overall the storm killed 12 people in the country.[1]

Flooding from the storm extended southward into Swaziland and South Africa. In the latter country, Eline dropped 503 mm (19.8 in) of rainfall in Levubu over three days, causing the Limpopo River to reach its highest level in 15 years.[1] In Limpopo Province, a station recorded 284 mm (11.2 in) of rainfall in just 24 hours.[52] Officials opened dams along the Limpopo River to prevent structural damage, which caused higher levels along the river to the east.[53] However, 16 dams failed in the country, causing further damage to irrigation systems.[31] The floodwaters isolated the town of Louis Trichardt after N1 road was covered, and most border crossings were closed.[54] The floods covered roads and caused several houses to collapse, hospitalizing 12 people in Thohoyandou.[52] Eline also damaged crops in the country, namely pulses, maize, and other vegetables.[31] At least 21 people died in the country,[55] and about 80,000 people were left homeless, forcing many people into churches and schools.[30] Damage in Limpopo Province alone was estimated at $300 million (USD),[54] with crop damage estimated at $11 million.[31] Flooding began receding by the end of February.[55]

To the north, Eline dropped about 90 mm (3.5 in) of rainfall in southern Malawi. The storm's gusty winds wrecked houses and knocked over trees, causing power outages in Blantyre.[56] Farther west, rainfall rates of 50–100 mm (2–4 in) were also reported in Botswana.[1] In Namibia, Eline's rainfall contributed to the third wettest summer in 50 years, as well as the wettest since 1976. Several locations in the southern portion of the country reported daily rainfall rates of 60 mm (2.4 in).[8]

Aftermath[edit]

Image of United States helicopter flying over flooded Mozambique

Immediately after Eline struck Madagascar, the government began distributing relief items, such as rice, tents, and sheets. On February 21, survey flights helped indicate the extent of damage across the nation.[12] Supplies were distributed by road from Antananarivo to the worst affected areas, with helicopters dropping off aid to isolated communities.[17] After receiving request from the Malagasy government, UNICEF flew 15 tons of supplies from Copenhagen, such as medicine, 10.5 tons of food, and equipment to help coordinate relief work. The agency also transported thousands of blankets and water purification tablets from Antananarivo.[10] However, UNICEF faced difficulties in distributing the supplies.[11] The government of France sent two helicopters with teams of doctors to Madagascar,[57] and Médecins Sans Frontières sent about 35 tons of supplies, such as medicine, water purifying devices, and food.[58] The World Food Programme flew about 400 tons of food to affected residents across the country, including 25 tons to Mahanoro.[59] Due to the combined impacts of Eline and Gloria, the government of Madagascar requested for international assistance on March 7, which was coordinated through the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.[60] In response, the government of the United Kingdom donated £1.3 million ($1.9 million USD) to Madagascar.[61] The Organisation of African Unity donated $200,000 to Madagascar on March 10.[62] In addition to Cyclone Gloria striking the country in March, Cyclone Hudah hit eastern Madagascar in early April, causing additional deaths and damage.[1]

The government of Zimbabwe declared a state of emergency in three provinces.[30] Nearby Botswana donated 15 million litres of fuel to the country to help with their recovery.[63] Although Botswana was affected by the floods, their government was able to provide food and relief to the storm victims.[64] In South Africa, families were forced to keep corpses in their houses due to the ongoing flooding. The country's government authorized R7.1 million (ZAR, $1.1 million USD) to pay for emergency assistance.[55] Limpopo Province was declared a disaster area.[54] The South African government issued a warning on March 1, stating they flood refugees from Mozambique would be deported if they entered illegally.[65] The country of Australia donated $250,000 to assist relief work in both Zimbabwe and South Africa.[66]

Mozambique[edit]

"You know, it may sound ungrateful, but I think (the aid) came too late. We could have saved some more lives if we had this kind of support from the beginning."

Graça Machel, Mozambique's former first lady via CNN[67]

By the time Eline struck Mozambique, there was already incoming assistance from the international community, responding to the earlier flooding.[1] Mozambique's president at the time, Joaquim Chissano, requested for additional aid after the storm struck,[28] asking for $65 million for both reconstruction and emergency aid,[68] and later increasing the request to $160 million.[69] By the end of February 2000, various countries had pledged $13.5 million to Mozambique, well short of the required needs,[70] but that rose to nearly $119 million by March 17.[47] By March 4, 39.6 tons of various relief goods reached the country, to be distributed from the towns of Bilene and Magul.[71] The supplies nearly overwhelmed the small airport at Maputo, as lack of distribution caused food to decay in the sun.[67]

The Mozambique government worked to evacuate residents in newly flooded areas using boats,[35] and set up 121 camps for evacuees.[47] By early March, there were 35,000 people at camps in Chiaquelane, and another 10,000 in Macia.[64] However, the country had a limited capacity for widespread rescues due to insufficient helicopters.[72] In some locations, the floodwaters were so strong that boats were unable to operate search and rescue missions.[73] Residents left homeless by the storm were forced to stay in churches and schools, although some residents in the country's capital, Maputo, provided a spare bedroom. Citizens in the city also provided clothing to those who lost their homes in the flood.[74] About 2,000 residents from the flooded town of Chokwe walked 40 km (25 mi) to receive shelter in Macie.[75] Following the storm, the residual floodwaters contributed to outbreaks of malaria and cholera,[76] with malaria infections at four times the usual rate killing at least 11 people.[77][78] Areas in southern Mozambique also lost access to clean water, furthering dehydration and illnesses.[79] In addition, the United Nations Mine Action Service expressed concern that the floods shifted the locations of landmines leftover from the nation's civil war.[80] Later, the remnants of Cyclone Gloria halted relief work due to heavy rainfall.[14]

Soon after the storm struck, CARE operated airlifts of food to flooded areas.[50] The World Food Programme approved $2 million to help airlifting 53,000 metric tons of food.[81][82] A fleet of 29 helicopters had rescued 14,204 people by March 7 as well as operating airlifting missions.[27][83] This included 12 planes and helicopters from South Africa,[84] six helicopters with crews along with 100 motorboats from the United Kingdom,[85] ten helicopters from Germany, and two from Malawi.[56][86] Many residents in flooded areas initially had to hold onto trees and roofs due to lack of helicopters,[87][88] with 100,000 people needing rescue as of March 1.[89] After the floodwaters receded, the need for rescue diminished, allowing families to return home, although helicopters were still required to airlift relief goods.[26] Emergency road repairs allowed supplies to be delivered by road in some areas by March 5.[90] The United States sent a crew of 700 soldiers in what became Task Force Atlas Response, a $37 million operation to coordinate disaster relief, rebuild roads, deliver crop seed, and drop off aid.[91] This was ordered by U.S. President Bill Clinton on March 2 after criticism that the international assistance was insufficient.[92] The Save the Children organization helped reunited separated children from their families,[32] while World Relief flew seeds and tools to help 26,260 farmers regrow their damaged crops.[93] The United Kingdom assisted by canceling the country's $150 million debt earlier than scheduled, and urged other nations to follow suit;[94] Italy canceled its $500 million debt in March.[95] On February 24, the World Bank provided $2.5 million to rebuild roads, and later provided an additional $15 million.[96] The same agency delayed debt payments for one year. Portugal and Spain canceled $150 million and $20 million worth of debt, respectively.[39] Through the Jubilee 2000, most wealthy nations postponed debt payments for one year on March 16.[97]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In Madagascar, Eline killed at least 64 people, although subsequent Tropical Storm Gloria affected the same region just two weeks later. The death toll for both storms is 205, with 66 confirmed fatalities related to Gloria, resulting in 139 deaths potentially related to Eline. There were only 17 confirmed fatalities in Mozambique, although the death toll from the cyclone and preceding floods was around 700, with 150 deaths before Eline's arrival. Therefore, there are up to 550 deaths related to the storm in that country. Elsewhere, Eline killed 12 people in Zimbabwe and 21 in South Africa.
  2. ^ The Tropical Cyclone Warning Center in Perth, Australia is a branch of the country's Bureau of Meteorology, which is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the Australian basin.[4]
  3. ^ The Joint Typhoon Warning Center is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force task force that issues tropical cyclone warnings for the region.[6]
  4. ^ The Météo-France office in Réunion is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the basin.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Cyclone Season 1999–2000. RSMC La Reunion (Report) (Meteo-France). Retrieved 2014-07-15. 
  2. ^ Darwin Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (February 2000). "Darwin Tropical Diagnostic Statement" (PDF) 19 (2). Bureau of Meteorology. p. 2. Retrieved 2014-07-15. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary February 2000". Retrieved 2014-07-15. 
  4. ^ a b Worldwide Tropical Cyclone Centers (Report). National Hurricane Center. 2011-09-11. Retrieved 2012-08-27. 
  5. ^ a b Tropical Cyclone Leon (PDF) (Report). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 2014-07-15. 
  6. ^ "Joint Typhoon Warning Center Mission Statement". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2011. Archived from the original on 2007-07-26. Retrieved 2012-07-25. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Kenneth R. Knapp; Michael C. Kruk; David H. Levinson; Howard J. Diamond; Charles J. Neumann (2010). 2000 Eline:Leon:Leone_Eline (2000032S11115). The International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS): Unifying tropical cyclone best track data (Report) (Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society). Retrieved 2014-07-15. 
  8. ^ a b c d C. J. C. Reason; A. Keibel (October 2004). "Tropical Cyclone Eline and Its Unusual Penetration and Impacts over the Southern African Mainland" (PDF). Weather and Forecasting 19: 789–805. Bibcode:2004WtFor..19..789R. doi:10.1175/1520-0434(2004)019<0789:TCEAIU>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2014-10-06. 
  9. ^ Neal Dorst; Anne-Claire Fontan. "E) Records relatifs aux cyclones tropicaux". Retrieved 2014-10-07.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  10. ^ a b "UNICEF heightens its flood response in stricken Madagascar". United Nations Children's Fund. ReliefWeb. 2000-03-03. Retrieved 2014-07-20. 
  11. ^ a b "Madagascar faces Mozambique-style floods crisis, UN warns". ReliefWeb. Agence France-Presse. 2000-03-07. Retrieved 2014-07-21. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Madagascar - Cyclone Eline OCHA Situation Report No. 1". United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. ReliefWeb. 2000-02-22. Retrieved 2014-07-17. 
  13. ^ "Southern Africa Floods Fact Sheet #9 (FY 2000)". United States Agency for International Development. ReliefWeb. 2000-03-07. Retrieved 2014-07-21. 
  14. ^ a b "WFP Emergency Report No. 10 of 2000". World Food Programme. ReliefWeb. 2000-03-10. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  15. ^ Christian Chadefaux (2000-03-07). "Cyclones killed 130 in Madagascar: official estimate". ReliefWeb. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 2014-07-21. 
  16. ^ "Madagascar: Cyclones and Floods Information Bulletin No. 01". International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies. ReliefWeb. 2000-03-09. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  17. ^ a b "Madagascar-Mozambique: Floods update". ReliefWeb (IRIN). 2000-03-10. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  18. ^ "FAO/GIEWS Special Alert No. 302: Cyclone damage to crops threatens food security in Madagascar". ReliefWeb (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2000-03-10. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  19. ^ "Crops destroyed in Madagascar, UNICEF finds". ReliefWeb. United Nations Children's Fund. 2000-03-10. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  20. ^ "Madagascar - Cyclone Eline and Gloria OCHA Situation Report No. 4". ReliefWeb. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2000-03-09. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  21. ^ "Tropical storm threatens flood-ravaged Mozambique". Disaster Relief. 2000-02-18. Retrieved 2014-09-01. 
  22. ^ Emelia Sithole (2000-02-23). "Mozambique's Chissano urges post-cyclone aid". ReliefWeb. Reuters. Retrieved 2014-09-04. 
  23. ^ "Cyclone reaches Mozambique's southern Inhambane province". ReliefWeb. Agence France-Presse. 2000-02-21. Retrieved 2014-09-03. 
  24. ^ "Mozambique floods situation report 29 Feb 2000". US Fund for UNICEF. ReliefWeb. 2000-02-29. Retrieved 2014-09-08. 
  25. ^ a b c Frances Christie and Joseph Halon (2001). Mozambique & the Great Flood of 2000. Indianan University Press. 
  26. ^ a b "People fleeing Chokwe in case of renewed flooding". Médecins Sans Frontières. ReliefWeb. 2000-03-04. Retrieved 2014-09-19. 
  27. ^ a b c Chris McGreal (2000-03-07). "Mozambique: Amid the filth, the first sign of disease". Mail and Guardian (ReliefWeb). Retrieved 2014-09-19. 
  28. ^ a b c Cynthia Long (2000-02-23). "Mozambique to appeal for aid in wake of Cyclone Eline". Disaster Relief (ReliefWeb). Retrieved 2014-09-06. 
  29. ^ a b c "One woman ready to name her baby after the floods; 600 Mozambican families ready to build new lives". Lutheran World Relief. ReliefWeb. 2000-03-03. Retrieved 2014-09-12. 
  30. ^ a b c d e "Latest update on flood alert in southern Africa". Christian Aid. ReliefWeb. 2000-02-28. Retrieved 2014-09-06. 
  31. ^ a b c d e "FAO GIEWS Special Alert No. 301: Crops wiped out by floods in southern Mozambique and affected population likely to depend on food assistance through 2000". Food and Agriculture Organization. ReliefWeb. 2000-03-03. Retrieved 2014-09-17. 
  32. ^ a b c "Mozambique Emergency Bulletin 3: 07 Mar 2000". Save the Children. ReliefWeb. 2000-03-07. Retrieved 2014-09-19. 
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